Nationalist Struggles For Self-Determination - Term Paper

Length: 7 pages Sources: 5 Subject: History - Asian Type: Term Paper Paper: #28611540 Related Topics: August Wilson, British Empire, Civil Disobedience, Democratic Party
Excerpt from Term Paper :

Instead, Messali Hadj created a separate adverse party (Algerian National Movement), yet as violent in acquiring independence as FLN (Entelis, 1986).

Although having the same enemy, and the same goal, the various Algerian groups (political or military) did not succeed in providing a common and united front. Their demands were scattered in importance.

As shown in the writings of John Entelis, or Matthew Connely, it was not the chaotic liberation war that the Algerians took that led to their independence, as a victory. France, under the pressure of media, NGO, international partners, and even international law, had to grant Algeria's independence. Connely argues that "in some aspects, France's policies were behind the time [and that] their adversaries already appeared to be leading the new direction of history" (Connely, 2002, 279).

Subject to "intense political, economic, diplomatic strains" (Entelis, 1986, 55), France became entangled in a lose-lose game: the more victories in Algeria, the more international support for the Algerian cause, and the more internal problems. The first response that France gave to the Algerian demands was indifference. The second was, as a consequence of Algerian violence in presenting these demands, a clear and violent no the independence issue. Yet, following international and internal pressures, de Gaulle, in March 1962, agreed in Evian, France to a cease-fire that later, in July 1962 lead to the Algerian independence.

Indian and Algerian pursuit of independence

The Indian and Algerian cases are similar in some aspects, but considerably different in other aspects. Both states emerged from colonial empires at their collapse, both sought the route towards democracy and the rule of law and went on to create states out of fragmented social classes, religions or interests. Yet, the methods in which the two states obtained independence are different: according to the concepts that Dylan Riley and Manali Desai present in "The Passive Revolutionary Route to the Modern World: Italy and India in Comparative Perspective," India took the road of a non-violent passive revolution, while Algeria took the road of violent revolution - war against its colonizer.

Therefore, what makes for the difference in the process of acquiring independence between the two countries?...

...

Algeria did not experience that. As John Entelis argues "Algeria's revolution was more war than social or political revolution." (Entelis, 1986, 57). Algerian nationalism did not exist outside the French Empire, and had to be built after the state was created. The different classes and groups that make Algeria, similar to India's in formation, were impediments to the creation of a national society. The Algerian elite "conceived the role of the state to be the creation of the nation." (Roberts, 1988, 584)

Demands between the two countries are similar, both in form and in evolution: starting with pre-independence desires, from more autonomy to a basic self-rule, within the Empire. Yet the basic difference between the two cases is the existence of violence or not. Indeed, one might argue that India had violent clashes, but those, in general, were not provoked by the Indians, but by the British forces. The war and the guerilla strategies that the Algerians used were different from the Indian actions to obtain independence.

Another difference appears from the ruling state point-of-view. In view of political turmoil, Britain offered a compromise solution, and intervened to control the situation later on. It offered the possibility of a democratic resolution to the matter, while France did not consider Algeria's independence as being a subject to discuss.

As stated before, the nationalist tradition in the two countries was different. While in India it becomes an important aspect in the mid nineteen century, Algerians' nationalist movements are late. Therefore, the formation of stable and experienced political forces within the country is different from the Indian case, and that is one of the explanations of the way in which the self-determination demands were made. Another aspect of this is the demands vs. political background issue. While in India, the Hindu did not hinder democracy, in Algeria, Islam is in many aspects opposed to the democratic principles found in their demands.

Bibliography

Brown, J.M., (1994) Modern India: The Origins of an Asian Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Connelly, M. (2002) a Diplomatic Revolution: Algeria's Fight for Independence and the Origins of the Post-Cold War Era. New York: Oxford University Press.

Duffett, W.E., Hicks, a.R., Parkin, G.R. (1942) India Today: The Background of Indian Nationalism. New York: John Day.

Digitheque de materiaux juridiques et politiques. (2005) Senatus-consulte sur l'etat des personnes et la naturalisation en Algerie, retrieved 21st March 2008, at http://mjp.univ-perp.fr/france/sc1865-0714.htm

Entelis, J.P. (1986) Algeria. The Revolution Institutionalized. Westview Press

Hahn, L. (1960). North Africa, Nationalism to Nationhood. Washington DC: Public Affairs Press.

Kulke, H., Rothermund, D. (2004) a History of India. New York: Routledge.

Roberts, H. (1988). "Radical Islamism and the Dilemma of Algerian Nationalism: The Embattled Arians of Algiers." Third World Quarterly, Vol. 10, No. 2, Islam & Politics.…

Sources Used in Documents:

Bibliography

Brown, J.M., (1994) Modern India: The Origins of an Asian Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Connelly, M. (2002) a Diplomatic Revolution: Algeria's Fight for Independence and the Origins of the Post-Cold War Era. New York: Oxford University Press.

Duffett, W.E., Hicks, a.R., Parkin, G.R. (1942) India Today: The Background of Indian Nationalism. New York: John Day.

Digitheque de materiaux juridiques et politiques. (2005) Senatus-consulte sur l'etat des personnes et la naturalisation en Algerie, retrieved 21st March 2008, at http://mjp.univ-perp.fr/france/sc1865-0714.htm


Cite this Document:

"Nationalist Struggles For Self-Determination -" (2008, March 21) Retrieved October 22, 2021, from
https://www.paperdue.com/essay/nationalist-struggles-for-self-determination-31323

"Nationalist Struggles For Self-Determination -" 21 March 2008. Web.22 October. 2021. <
https://www.paperdue.com/essay/nationalist-struggles-for-self-determination-31323>

"Nationalist Struggles For Self-Determination -", 21 March 2008, Accessed.22 October. 2021,
https://www.paperdue.com/essay/nationalist-struggles-for-self-determination-31323

Related Documents
Nationalism According to Hobsbawm the
Words: 854 Length: 3 Pages Topic: Government Paper #: 68079307

So denotes Hobsbawm in considering the era of revolutionary independence. Here, Hobsbawm asserts that nationalism "aimed to extend the scale of human social, political and cultural units: to unify and expand rather than to restrict and separate. This is one reason why Third-world national liberation movements found the 19th century traditions, both liberal and revolutionary-democratic, so congenial. Anti-colonial nationalists dismissed, or at least subordinated, 'tribalism', 'communalism' or other sectional

Nationalism Is the Political, Social
Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Topic: Government Paper #: 88031013

This had a great role among the European people as it provided the people a sense of community. This means that Europeans felt a sense of belonging to a community. At the same time nationalism fosters a sense of tradition within the Europeans. Through nationalism a set of moral standards were impacted among the people that ensured that the people were morally upright and act according to what is

Nationalism in Geography Classrooms: Challenges
Words: 582 Length: 2 Pages Topic: Geography Paper #: 22248127

The various branches of the American military, for example, have their own form of nationalism that is represented by hard power and military supremacy. This does not mean that nationalism must be necessarily political in nature, but often the two are tied together due to the ease in which they go hand in hand. This can be said of geography as well, especially political geography. Often, political geography is mistaken

Nationalism of Spain and Russia -- Destabilization
Words: 1933 Length: 6 Pages Topic: Literature - Latin-American Paper #: 42263692

Nationalism of Spain and Russia -- Destabilization and Change This paper discusses how nationalism has been able to handle destabilization and various changing process. The two major countries chosen for this paper include Spain and Russia and their overall growth of nationalist identity will be focused on in this paper to make a thorough and encompassing comparative analyses. Destabilization and Change - Spain and Russia Russia According to various scholars, Russia was popularly known

Nationalism Through Out Western Civilization
Words: 2113 Length: 6 Pages Topic: Drama - World Paper #: 27679202

This is because the ideas of self-determination would help inspire large numbers of people who shared a common identity and values. Yet, because they were being oppressed for whatever reasons these common ideas would fuel thoughts of self-determination. This is significant because this was the intention of all corresponding revolutions. However, this would morph into something more twisted. In many ways this would help fuel the rise of nationalism

Nationalism Is an Ideology That
Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Topic: American History Paper #: 31877570

By the end of the century, many world leaders began to reject the ideals of nationalism. Instead of stressing responsibility to one's country, they began to stress responsibility to the world. In fact, the world economy was subject to globalization, and growing concerns about the effects of environmental pollution on all of the people in the world ushered in a growing sense of cosmopolitanism. However, that does not mean that