Management Theories And Philosophies Royalco Term Paper

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Individuals work half a day, or weekly based on the sharing arrangements. Split and sharing of the jobs leads to the organizations benefit, as talented individuals who are unable to work on a fulltime basis get an employment chance. Although adjustment problems occur, the arrangement of a proper schedule is required.

III. Telecommuting also known as the flexiplace, is a working condition that allows the least portion of the scheduled work to be completed outside the office, with the work-at-home as the only option (DAHLGAARD, S.M.P. 2000 page87). This strategy influences the jobholder based on the need of observance of the work fixed hours, dressing in distinct work attire, enduring the normal limitations of commuting, and having unswerving contact with the administrator. The Home workers often encounter increased productivity, in which they report minimal distractions, enjoy the sovereignty of directing themselves, and appreciating the advantage of having more time by themselves (CRAINER, S. 2000 page78). The presence of positive factors indicates that even the negatives are present. Majority of the home workers feel that they work too much leading to the isolation of their friends and family members. The additional feelings of loneliness encompass them making them to lack visibility at their offices because of low promotions.

Motivational Theories: Behavior

Process theory

This theory explains how the workers behave to meet their needs and their determined choices. This theory offers advice and motivation to the people while they make choices. The decision of working hard depends on the individual preferences, availability of rewards, and the possible outcomes.

Equity Theory

According the equity theory, based on the work of J. Stacy Adams principles, the worker gives and compares their rewards to the implicated efforts. The equity that exists when the workers perceive their equal efforts is illustrated in the diagram below.

Employee's underestimation of their potential rewards, indicates that they compare their abilities with that of their colleagues. The feeling of inequality occurs when people believe that their rewards are mediocre to the rewards offered to the people sharing similar workloads. The employees who have the feeling of unfair treatment, exhibit the following insecure behaviors:

I. Put minimal attempt into their jobs

II. Ask for better treatment and/or rewards

III. Find ways to make their work seem better by comparison

IV. Transfer or quit their jobs

The equity theory focuses on the individuals behaviors based on diverse perceptions. The manager considers the irrelevance of an employee before they raise a real issue based on the employee perceptions of the organizational factors. The rewards perceived include the equitable positive positions that arise because of their job performances and the satisfaction experienced. These rewards are inequitable, as they tend to create the job dissatisfaction and cause adverse problems on their performances.

The equity theory illustrates point whereby people react depending on their perceptions and beliefs. The manager considers the irrelevant acts of an employee, as the real issues of the employees comprise their situations. The rewards perceived are equal to the positive results of the job. Managers ensure the avoidance of all negative consequences based on the rewards allocated to diverse individuals (TAYLOR, J., & MACHADO, M.D.L. 2006. Pg 76). The informed managers anticipate on the perception of negative inequalities when the rewards become visible, these include issues like increased rates of promotion occurring to different executives. The leering equity is concerned with issuing the position at hand with the managers so that they can be clarified in accordance to their performance appraisals on the reward-based categories.

Expectancy Theories

Victor Vroom introduced this theory as one of the widely accepted explanation of motivation. It elaborates the rate at which the employees are motivated to exert effort in which they believe that:

I. Efforts result to good performance appraisal.

II. A good appraisal leads to the organizational rewards.

III. The organizations reward individuals with the aim of satisfying their personal goals.

The main expectancy theory aims at understanding a specific individual's goal and the relationship they entail of based on the effort and performance. These two factors are inclusive of the high levels of expectancy and an attractive reward, motivation depends on the high rates of intake (JONES, G., & ZEITLIN, J. (2008 pg. 76). To motivate the employees, the managers strengthen their works accountability by unifying them using the available chances. The clarification of the performances makes sure that the rewards provided are desirable.

Reinforcement theory

This theory describes the E.L Thorndike's law of effect, based on the relationship between the
...The theory focuses on the modification of the employee based on their job behavior. There are various techniques implicated in the theory;

I. Positive reinforcement has a rewarding behavior that results to a raise on the promotion considering the positive behavior of the individuals with the intention of an increased probability of the repeated desired behavior.

II. Employees are disqualified if they indulge in improper behaviors. The avoidance of the negative attributes gives an insight of the employee's behaviors.

III. Extinction occurs through ignorance of the behaviors that are sub-ordinate and that lack the positive or negative reinforcements on the arising issues. The classroom teachers use the technique of ignoring the students who act in a manner that limits their attention. This technique perceives the temporary behaviors that are not typical and serious.

IV. Punishment includes threats, docking pay and suspension in an attempt to minimize the likelihood of behavior that recurs through the application of the negative consequences.

The reinforcement theory has the following implications on management,

I. Learning the acceptable factors of the organization leading to an influence of motivated behaviors.

II. Managers try to motivate their employees by informing them of the wrong doings and ensuring that they are careful when rewarding all the individuals.

III. Managers inform the individuals on the frequently received positive reinforcements.

IV. The managers administer the reinforcement closely to avoid the occurrence of problems.

V. Managers should motivate the individuals to receive positive reinforcement.

VI. All the managers make sure that they administer the reinforcement as close as possible to prevent the occurrences of certain behaviors.

VII. The managers have recognized the failure of rewarding and modifying the behavior. The employees who have the perception of recognizing the aspects of failure become close to the managers and the companies.

Goal Setting Theory

Edwin Locke introduced this theory in the late 1960s; based on the intentions aimed towards achieving certain goal of the organization as a major source of motivation. The goals have the essence of informing the employees about the need that need to have implicated and the efforts required for their expansion (COLE, G.A., & KELLY, P. 2011-page 78). The difficult goals occupy the first priority based on the level of performance. Managers can set goals for their employees and together they merge to form a successful team. The advantage of the employee participation based on the goal setting, is to ensure that the whole team works towards a same goal. There are for main factors that contribute to the goal-performance relationship.

I. Employees committing themselves aiming at a specific goal

II. The employees have a perception that they are capable of performing different tasks

III. The tasks involve the achievement of simple and familiar responsibilities.

IV. The goal-establishing theory is a culture that is recognized and popular in North Americas Culture.

The exemplification of the theory illustrates that the managers need to work with their employees in a cooperative manner to ensure that the targeted goals of the organization are fulfilled (DAHLGAARD, S.M.P. 2000 page99). The established goals should to be specific instead of having a general nature, as it ensures that the managers provide a positive feedback based on their employees performances.

History and Evolution of Modern Management

The history of management based on the practices has changed through the management of the history practices such as the construction of the Ancient Egyptians Pyramids. Management has evolved from the classical management philosophies involving the bureautic management and the scientific management, which has laid emphasis on the efficiency of the routines and the structures of the neoclassic philosophies. These factors have emphasized on the behaviorism and the public relations. The modern society focuses on the strategies, leadership, and the people.

Classical Era Management Philosophies

During the beginning of the classical philosophies established through the encompassed scientific revolution based on the managerial approaches. As industrialization developed, the organizations became large and the competition increased. The industrialization continues to become large and competition has increased. Greenleaf depicts "The servant leader asks questions that help uncover what he or she can do to help. How might I be of help? What is it that you need from me? What resources do I have that would be of use to you?" (Boyett & Boyett 1998) .The availability of a professional management of the workers, results to a successful business environment. The competition has increased due to the standardization and the productivity of the efficiency marked from the…

Sources Used in Documents:


BOYETT, J.H., & BOYETT, J.H. (1998). The guru guide: the best ideas of the top management thinkers. New York, J. Wiley.

COLE, G.A., & KELLY, P. (2011). Management theory and practice. Australia, South-Western Cengage Learning.

CRAINER, S. (2000). The management century. San Francisco, Calif, Jossey-Bass.

DAHLGAARD, S.M.P. (2000). From ancient philosophies to TQM and modern management theories. Linko-ping, Business administration, Linko-pings universitet.

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