Luxury Fashion of Swarovski Toward 'Literature Review' chapter

Excerpt from 'Literature Review' chapter :

"The second step is to develop a touch-point chain and gauge those with the greatest impact. The third step is to turn findings into project priorities. The final step is to implement and monitor." (Atwal and Williams, 2009 P. 343).

Uche (2009) provides different argument by pointing out that internet experience create compelling, enjoyable, memorable, and positive experience for online shoppers. The author develops web experience model to demonstrate the strategy the virtual environment could provide experience for online customer. Typically, the 7C model was developed to create a high impact digital experiential customer experience. This includes customisation, content, customer care, community, communication, convenience and connectivity.

On the other hand, Snakers & Zajdman (2010) argue that there is a proliferation of fashion jewelry within the present marketing environment making consumer to face challenges in distinguishing between products. Thus, finding the best method to differentiate one product from the other has become a key issue. Typically, the traditional marketing strategies which focus on price and quality are no longer enough to enhance differentiation of fashion jewelry. Thus, experiential marketing is a new strategic marketing method that marketers employ to create emotions for customers in order to create memorable experience. To enhance greater understanding on how experiential marketing influence consumer purchasing behavior, Snakers & Zajdman (2010) differentiate between tradition marketing and experiential marketing. Traditional marketers views consumers as rational decision makers who are concerned about the benefits and functional features of products. On the other hand, experiential marketers see consumers as emotional and irrational human beings who are interested in achieving pleasurable experiences. Typically, the goal of experiential marketers is to offer consumer memorable experiences and these experiences are created with different tools. Experiential marketers may create memorable experience by organizing entertainment for customers as well as giving them the aesthetic objects to see. For example, marketers could develop aesthetic through product design as well as store design. The store could be designed with beautiful architecture, decoration, furniture, and color. More importantly, experiential marketers could create pleasurable experience for customer by organizing entertainment to provide them aesthetic objects or places to see as well as allowing them to escape from reality.

Pine and Gilmore (1999) argues that experiential marketing is ideal for the promotion of fashion jewelry because many luxury goods have ability to trigger emotions. Typically, the object created with masterpiece has the potential ability to create emotions and feelings. This type of product motivates pleasures as well as bringing positive emotions.

Emotional Brand Attachment and Brand Personality

In the contemporary marketing environment, creating the emotional brand attachment has become a cornerstone within the marketing environment. Increasing number of companies is searching for the ideal strategy to develop a strong emotional brand connection with consumers. Emotional brand attachment is motivated by finding the strategy to enhance consumer loyalty which eventually leads to company performances. Over the years, fashion jewelry companies have designed their products to be more attractive and beautiful in order to match their brands with consumer's self to achieve market advantages. This approach has caused a strong emotional connection with the brand. Typically, there is a growing importance of authenticity in marketing messages making consumers to be looking for reality. Presently, many marketing managers are turning to the authenticity to improve branding loyalty which could assist consumer to differentiate a brand from another brand. (Malar, et al. 2011).

Tzou and Lu (2009) contribute to the argument by pointing out that consumer perception can influence consumer-purchasing decision. In the contemporary competitive market advantages, luxury companies needs to provide marvellous quality to achieve market advantages and the product design is critical to forge emotional connection to consumers. The well-known brands and fashion product with charming appearance have been regarded to enhance emotional, and aesthetics pleasurable experience. The authors also refer to the attachment theory, which identifies brand attachment as emotional laden bond between product and consumer. Typically, people have ability to form emotional attachment for objects and a company could create brand attachment after a consumer has known the brand as well as taking the brand into an account.

On the other hand, the concept of brand personality represents the attributes of human traits or characteristics forming consumer perception towards the brand. Typically, the brand personality can be instrumental to consumer self attachment towards the brand.

In psychology, emotion is a laden bond between a specific object and a person. In the marketing context, people have ability to be emotional attached to brands. The emotional brand attachment is the bonds between consumer and specific brand leading to the emotional brand attachment. The feelings will include passion, affection, and connection representing hot affection with a brand. (Malar, et al. 2011).

Achouri and Bouslama (2010) in their own case reveal that congestion of the advertising landscape and market saturations have made organizations to go beyond the image brand and turn to the relation brand in order to preserve the market shares. Within the marketing environment, consumers rely on brand image to form their attachment towards products. Thus, brand personality has been identified as the strategic tools to assist marketers to understand relationship between brand and consumers. On the other hand, Bouhlel et al. (2009) reveal that brand personality is a critical tool that influences consumer's decision making which actually influences the brand attachment as well as brand commitment and trust. In the contemporary marketing environment, brand is becoming more important as firms are facing more competitions in the global marketplace. Brand remains a tool that firms employ to differentiate their products as well as preserving organizational identities. While consumer exploits brands to maintain and construct their identity, however, the brand personality is an inanimate object that leads to the interactions of consumer with marketing communication. A well-established brand personality has the potential to influence consumer patronage and preference. It also makes consumer to develop a strong emotional trust, ties, and attachment with the brand. "Consumers' emotional attachments to a brand might predict their commitment to the brand and their willingness to make financial sacrifices in order to obtain it." (Bouhlel et al. 2009 P. 703). To reach consumers with promotional message, consumers are increasingly shifting from mass marketing to one-to-one marketing which involves reaching consumer individually. Funder, (2001) defines brand personality as series of attributes that evoke behavior and feeling. The brand can be friendly, extrovert, extrovert, and feelings. The Big 5 model of personality is built around five factors: conscientiousness, extraversion, openness, neuroticism and agreeableness. Additionally, the dominance modeling theory underlines "the perception of personality's traits is deduced by any direct or indirect contact that the consumer has with the brand. Brands are inanimate objects which are associated with personality traits through marketing communications ." (Funder, 2001 P. 704).

The variables such as brand logo or symbol, brand name, color, shape, celebrity endorser, price, packaging, and sales promotions have been used to develop brand personality. Brand personality is a vehicle that enhances consumer self-expression. It can also be an instrument to assist consumer to express different aspect of his or herself. Consumers often exploit brands to maintain and construct identities as well as experiencing emotional gratification. Conceptually, brand personality contributes to brand differentiation, which assists a company to differentiate its brand from the brand of competitors. Brand personality contributes to brand expression, brand equity and brand personality is able to enhance formation of consumer-brand relationships as well as enhancing brand trust, and brand attachment. (Fournier, 1997). Brand personality assists consumers to focus on self-concept as well as expressing symbolic benefits from consumption or possession of brands. The brand personality assists in the product differentiation and is an important vehicle that contributes to product category and product preference.

On the other hand, the trait approach views personality as a set of traits that distinguishes a person from another person. Personality is a psychological phenomenon that affects behavior and shows coherent modes of cognition. By relating brands with personality, brands have the same premises with personality, and brand personality assists consumer to express their self-concept, experiment symbolic benefits from consumption and possession of brands. "Marketers attempt to differentiate and build preference for their brands not only on the basis of how consumers perceive them functionally but also on the basis of these brand personality perceptions." (Bouhlel et al. 2009 P. 704).

Chaudhuri, et al. (2001) also develop the commitment and attachment theories that reveal that consumer's trust in brands and this is a critical for the success consumer-brand relationships. Essentially, consumers could form a strong attachment to brands, which could be used to predict their commitment. Compared to the interpersonal relationship, and brand relationships, brand- consumer relationships are the means to form permanent, intimate, and stable relationships between consumer and brands. Typically, consumers differ on the method they perceive brand as well as the way they relate to brands. Some consumers have become attached to brands making them to be emotional developed to specific brands. (Swaminathan et al. 2009).


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