Cote d' Lvoire has finally recovered from a decade old socio-political crisis which plagued it from 2002-2011. This crisis hindered the almost all efforts in attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The MDG indicators have shown a decrement in performance over the past years. Now growth is on its way and relations are being established with international financial institutions. The MDG goals will be attained by the latest 2012-2015 via the National Development Plan which has been enforced by Ivorian government (World Bank, 2011).
Situation of the MDGs in Cote d'Ivoire
The case for MDG's in Cote d'Lvoire
Birth of MDG indicators: A short introduction
According to MDG's, it's clear that there has been delay in eradication against poverty and education sector, gender discrimination in education, lack of women empowerment, child and mother health to name a few. The only work done was in case of HIV / AIDS and supplying drinking water (AfDB, OECD, UNDP and UNECA, 2011).
Goals of MDG: The highlights of MDG
MDG1: Put an end to poverty and hunger
Since the 1990's, the poverty rate measured at the national threshold level per day has risen in Cote'd Lvoire from 32.3% in 1993 to 38.4% in 2002. Now it is all set to reach 16% in 2015. The rate is better in rural areas as compared to that in urban areas. The cause is a crisis in 2002, which set the social and production systems a step in the backward direction. In 2008, some 63% poor people lived in rural areas while in case of urban areas, the rate was only 30% (AfDB, OECD, UNDP and UNECA, 2011).
MDG 2: Attaining equal level of primary education
The rate of primary level school graduation was 56% in 2008, which shows that more efforts are required to increase this rate. There are differences in regional level however. Boys are generally seen enrolling in schools more than girls. At least 49% of the children don't complete their primary school education due to high failure rate. Illiteracy rate is very high amongst girls especially, which was around 60% back in 2006 (AfDB, OECD, UNDP and UNECA, 2011).
MDG 3: Build equality among men and women
In 2008, the index for gender parity had been 0.88 in primary education. That's quite an improvement from 0.81 in 2000. In case of secondary education, it rose from 0.47 in the 1990s to 0.54 in 2002. The rate of literate women was 40% in 2006; 28% comprised from rural areas while 50% comprised from urban areas. Women empowerment is now promoted and given place in the State (parliament and government included). Women now hold nearly 10% of the total positions available in the parliament (AfDB, OECD, UNDP and UNECA, 2011).
MDG 4: Less child mortality rate
The mortality rate of children born had risen in 1994 till 1998. But in 2005, it declined finally. The rate was 149 deaths in 1000 births. Vaccination treatment was taken care of for infants less than one-year-old and as a result the rate increased from 35% in the 1990 to nearly 67% in 2008 (AfDB, OECD, UNDP and UNECA, 2011).
MDG 5: Improving maternal health
Maternal health has somewhat increased since the 1990s. Some improvement was seen as 597 deaths per 100,000 live births were observed during 1994 and recently, in 2005 the rate had been 543 deaths per 100,000.
Furthermore, in recent times, the child births have been properly assisted with professional help and care. The rate of professionally assisted live births has gradually improved from 45% in 1994 to 57% in 2008. The target however is to reach 150 deaths / 100,000 live births and 90% of these live births to be assisted by professionals by 2015 (AfDB, OECD, UNDP and UNECA, 2011).
MDG 6: Improve environmental sustainability
The environment and atmosphere of Cote d'Lvoire has degraded in the past decade. But, recent improvements have been made in the sanitation and drinking water department (AfDB, 2011).
MDG 7: Worldwide partnership
In order to ensure a global integration program the market should be made ready for international business as well as local business. Furthermore, they need to adapt accordingly to the international trends and demands. In addition, they have to work on a new debt policy and furnish it according to the new international laws (AfDB, 2011).
The primary target in case of MDG's is that efforts must be undertaken to attain them in Cote d'lvoire. Apart from that, the European Union has stepped in and funded €25 million for clean drinking water. Government help is required in case of attaining all the MDG goals. Technical support is necessary for completing the technical projects in accordance with 2015 plans (AfDB, 2011).
Challenges and opportunities in attaining MDG's
1.2.1: The hurdles to cross
By introducing the 2012-2015 NDP, the government aims to cross all the hurdles by 2020 and make Cote d'Lvoire a prospective country. The political establishment is fully cooperating in this regard. The targets given by MDG will see through it. For attaining these goals, first a few hindrances must be tackled:
1: Improving the peace and national reconciliation processes
Ensuring that peace is maintained in the country by working out a deal with the opposition
The army needs to be reformed and process of disarmament must be carried out
Security index must be taken to task at the national level (ILO, 2012)
2: Ending the poverty in the rural sectors and on the national level
The earning of a regular farmer must be improved by offering agricultural and institutional reforms
Promoting strong recursive growth
Intensifying the efforts for raising competiveness and production (ILO, 2012).
3: Superior governance at national level
The central administration needs to be transformed
Corruption must be lessened as it amplifies the costs. The public needs access to common needs.
The business environment needs to be improved and justice system needs to be strengthened.
The primary education sector and health sector needs to be strengthened
Investments must be made for the education sector, business sector, agriculture and rural sector (Berg, 2012)
MDG's and the opportunities at hand
The institution of Bretton Woods was successful in implementing its financial and economic programmes in Cote d'Lvoire. The governance and economic reforms were made. The partners are in discussion with Cote d'Lvoire and plan to implement the NDP plan. According to the plan, the agriculture, educational, rural, health and infrastructure needs to be taken to a new level (Berg, 2012).
According to the NDP, MDG has outlined the following strategies to attain the following results (Berg, 2012):
1: Fighting poverty and food shorting
One of the prime objectives of the government of Cote d'Lvoire is to put an end to food shortage and lessen poverty speedily. Agriculture is a way of strengthening the economy of Cote d'Lvoire. The government plans to lead agricultural growth to 9% within a short span of time. It will emerge as a strong country in 2020 (Berg, 2012).
2: Equal education for girls / boys
The government fully aims to end the illiteracy level of Cote d'Lvoire once and for all. The rate of women illiteracy was sky high. The number of girls enrolling in school is less as compared to boys. The goal is for the higher enrollment in primary and secondary education and bridging the gender divide (Berg, 2012).
3: Women empowerment and eradicating gender discrimination
Programmes will be underway for educating women on a multitude of levels. This means business opportunities will be provided to them. The literacy level of women will be raised both in the rural and urban areas. The rights of women will be protected and land ownership to the women deserving (Berg, 2012).
4: Improving maternity and child health
The NDP plans to reduce the rate of infant mortality rates and improve the rate of women undergoing child birth. There will be some programmes in place such as vaccination, family services, health services and emergency care. The government plans to reach mothers and their children all across the country and institute programmes catering to their needs and demands (Berg, 2012).
5: Fighting AIDS/HIV and other ailments
The government plans to end AIDS/HIV throughout the country with the induction of condoms, health centers and ARV's for treating people afflicted with HIV. Apart from that, there are programs educating people about HIV / AIDS, nutritional support. Furthermore, they also plan to provide legal and socio-economic support (World Bank, 2010).
Ending malaria and tuberculosis is a top priority for the government as of yet. The aim is to institute screening, therapeutic management and detection and treatment of malaria and tuberculosis (World Bank, 2010).
The supply for malaria and tuberculosis drugs will be made readily available. The action programmes and prevention methods are well in place (World Bank, 2010).
6: Providing clean drinking water and sanitation
The government has full-fledged plans to encourage hydraulic machinery and infrastructure. It also plans to improve the quality of drinking water. The price…