I requesting username BOLAVENS work. If, . These questions related NURSING RESEARCH AND EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE. refer book titled Nursing Research: Generating assessing evidence nursing, IBM# 9781605477084 answers.
Discuss the differences between research, research utilization, and evidence-based practice. you may want to link this to the historical evolution of research in nursing.
Research refers to the systematic process of searching and generating knowledge about a particular topic in order to reach conclusions. Research utilization, on the other hand, is the process by which findings from research are used to guide practice. Research utilization should, however, not be confused with evidence-based practice. Evidence-based practice is an extension of research utilization. It involves finding evidence of practice, considering patient and practitioner preferences, differences and values, and then making informed practice decisions. Research utilization only involves applying findings of research to clinical practice. Evidence-based practice is built on research utilization whereby clinical decision-making is based on the best available evidence judged in reference to the particular context the decision is aimed at. In history, evidence-based practice was done only through research utilization only until Archie Cochrane, Prof. Guyatt and Sackett conducted further research and explained that evidence-based practice needs to combine with clinical expertise and patient's preference for it to be optimal (Satterfield et al., 2009). Since then, there has been a clear distinction between research as the process to generate evidence, research utilization as simple application of evidence to practice, and evidence-based medicine as broader application of evidence (from research, clinical experience and patient preference) to practice.
Identify and discuss 2 major ways in which qualitative research differs from quantitative research. Is one better than the other? provide reference(s)
Qualitative and quantitative researches differ majorly in the research question it aims at answering and how data is collected and analyzed. Qualitative research is aimed at answering questions relating to the why and how of a particular phenomenon, while quantitative research is aimed at answering what, where, and when questions regarding a phenomenon. As stated by Creswell (2007), qualitative research explores the phenomenon in depth and is explanatory in nature. It is best for studies that aim at defining problems and attempting to develop approaches to these problems. Thus, it allows the researcher to delve into these issues at depth to the interest of the researchers. Data collection methods for qualitative studies include participant and non-participant observation, reflexive journals, unstructured, semi-structured and structured interviews, focus group discussions, and field notes. Data is typically analyzed thematically using content analysis or discourse analysis. Quantitative research, on the other hand, is aimed at describing the phenomenon. Data is often collected through questionnaires and survey tools and analyzed using descriptive statistics such as percentages, mean, mode, and median (Miller & Salkind, 2002).
Discuss sources of bias for both quantitative and qualitative research. For quantitative research, be sure to address both random and systematic bias. you may use examples from the articles you selected as illustrations of bias and/or preventing bias.
In quantitative studies, the major sources of bias are design bias, random bias, measurement bias, and systematic bias. In qualitative studies, bias arises from sampling bias, procedural or systematic bias, design, and researcher bias. Design bias arises when the study uses a design that does not control threats to its internal and external validity. Therefore, the study is not able to identify the inherent validity problems leading to issues such as when the most or least of a particular variable or set of variables leads to a regression effect. Random bias is when the sampling procedure introduces bias such as omission of specific minority groups from the sample or targeting only the most desirable statistics. Measurement bias is when the researcher does not control the effects of the tools for data collection. A good example is when researchers ask respondents to report socially desirable answers such as asking whether a person has been involved in criminal behavior. It may also arise when an invalid measure is used such as rate of adverse events instead of cure rates in efficacy trials. Procedural or systematic bias occurs when the researcher administers the research items under adverse conditions such as paying subjects or promising items such as course credits for students. For qualitative studies, researcher bias is when the researcher allows their personal bias to influence how the data is collected and analyzed to reflect their personal values or opinion (Pannucci & Wilkins, 2010).
Researchers often identify the research problem and then go in search of a theory, discuss the disadvantages of doing this. What does the recommended book above recommend that research do to assure a true fit theory and designing the study?
When a researcher uses a particular theory to generate ideas for their research, it often being subjectivity to the research since the researcher begins to think along the specific theory in establishing the validity and reliability information and approaches. This makes it difficult for the researcher to look at other aspects outside the theory that may be simple and more sensible. Since the theory also includes core assumptions, the researcher often tends to use the same assumptions which may lead to over- or under-estimation of the effect in their research. It is important to test the accuracy of the core assumptions made in the theory before deciding to use it to guide the research. To test the theories, the researcher should do a search of literature to see other studies that have tested these assumptions or conduct a simple study to test these assumptions. Another way to ensure the theory is a good fit is to pit two theories that make opposite predictions and try to see which is a better fit for their study (Groves et al., 2009).
Describe the quantitative design of the article you selected. Present the strengths and limitations of this type of design according to the book mentioned above and how these are reflected in your study. Contrast the design you have selected with another designed.
The quantitative study chose was a randomized trial that allocated children aged between 5 and 16 years who were diagnosed as obese. The researchers used a randomization sequence to eliminate random bias and even when the allocation ratio was changed to allocate more patients to primary care, they altered the randomization lists to reflect this. The strengths of this study is that it eliminated random bias by using a randomization sequence. Systematic bias was also eliminated by ensuring the participants give voluntary informed consent. The limitations of the study stem from it being a pilot randomized trial and thus not being adequately powered. The study was also done at a smaller scale using two primary care clinics which make it not possible to generalize the findings to the larger populations. Compared to the qualitative design, the evaluation of the two points of care, primary and hospital-based care could only be done with the quantitative design since it was aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of primary care
Describe the qualitative design (or methodology) of the article you selected. Present the strengths and limitations of this type of design according to the book mentioned above and how these are reflected in your study. Contrast the design you have selected with another design.
The researcher conducted semi-structured interviews with parents whose children has completed 12-months of treatment in the childhood obesity clinical trial described earlier. The sampling criteria was clear and the researchers aimed at ensuring maximum variation sampling to balance age, gender and allocation in the trial. The researchers used a topic guide that covered their interested areas such as expectations and experience in the clinic, practitioner advice, changes made after clinical advice, and other aspects. The authors tried to include children in the study by simplifying questions and engaging children in the interview. The study design had the strength of going indepth to understand the topic areas the researchers were interested in. The limitations of the study include the inability to interview parents and children separately thus the input of children being minimal. The authors also report that the participants did not have a chance to review the findings, which impacts on the validity and reliability of the results. Compared with the quantitative design, this design was best for exploring the why questions related to childhood obesity and seeking to explore and explain the concepts the researchers defined (Banks, Cramer, Sharp, Shield, & Turner, 2013).
Read the section Questionnaires vs. Interviews on pages 305-306 in the above mention textbook, how are these guidelines similar and different from data collected by nurses when giving care? What principles did you identify that are new to you but could be important in improving your collection of clinical data?
In the routine care environment, nurses collect a lot of data through the various forms they have to fill. The difference between the guideline in the book and these forms first comes from the intention of the data…