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pilot study. The participants will be self-selected from among existing patients of a free clinic who meet specific criteria. The participants will be invited to attend a diabetes self-management course that is offered free of charge a local clinic. Once the self-selected individuals arrived at the clinic, there are additional selection criteria. The participants will be selected for having hemoglobin A1Cs greater than 10.0, for having Type 2 diabetes, and all of the participants were already patients at the free clinic. The information gathered will be used for a retrospective chart review to compare hemoglobin A1Cs against those that did not participate in the classes.
The initial hemoglobin A1C was drawn at the patient's visit and instigated the referral of the patient to the program. The hemoglobin A1Cs will be redrawn at the patient's next visit, which is typically every 3 months for uncontrolled diabetes. A group that has its…
Low, Stanton, Bower & Gyllenhammer (2010)
All women at Stave IV breast cancer, allows to moderate for stage level differences in psychological processing
andom assignment to experimental group
Control group also writes, just not expressively and about emotions
Based on social constraint theory
Used standardized scales for measuring depression and somatic symptoms
Took into account time since diagnosis
Short and infrequent writing (4 x 20 minute intervals over a period of 3 weeks)
Moderating variables (perceived emotional support; time since diagnosis) do not seem related to the writing
Perceived emotional support treated as an ancillary variable in the design, and yet was a defining feature of the hypothesis (weak internal validity)
Women received $80 for participating, which would have influenced the decision to participate
The participants had already been proactive in their psychological recovery
Homogenous experimental group.
The researchers hypothesized that especially among women who receive low…
Henry, R.A., et al. (2010). The feasibility and effectiveness of expressive writing for rural and urban breast cancer survivors. Oncology Nursing Forum 37(6).
Low, C.A., Stanton, A.L., Bower, J.E. & Gyllenhammer, L. (2010). A randomized controlled trial of emotionally expressive writing for women with metastatic breast cancer. Health Psychology 29(4): 460-466.
Eveland's research design is quasi-experimental. he sample populations for the experiment are not randomly selected. here is structure to the experiment with more than one form of measurement during the research process. Quasi-experimental design includes multiple groups and multiple waves of measurement. While there were not a significant number of groups in the experiment, there was more than one. At more than one point in the experiment, measurements were taken.
According to researchers such as rochim, there are a few different types of research design. A randomized experiment is just that -- it is a random assignment which is different from random selection. Random assignment is a way in which comparison in experiments may be better facilitated because it helps create similar groups within the experiment population. If there are any differences among the population it is because of chance and not because of some kind of manipulation or premeditation…
The Federal Human Subjects Protection rules are in place to ensure that human subjects for research are protected from exploitation and unreasonable danger or harm in various forms. These rules have been in place in American society for not very long -- approximately three decades. It makes one wonder what researchers were able to get away with respect to their subjects before these rules were in place. It makes one wonder as well what kind of reception these rules had in the world of research. The rules set up clear boundaries between research and practiced medicine. The rules define or provide a sort of cost-benefit analysis with regard to using human test subjects as a part of research.
Furthermore these federal rules provide clearcut guidelines in the selection process of research or experimentation involving human subjects. Finally, the rules make clear that there must be informed consent of the human subjects regarding the nature of the research settings. These rules were influenced by a document called the Belmont Report that was published shortly before the Federal Human Subjects Protection rules were established. The overall intention of the rules and the commission that governs or oversees these kinds of issues within behavioral research, is to make sure that the use of human subjects in research is appropriately justified, that human subjects are treated ethically, and that there are clear standards by which researchers are held accountable.
I think the primary way for this case to be improved would be to attempt to repeat it in the 21st century, as this world is much more heavily mediated than when the experiment was originally conducted. A comparative study would make the older study useful and valid as well as have established a sort of history between then (1988) and now regarding people and technology. This subject has attracted a great deal more attention and research since Eveland's original experiment and a comparative, modern study will likely demonstrate the validity of a number of Eveland's ideas and techniques.
Stake (1999, p. 8) said that "the real business of case study is particularization, not generalization." A particular case is fully examined and understood for what it is and how it operates. Its uniqueness is emphasized. However, the case study methodology does not delve into how a case is similar or different from other cases. Understanding the case itself is the primary emphasis of the case study methodology. In this light, the research studies using the case study methodology is not sampling research as a case is studied primarily to understand the one case and not to understand other cases (Stake, 1999).
The six sources of evidence in case studies, which have been identified by Stake and Yin (as cited in Tellis, 1997), are documents, archival records, interviews, direct observation, participant-observation, and physical artifacts.
In the case study methodology, documents such as letters, newspaper articles, administrative documents and all…
Green, J., Camilli, G., Elmore, P., Skukauskaite, A., American Educational Research Association, & Grace, E. (2006). Handbook of Complementary Methods in Education Research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Heck, R.H. (2004). Studying Educational and Social Policy: Theoretical Concepts and Research Methods. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Stake, R.E. (1999). The Art of Case Study Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage
Tellis, W. (1997, July). Introduction to case study [68 paragraphs]. The Qualitative Report [Online serial], 3(2). Retrieved June 16, 2009, from http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR3-2/tellis1.html
Essentially, this is the concept that data should be collected from different sources in order to help show the same conclusion will be met from different data collection sources. As such, the participants will be asked to bring with them any data they provide in terms of documentation of insider threats, their own notes and strategies to combat those threats, and finalized security briefings that are available for this research review and utilize within the data collection process. t is well-known that some of the data desired here will be too sensitive to actually be used, however, there is a wide enough breadth of options that will allow participants to bring some form of alternative data that can be used to help measure the reliability and validity of the data collected from the interview process.
After data collection, data analysis. After each and every interview, the researcher will focus on…
In order to ensure reliability and validity, the research is also going to use elements of methodological triangulation. Essentially, this is the concept that data should be collected from different sources in order to help show the same conclusion will be met from different data collection sources. As such, the participants will be asked to bring with them any data they provide in terms of documentation of insider threats, their own notes and strategies to combat those threats, and finalized security briefings that are available for this research review and utilize within the data collection process. It is well-known that some of the data desired here will be too sensitive to actually be used, however, there is a wide enough breadth of options that will allow participants to bring some form of alternative data that can be used to help measure the reliability and validity of the data collected from the interview process.
After data collection, data analysis. After each and every interview, the researcher will focus on coding and categorizing the bulk of the interview content by utilizing a number of field notes that were presented by Groenewald (2004) and outlined in Shank (2006). There are four layers of field notes that can be taken during the process of the interviews and directly after that will help with this process. First there are observational notes, which focus on the observation of the interview and the contents seen within it. Then there are theoretical notes, where the researcher begins to pull out certain theoretical elements found within the interview content. Third comes methodological notes, which are typically written either before or during the interview process and can help future interviews in terms of reminding the interviewer to do certain things at certain times. Finally, there are analytical notes which are typically written right after the interview had taken place. These are some of the more portal notes for the later coding categorizing particular themes. Abstract summaries of all the interviews are needed in order to be able to categorize them by particular themes. Summaries will also be written for each of the documents the participants supply to augment the interviewing process.
Once field notes are thoroughly taken down and organized, the researcher will then set out to pull out certain codes that can be placed into categories. Several categories from each interview will be pulled out based on the frequency of particular words, digression of topics, and overall tone of the participant during the interview. Summaries will help categorize interview content and documents provided based on certain codes. The ones that are most frequent among a number of different interviews can then be used to make assumptions regarding the nature of insider threats and what should be considered as warnings before they actually are able to cause damage on a cloud computing platform.
Scientific Research Design: What are the effects of human resources outsourcing on leadership performance and employee commitment?
There is speculation that an outsourced human resources (HR) department will have a negative impact on a company's performance. Furthermore, the researcher believes that this impact will be more significant in larger companies. To test this hypothesis, the researcher will perform case studies of two companies, a large one and a small one, that have recently transitioned from outsourced HR to in-house HR. The goal of the research will be to ascertain how HR impacts leadership performance and employee commitment.
utsourcing of functions that have traditionally been done in-house is one of the most significant changes to impact modern business. In many ways, outsourcing provides opportunities for organizations to increase their functionality and decrease their costs. However, it is critical to recognize that outsourcing can have negative consequences for a business, and that…
One of the problems that firms encounter when trying to make decisions about outsourcing is that there is secrecy about the impact of outsourcing on other firms. Wong et al. have discussed this matter and suggest that increasing transparency and communication between different businesses will have a positive impact on the efficacy of outsourced work. They believe that outsourcing partners can learn from one another. For example, if a firm decides to use an outsourcing organization for its HR practices, it would be most effective for the firm to engage in open communication with that organization. However, industry concerns create barriers to open, trusting, and integrative communication. The goals of the hiring firm and the outsourcing agency should be cooperative, rather than competitive or independent. When the organizations have cooperative goals, they are more likely to engage in effective practices that encourage business development (Wong et al., 2010).
Part 1: Theoretical framework
In order to investigate the relationship between outsourcing human resource functions, leadership performance, and employee commitment, this study will look at whether the size of the organization has an influence on how outsourcing HR functions impacts either leadership performance or employee commitment. One of the difficulties presented by this type of research is determining how to define measure and assess the concepts in the paper. The first concept examined in the paper is the concept of outsourcing. Outsourcing refers to the removal of any function of
By performing a test aimed at determining the statistical significance of the coefficients.
EG - on page 612, the author's direct explanation of her findings is.
Before you explain what is meant by these coefficients, please explain what is a "direct explanation." I thought all explanations are direct.
Without considering the mediation variables.
5.4c. On page 609, the author states that she included variables because she needed to control their effects. In this context, what does the author mean by "control?"
Control means testing the effects of certain variables or lack of those variables on the overall equation or experiment.
5.4d. On page 609, the author begins and continues on subsequent pages explaining mediator effects. What are mediating variables? What is an analysis using mediating variables?
In a given research study, a mediating variable is a factor that is presumed to form or act as an intervening link between two…
Baron, R.M. And Kenny, D.A. (1986) "The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research -- Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 51(6), pp. 1173 -- 1182.
Bello, Daniel & Williamson, Nicholas (1985, Fall). The American Export Trading Company: Designing a New International Marketing Institution. Journal of Marketing, 49(4). 60-69.
Hise, Richard T; Gable, Myron; Kelly, J. Patrick; and McDonald, James B (1983, Summer). Factors Affecting the Performance of Individual Chain Store Units: An Empirical Analysis. Journal of Retailing, 59(2). 22-39
Koch, G.G. And Tangen, C.M. . Nonparametric analysis of covariance and its role in noninferiority clinical trials. Drug Information Journal
For example, patients with weakened immune symptoms might be more likely to catch such an infection. To minimize the risk of other patient variables interfering with the data, the nurses whose hand-washing methods would be subject to study would be chosen from the wider sampling at random, with the controls upon the extreme cases cited above. The nurses would be identified as frequent or low-frequency hand-washers, depending on how much or how often they washed their hands during patient treatment, after, and before. The number of nosocomial infections in the patients they cared for would likewise be tracked, and thus extent to which frequent hand-washing could prevent the spread of infectious agents that give rise to such antibiotic-resistant complaints would be discerned by tracking the correlation between infection and amount of hand-washing used by the nurse.
The advantage of using a video observance and tracking methodology to obtain the random…
Abedon, Stephen. (5 Sept 1998). "Nosocomial infections." Retrieved 26 Jan 2008 at http://mansfield.osu.edu/~sabedon/biol2053.htm
American Nurses Association: Code of ethics." (2008). ANA. Retrieved 26 Jan 2008 at http://www.med.howard.edu/ethics/handouts/american_nurses_association_code.ht
Lane, David. (2007). "Random sampling." HyperStat. Retrieved 26 Jan 2008 at http://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/A35563.html
Mori, Ipos. (2004). "Quantitative research." Retrieved 26 Jan 2008 at http://www.ipsos-mori.com/quantitative
alcohol and breast cancer?
Identify an appropriate research design
The fitting research design selected for this research question is the cohort design.
Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the design
One of the strengths of the design is that enables the researcher to calculate the incidence of the disease being studied in exposure groups. In addition, the design enables the researcher to know the temporal series between exposure and consequence. One of the downsides of this research design is that it can be very costly and time consuming. Another downside is that it might necessitate the researcher to follow the state of several numbers of participants for a lengthy period of time. One other downside of the design is that it may be hard to ascertain a fitting exposed cohort and a fitting comparison group.
Provide a rationale for the design you selected
The rationale for this chosen design is…
Anastas, J. W. (1999). Research Design for Social Work and the Human Services. Flexible Methods: Case Study Design. 2nd ed. New York: Columbia University Press.
Denzin, N. K., Lincoln, Y. S. (1994). Observational Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Healy, P., Devane, D. (2011). Methodological Considerations in Cohort Study Designs. Nurse Researcher, 18 (2011).
Quantitative esearch Design
In order to design a quantitative research project it is necessary to identify the necessary components of a quantitative design. Quantitative design requires proving hypotheses based on numerical and statistical analysis. The formulation of these designs must adhere to certain mathematical principles making them valuable in some aspects of the research. Quantitative research requires that the populations being sampled are random and adhere to scientific inductive reasoning principles.
The general area of research for my topic of emotional issues within student/teacher relationships places a unique challenge on a quantitative design formulation. Emotions are inherently abstract and provide a certain amount of gray area discussion to truly understand how this abstract idea impact education and science in general. To formulate a quantitative design research project that can be associated with this project requires a certain approach to the topic that can identify certain and true mathematical relationships…
Bogdan, R.C., & Biklen, S.K. (1998). Qualitative research in education. An introduction to theory and methods. Allyn & Bacon, A Viacom Company, 160 Gould St., Needham Heights, MA 02194; Internet: www. abacon. com.
Durlak, J.A., Weissberg, R.P., Dymnicki, A.B., Taylor, R.D., & Schellinger, K.B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students' social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child development,82(1), 405-432.
Greenberg, M.T., Weissberg, R.P., O'Brien, M.U., Zins, J.E., Fredericks, L., Resnik, H., & Elias, M.J. (2003). Enhancing school-based prevention and youth development through coordinated social, emotional, and academic learning. American psychologist, 58(6-7), 466.
Joy, M. (2007). Research methods in education (No. 10). Innovation Way, York Science Park, Heslington, York YO10 5BR: The Higher Education Academy.
Victims ights Movement
Write one or two key questions followed by five to seven subquestions for the qualitative analysis.
What is the success rate of performance evaluation systems operational in international IT companies?
Does the rating setup enhance employee performance over a period of years, like over a three-year period?
Does the appraisal routine encourage/discourage the employees to leave/stay with the company, is the percentage of staying or leaving affected by the rating system?
To what extent is an appraisal manager qualified in conducting performance reviews?
Does any rating system effectively capture employee productivity and is the current bell-curve system, the best approach?
What are the differences between a performance evaluation system and the employee satisfaction survey that is conducted later by the company?
Are there any detectable and clear differences between companies that apply the traditional bell curve approach and those that opt for more unconventional…
"Central Research Questions" (n.d). Retrieved from http://www.hecc.ubc.ca/cerc/centra research-questions/
Creswell, John. W (2014). "Research Design -- Qualitative, Quantitative and mixed methods
Approaches," SAGE Publications 2014.
Lee, Y. J., & Greene, J. (2007). "The predictive validity of an ESL placement test: A mixed methods approach." Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(4), 366-389.
emembering the 1960s
Qualitative esearch Design: emembering the 1960s
…the qualitative researcher often is the instrument, relying on his or her skills to receive information in natural contexts and uncover its meaning by descriptive, exploratory, or explanatory procedures. (Sage Pub, 2012,-Page 345)
Produce & explain a research design.
The 1960s are a truly significant decade in modern world history. During this time, there was a prevalence of open-mindedness, expression, experimentation, cultural flourishing, and cultural struggles. It was a notable decade with respect to a plethora of categories such as politics, economics, foreign policy, international relations, music, film, art, literature, and more. The 1960s are also known as a decade of in depth cultural integration, especially in countries such as the United States of America. Whatever the cause, the 1960s are known as a decade with a prevalence for activism. It was a moment in history when many groups with diverse…
Creswell, PhD, J.W., & Piano Clark, V.L. (2010) Principles of Qualitative Research: Designing a Qualitative Study. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Office of Qualitative & Mixed Methods Research, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
Mor., Y. (2011). Design Narratives: An Intuitive Scientific Form for Capturing Design Knowledge In Education. Learning in the Technological Era 6th Chais Conference, Open University, Israel, 57 -- 63.
Polkinghorne, D.E. (2007). Validity Issues in Narrative Research. Qualitative Inquiry, 10(10), 1 -- 16.
Sage Publications. (2012). Chapter 12 -- Qualitative Data, Analysis, And Design. Web, Available from: www.sagepub.com/upm-data/43144_12.pdf. 2012 November 03.
Internal validity of any research design refers to the design's ability to make causal inferences from the data collected and the results of the study (Shadish, Cook, & Campbell, 2002). The research designs that offer the highest levels of internal validity are true experiments where the participants are randomly assigned to the conditions in the study. Quasi-experimental designs attempt to improve on the poor internal validity of correlational designs by allowing the researcher to control the assignment of participants to the treatment condition such as using some type of eligibility criteria, but due to the nature of the study the researcher cannot use random assignment. Most quasi-experimental designs are performed with intact groups that cannot be the subject of any random assignment (Shadish et al., 2002).
Metheny, Davis-Jackson, and Stewart (2010) performed a two-group quasi-experimental design to determine the effectiveness of an Aspiration isk eduction Protocol (AP) in critically ill,…
Metheny, N.A., Davis-Jackson, J., & Stewart, B.J. (2010). Effectiveness of an aspiration risk reduction protocol. Nursing Research, 59(1), 18-25.
Shadish, W., Cook, T., & Campbell, D. (2002). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
One of the most important preliminary considerations before commencing a research study is the identification and selection of a suitable research design strategy. Research design is a term that refers to plans and procedures for the study ranging from broad assumptions to details regarding data collection and analysis processes (Creswell, 2014). Choosing a research design strategy is vital before commencing the study because it helps in ensuring that evidence is gathered to effectively deal with the research issue in a logical manner. In essence, a research design strategy is an overall plan for integrating different components of the research in a logical and coherent manner. Without a suitable research design, it is highly likely that the research will not address the research problem effectively.
In light of the problem described in Module 1, the purpose of this applied research study is to examine measures for promoting creative deviance among workers…
Crewell, J.W. (2014). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
The Office of Research Integrity. (n.d.). Module 2: Research Design – Section 1: Descriptive Studies. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services website: https://ori.hhs.gov/content/module-2-research-design-section-1#descriptive-studies
Counterintelligence issues within the U.S.
Research Design and Methods Section
There is no standard ethical framework in counterintelligence, which presents a problem because of the risk of subjective or questionable morality seeping into counterintelligence activities (Valentine 2016). To understand the problem, this research design is qualitative because the subject is exploratory in nature. The aim of the research is to explore by way of comparative case study analysis the counterintelligence program under James Jesus Angleton, including the literature of the past and present. Scholarly articles, Senate reports, memoirs, independent research, biographies, and analysis will serve as the sources of information. Data will be analyzed using content analysis, with themes drawn from the literature and arranged and organized to give a clearer understanding of how ethics might be better utilized to guide the integration of the counterintelligence enterprise with the private sector in the 21st century. Concepts of ethics will be…
Creswell, J. and J. Creswell, J. (2018). Research design. SAGE.
George, Alexander L. and Andrew Bennett. 2004. Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences. MIT Press.
Johnston, C. M., Wallis, M., Oprescu, F. I., & Gray, M. 2017. “Methodological Considerations Related to Nurse Researchers Using Their Own Experience of a Phenomenon Within Phenomenology.” Journal of Advanced Nursing 73 (3): 574-584.
Lang, T. and D. Altman, D. 2016. “Statistical Analyses and Methods in the Published Literature: The SAMPL Guidelines.” Medical Writing 25: 31-36.
Marshall, M. N. 1996. “Sampling for Qualitative Research.” Family Practice 13 (6): 522-526.
Morley, Jefferson. 2017. The Ghost: The Secret Life of CIA Spymaster James Jesus Angleton. St. Martin\\'s Press.
Palinkas, L. A., S. M. Horwitz, C. A. Green, J. P. Wisdom, N. Duan, and K. Hoagwood,
2015. “Purposeful Sampling for Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis in Mixed Method Implementation Research.” Administration and policy in mental health and mental health services research 42 (5): 533-544.
Development Change Research Issue
Developmental change is a broad topic that incorporate several sub-topics relating to an individual's growth and development. The broad nature of this topic emerges from the fact that its an approach that is geared towards explaining how infants, children, and adults change over a period of time. The process of explaining individuals' developmental changes over time involves examining a wide range of theoretical areas including biological, cognitive, emotional, and social domains. Additionally, there are different research designs that are utilized in developmental research including longitudinal, sequential, and cross-sectional research approaches (Berk & Meyers, 2016). These different approaches are selected based on their effectiveness in exploring a particular issue or aspect of developmental change over time.
An example of a topic that could be examined using one of these research designs is masticatory performance in children across different age groups. This is an important topic of study…
The Challenges of Dual Credit: A Research Proposal
Dual credit or dual enrollment programs “are designed to boost college access and degree attainment, especially for students typically underrepresented in higher education,” (United States Department of Education, 2017, p. 1). With this lofty goal set, it should seem that dual credit programs would be reducing the educational achievement gap. After all, dual credit programs by definition allow all students the opportunity to potentially shorten the amount of time they spend in college, thereby reducing their tuition fees that enable the completion of a degree program. Yet recent research shows that college enrollment and completion gaps may be getting wider, based both on ethnicity and on socioeconomic class (Gewertz, 2017). The results of the RAND study reported by Gewertz (2017) may not be applicable specifically to the state of Hawaii, and yet educational attainment disparities do continue to exist and…
Data Collection in Leadership
As a social science, leadership research may involve any type of quantitative or qualitative data collection method. Qualitative research data collection methods include observation, participant-observation, interview, and document or content analysis (“Data Collection Methods,” n.d.). Quantitative data collection methods used in leadership research may include surveys and experiments, which allow for statistical analysis, the establishment of causality between independent and dependent variables, and the tracking of results over time. Whereas quantitative data collection methods had once been the most commonly used in the social sciences, recent trends in leadership research have shifted towards qualitative methods (Antonakis, Schriescheim, Donovan, et al., 2003). Qualitative methods often reveal nuances, patterns, and ideas that quantitative methods overlook or take for granted, making mixed-methods approaches extremely attractive in emerging literature on leadership and organizational behavior.
Methods of data collection and research design trends eventually feed the formation of new theories in…
e., contemporary or historical issues (Eisenhardt 1989; in Naslund, 2005);
(3) the extent of control required over behavioral events in the research context (Yin 1994; as cited in Naslund, 2005); and (4) the researcher's philosophical stance, i.e., his/her understanding of the nature of social reality and how knowledge of that reality can be gained. (Naslund, 2005)
Naslund (2005) states that qualitative research methods "primarily create meanings and explanations to research phenomena" and include data collection methods such as:
(2) Fieldwork including interviews and questionnaires, diary methods, documents and texts, case studies; and (3) the researcher's impressions and reactions to observed phenomena. Quantitative research methods serve to make provision of a broad range of situations as well as being fast and economical.
Commonly utilized quantitative research methods include those of:
(1) Laboratory experiments;
(2) Formal methods; and (3) Numerical methods and techniques. (Naslund, 2005)
Naslund states that analysis identifies…
Experimental Research (2009) Experimental Resources. Online available at: http://www.experiment-resources.com/experimental-research.htm l' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
There is little incentive to fill in a written survey -- or fill them in accurately or in details, as there is no face-to-face contact. A personal survey is also brief, and might cause the speaker to wish to simply quickly please the survey's taker, and leave, rather than give thoughtful replies without being influenced by the taker's reactions.
DQ4. What are some examples of statistics used at your work place? What are they used for? How are they determined?
My place of business deploys statistics in the form of reports that record the increases and decrease in productivity in certain applications used by the organization. Quarterly reports record the organization's profits and loses with the aim of aiding the strategic management team in answering the questions of what the organization should do and where the organization should aspire to do in the…
Validity, in essence, has got to do with the extent to which a given research study measures the accuracy of a specific concept – effectively meaning that a study can be said to have passed the validity test if it accurately mirrors that which the researchers set about to investigate. In quantitative research, as Polit and Beck (2012) point out, “researchers strive to design studies that are strong with respect to all four types of study validity” (p. 303). As the authors further point out, while an attempt to enhance one kind of validity may benefit another form of validity, efforts to ensure one kind of validity sometimes end up interfering with the achievement of other validity types. The four kinds of validity to be taken into consideration in the review of a research design are identified as external validity, internal validity, construct validity, and statistical conclusion validity (Balnaves and…
For each selected school, there will be three groups of which quota sampling will be employed to achieve equal number of respondents. The three groups would be the faculty members, student administrators, and students. espondents will once again be randomly-selected from the list that we shall be acquiring from the university.
A questionnaire shall be devised by the researcher in order to gather opinion and understand attitudes on post-tenure review. An Educational Administration Disposition Belief Scale shall also be provided to better assess school administrators' views and disposition to better understand their particular disposition in the issue of post-tenure review. This instrument by Charles Southern University (n.d.) has already been used in previous studies conducted. This scale shall be modified to a 5-point scale in order to gauge disposition.
The timetable for the data gathering part of this research was based on a seven-week schedule. One week…
Charles Southern University (n.d.) Educational Administration Belief Scale Worksheet.
Retrieved from http://www.csuniv.edu/academics/graduate/ed_docs/Disposition%20Belief%20Scale%20for%20Ed%20Admn.pdf on 11 Jan 2010.
Licata, C.M. & Morreale, (2006). Faculty and Administrator Views About Post-Tenure
Practices: Qualitative Findings, in Post-Tenure Faculty Review and Renewal III:
What is Environmental Design Research?
Design and art can accept scientific principles
Environmental Design Research (EDR) = the study of the mutual relationships between human beings and the physical environment at all scales, and applications of the knowledge thus gained to improving the quality of life through better informed environmental policy, planning, design, and education. (passive and active definition)
EDR is related to many other areas of the social sciences
EDR is NOT:
building science or structural engineering
Eg. An architect does research to apply to a single building project, but EDR applies research to things like job satisfaction and other measurable results that advance the whole field.
Basic Research (generation, discovery of knowledge)
Applied Research (answering specific questions related to specific social policy or context)
Research Applications (apply research to policy, plans, designs)
**Must communicate results to policy/professional applications
EDR = Environmental Psychology =…
This study will represent one attempt to infuse conflict resolution practices with a focus on unity as a methodology and an outcome for recognizing the risks of conflicts. The study will also examine factors associated with conflict, and the utilization of analytical thinking strategies to avoid hostile confrontations and violence (Farrell, a.D., & Meyer, a.L. 1997).
The goal of the study is to answer the questions of how to build a lasting foundation for peace in the classroom. To achieve this overarching goal, the project will answer the following four main questions:
How frequently does conflict resolution and peer mediation impact students' conflicts, attitudes, and behavior?
2. How does adding conflict resolution in addition to the peer mediation program in the 6th grade curriculum impact the school climate?
3. How do conflict resolution or peer mediation programs effectively handle disputes if teachers taught the program in a 6th…
4. How are peer mediation programs equally effective (or ineffective) for elementary, middle, and high schools?
A mixed methods approach will be utilized for this study. This approach involves the use of both a quantitative and qualitative approach. The facilitator for this research study will collect data using the Likert scale 7 and 15 questionnaire survey at the end of the 2009 school year . The Likert scale will also be used to complete the 15 survey questions which will address concerns about the program. The program will also conduct an open-ended and closed-ended interview questionnaire concerning conflicts between middle school age children. A field interview will be used to collect data using a recorder to transcribe the information for analysis.
1. An operational definition helps the researcher maintain both internal and external validity. The researcher clearly defines terms, and shows how each variable is measured. In this way, concepts that are otherwise abstract like intelligence can be operationalized.
Intelligence needs to be operationalized because the researcher needs to show what specific type of intelligence is being measured, and how. An operational definition is “the particular method that we use to measure a variable of interest,” beyond the theoretical definitions that can be applied later (“Conducting Research in Social Psychology,” n.d., p. 1). Whereas the theoretical definitions of intelligence can be broad, like “the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge,” operational definitions are narrower in scope because they need to be easily measured (Legg & Hutter, 2006, p. 2).
For example, if mathematical intelligence is being measured, then an established mathematical skills test needs to be administered to research participants. Social skills intelligence…
INTENET-BASED MANUFACTUING SYSTEM.
Design internet-based manufacturing system for the oversea small manufacturing companies
Global competitions and rapid changes in the customers' requirements are forcing the manufacturing companies to adopt the Information Technology (IT) for the production and the configuration of manufacturing process. With the increase in demand for more specialized products, the traditional mode of production is no more capable to meet the customers' requirements. In the present competitive market environment, more customers are increasingly demanding for custom designed products within the short time. ecently, there have been rapid changes in the manufacturing paradigms where many manufacturing companies have started to adopt new enterprises strategy to remain competitive in the present international volatile markets. To be competitive in the present volatile markets, some organizations have started to adopt the concepts such as virtual enterprises, agile manufacturing etc. (Tian, Yin, & Taylor 2001). Virtual enterprises have become the most advanced and…
Dai, W. (2009). The Impact of Emerging Technologies on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Journal of Business Systems, Governance and Ethics. Journal of Business Systems, Governance and Ethics. 4(5): 53-61.
Hamill, J. (1997). The Internet and international marketing. International Marketing Review. 14(5): 300-323.
Kushwah, G.S. (2011). Competitive Advantages through Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Enabled Supply Chain Management Practices. International Journal of Enterprise Computing and Business Systems. 1( 2).
Moen, Q. (2004). Internationalization of the small and computer software ?rms for the Entry forms and market selection. European Journal of Marketing. 38(9/10): 1236-1251.
Mixed methods research design is popular in many research settings because it offers a set of advantages as well as a flexibility that cannot be matched by other available methods. This method combines some of the features from both quantitative and qualitative research methods to create unique methods that can integrate many theoretical or conceptual frameworks. This analysis will use a case study form of a mixed methods approach from studies that were performed in different academic fields to illustrate this form of research. The case study approach is popular in various environments due to the fact that it has more flexibility to explore and explain complex social phenomenon that are difficult to account for in strict quantitative approaches. Furthermore, it also allows room for the social constructivist approach that allows participants some freedom to add information that is relevant to their particular perspective to be added to the data.…
Mayo, J. (2002). Case-based Instruction: A Technique for Increasing Conceptual Application in Introductory Psychology. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 65-74.
O'Connor, B., & Cordova, R. (2010). Learning: The Experiences of Adults Who Work Full-Time While Attending Graduate School Part-Time. Journal of Education for Business, 359-368.
van der Voot, J., Glac, K., & Meijs, L. (2009). ''Managing'' Corporate Community Involvement. Journal of Business Ethics, 311-329.
International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) Code on Maritime Security
The study will be based on the question that "What is the impact of the International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) Code on Maritime Security." Answers will be sought to have this question addressed adequately.
The study feels that the ISPS Code has some impacts upon the Maritime Security in the world. Thus, the study seeks to uncover the various impacts that are realized by the Maritime Security as offered by the ISPS.
The influence and functionality of the existing ISPS Code run globally. Its effects, as part of its usefulness and importance, are felt by the Maritime Security among other agents of security in the world. Thus, the study will uncover the impacts caused by the ISPS Code on the Maritime Security in various parts of the world. The study will seek further knowledge from different materials; research…
Halcomb, Peters, and Mclennes (2015) aims at examining pre-registration nurses' experiences in community clinic assignments as well as the effect such assignment has on their education. The authors have determined that clinical assignments to community facilities may offer nursing undergraduates important opportunities for learning. The research was conducted using a qualitative study design.
The research work attempts at examining pre-registration nurses' experiences in community clinic assignments as well as the effect such assignment has on their education.
Statement of Purpose
For promoting the profession of primary healthcare, comprehending pre-registration pupils' experiences within primary care contexts at the time of clinical assignment is vital.
In spite of the observable advantages such assignment have for pupils, poor supervisor-student relationships, work climates that do not foster a sense of belonging, and the absence of adequate guidance and monitoring are proven to have strong links to exacerbated anxiety and stress levels, greater pupil attrition…
Reduced treatment mistakes and patient falls, together with patient perceptions of being better informed during shift change, was witnessed by researchers. The intervention incorporated a 3-hour nursing pupil handoff practicum, 2-hour clinical staff training, and a formative student assessment and feedback in the course of clinical experiences all through the 3rd semester. The pupil practicum was integrated into clinical orientation and clinical lab experience. Best practices in bedside hand-offs were addressed as well. All through the course of the practicum, emphasis was placed on the handoff receiver's active participation in safety communication (Avallone & Weideman, 2015). Numerous favorable results were recorded with regard to combined bedside nurse shift reporting practice, with a small number of downsides. Nursing outlook towards reporting during final data acquisition proved to be more favorable as compared to their outlook at the start of program implementation. If put into proper practice, bedside nurse reporting may improve patient safety results and nurse and patient satisfaction. But it is imperative to ensure nurse involvement in practice implementation and to continually check both report format uniformity and process support on nurses' and patients' part (Jecklin-Sand & Sherman, 2014).
Avallone, M., & Weideman, Y. (2015). Evaluation of a nursing handoff educational bundle to improve nursing student handoff communications: A Pilot Study. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 65 - 75.
Jecklin-Sand, K., & Sherman, J. (2014). A quantitative assessment of patient and nurse outcomes of bedside nursing report implementation. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2854 - 63.
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
According to Lopez-Alvarado (2017) and Muijs (n.d.), research design decisions are linked to ontology and epistemology. Ontology refers to the researcher’s beliefs about whether reality is absolute or contextual, universal or relative. Whether the researcher is a realist or a relativist determines research questions and designs, with an increased tendency for relativists to focus on phenomenological and qualitative methods and a realist to use quantitative methods. Muijs (n.d.) describes quantitative research as using numerical data and mathematical methods, showing how a realist will use these types of methods to seek for an objective truth. Likewise, epistemology refers to how the researcher acquires knowledge, or what sources of knowledge are deemed valid. A researcher who believes in absolutism and realism will veer towards quantitative methods, which yield absolute and generalizable results. On the other hand, a researcher who values subjectivity would take a phenomenological and qualitative approach.…
ole Of Leadership And Employees In Organizational Innovation
Organizational success in the current global environment characterized with significant challenges is highly dependent on innovation and creativity. Innovation and creativity contribute to the success of organizational interventions, thereby, contributing to its competitiveness. The current global environment is characterized by rapid adoption of new technologies, reduction in the life cycle of products, and globalization. As such, it implies the need for the organizations to become creative and innovative to compete, survive, lead, and grow in the wake of these challenges. Similarly, significant evidence shows that leadership and the employees play an important role in driving innovation and creativity within the organization. For instance, studies have shown that leadership styles such as transformational and transactional leadership styles, influences innovation, and creativity within the organization positively. However, limited knowledge on the contextual factors under which the effect occurs exists.
Similarly, empirical evidence…
Eisenbeiβ, S.A., & Boerner, S. (2010). Transformational Leadership and R&D Innovation: Taking a Curvilinear Approach. Creativity and Innovation Management, 19(4), 364-372.
Gumusluoglu, L., & Ilsev, A. (2009). Transformational Leadership, Creativity, And Organizational Innovation. Journal of Business Research, 62(4), 461-473.
Hu, H., Gu, Q., & Chen, J. (2013). How and when does transformational leadership affect organizational creativity and innovation?: Critical review and future directions. Nankai Business Review International, 4(2), 147-166.
Liao, S., & Wu, C. (2010). System perspective of knowledge management, organizational learning, and organizational innovation. Expert Systems with Applications, 37(2), 1096-1103.
Qualitative research is an assortment of various approaches, which have differences and commonalities. In qualitative research, the truth is not considered as an objective but as a subjective reality where various individuals experience differently. The aim of qualitative research is to address any of the problems found in the society. Psychology, education, and sociology are the subjects in which qualitative research methods are used. Qualitative research methods attempt to know why human beings exhibit specific behaviors and make certain choices unlike in the quantitative research method where such details are not shown (Lewis, 2015). The contents of a research paper written using qualitative method vary depending on the methods incorporated and focus in the study.
The introduction is the first part of the process, which sets down the direction of the paper. It lays out exactly what the researcher is trying to achieve at the end of…
Brooks, J. S., & Normore, A. H. (2015). Qualitative Research and Educational Leadership: Essential Dynamics to Consider When Designing and Conducting Studies. International Journal of Educational Management, 29(7), 798-806.
Demeh, W., & Rosengren, K. (2015). The Visualization of Clinical Leadership in the Content of Nursing Education -- A Qualitative Study of Nursing Students' Experiences. Nurse Education Today, 35(7), 888-893.
Kilpatrick, J. E., & McCarthy, M. H. (2015). Global Education and School Leaders' Role in Equitable Access for All Students: Synthesis of Two Qualitative Studies from Massachusetts, USA.
Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. Health Promotion Practice, 1524839915580941.
.....standard indicators for which statistical time series data and targets are accessible, but also take into account social aspects, for instance, the fair apportionment of benefits and encumbrances of the energy transition amid social groups and even the participation of citizens in the transformation process. These social constructs are lacking in preceding approaches, which indicates a certain level of inefficiency. Taking this into account, the authors make the hypothesis that an all-inclusive indicator system is required as tool for analysis to examine the sustainability of the German energy system in addition to supporting the advancement of resilient political approaches for an efficacious energy transition (Rosch et al., 2017).
How would you describe the purpose of the study - What was the major purpose of the study -- descriptive, explanatory (investigating causal relationships)?
The purpose of this study is to make a contribution to the debate regarding indicators necessitated for making…
learning for you in considering these materials. What variations in research approach to your dissertation topic might be suggested by them? What encouragement, related reading, or other ideas can you suggest?
"Experience" is a term increasingly bandied about in academic circles, partially in relation to the present interest in phenomenology among social scientists. Many attempts have been made to define the term over time, from a cultural studies and social anthropology standpoint. ut, scholars usually bring up this subject without any description of what is really meant by it. Even those scholars who have, earlier, discussed this issue could not come to any consensus with regard to defining 'experience'. A focus on experience of a sensory nature raises the methodological question of how to comprehend others' experiences considering experience's complexity. It is not possible to peek into their mind or underneath their skin for thinking or feeling the way others…
Creswell, J. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. California: Sage Publication.
Pink, S. (2008). Research Methods for Cultural Studies: Analyzing Visual Experience. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Robson, C. (2013). Real World Research. Wiley: Washington.
Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (2003). Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social & Behavioral Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage
Accept This Conclusion?
This conclusion is spurious because there are too many potential intervening variables. For one, the students are enrolled and being taught at two different schools. There is no mention of their ages, grade levels, background, or any other pertinent data that could affect reading habits or scores on reading tests. Any number of factors could influence their literacy levels, including demographic issues and the reading resources available at their respective schools.
Second, there is no definition of terms or operational definitions that would be critical for clarifying issues related to literacy. Simply noting that the word method and phonics method were being used is not specific enough. The researchers need to indicate what tools and techniques are being used, in what manner, and in which classrooms, in order to classify one group as "word" and one as "phonics." Finally, the participants were not given a pre-assessment of…
com. (2006) Nutritional information database retrieved 13 Dec
Fitday.com. (2006) Nutritional information database retrieved 13 Dec 2006
Severson, Kim. (13 Dec 2003) "New York Gets Ready to Count Calories."
The New York Times. Retrieved 13 Dec 2006 at
Schlosser, Eric. (2005) Fast Food Nation. New York: Harper Perennial.
"Supersize Me." (2004). Directed by Morgan Spurlock.
"Overweight and Obesity."(2006) CDC: Council for Disease Control.
Retrieved 13 Dec
esearch Method and Design Proposal
A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).
Most importantly, qualitative data methods…
Bickman, L. (2008). Chapter 1 Applied research design: A practical approach. Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/23770_Ch1.pdf
Grimes, A.D., & Schulz, F.K. (2002). Descriptive studies: What they can do and cannot do.
Lancet, 359, 145-149.
Hofferth, S.L. (2005). Secondary data analysis in family research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 891 -- 907.
For example, an upscale restaurant, mid-market clothing store, hardware store, and general store could all be sampled, and over the course of four days shoppers could be asked to respond to a survey at the check-out counter about their perceptions of the store and shopping experience. The data could then be analyzed demographically, in terms of consumer perceptions, and also precisely what the different shoppers bought on different days, as opposed to what they said they would buy. This would also allow repeated testing -- using the same four-day musical format over different periods of the year at different stores. The article's study takes the form of a posttest only study design: the independent variable of the music (or in the case of the control group, the lack thereof) is applied, and then subjects record their responses.
The advantage to the test is that there is no 'learning,' necessary to…
North, Adrian C. & David J. Hargreaves. (1998). The effect of music on atmosphere and purchase intentions in a cafeteria. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 28 (24):
goal of this research is to identify interventions that can reduce the risk of negative outcomes for at-risk youth. The basis for the analysis will rely on prior literature on parenting styles, co-parenting conflicts, and also child pre-disposition to violence. A literature review is the initial research design, with the goal of explaining the nature of the problem and the variables involved (Blakstad, n.d.). The research may progress into two further stages, including an exploratory and primarily qualitative phase. Subsequent to the exploratory research, a pilot study with longitudinal design may be warranted, but experimental designs are not indicated in a project of this nature.
Because the research is currently exploratory in nature, as it is in the early stages, several descriptive research designs would be highly appropriate. Three of the descriptive research designs that would be appropriate to this dissertation in particular include Case Study and Descriptive esearch. Later…
Blakstad, O. (n.d.). Research designs. Retrieved online: https://explorable.com/research-designs
De Vaus, D.A. Research Design in Social Research. London: SAGE, 2001; Trochim, William M.K. Research Methods Knowledge Base. 2006.
Shuttleworth, M. (n.d.). Case study research design. Retrieved online: https://explorable.com/case-study-research-design
population for my proposed research will be college students ages 17-22 at three different educational institutions. The purpose of the cross-sectional study will be to survey the study habits of college students and the effect of those study habits on student's grades. Students will be asked to identify themselves on the questionnaire in terms of their age, gender, ethnicity, college major, whether they are the first member of their family to attend college full-time and their GPA. They will then be surveyed upon a variety of study habits, such as what time of day they study, where, how frequently, if they study alone or in a group, if they study with music playing and for how long.
All of the categories will be narrowed down in the final statistical analysis, for ease and clarity (such as noting if their major is in the humanities, social sciences, or natural sciences). GPAs…
Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Pragmatic Linguistic Awareness Motivation
Research Study Outline on Pragmalinguistic Awareness
A helpful one-line summary of the research study, indicating the topic area and including all the key concepts to be studied.
Takahashi tested eighty Japanese students with a noticing-the-gap activity after administering a motivation questionnaire and an L2 proficiency test, finding that pragmalinguistic awareness was correlated with motivation subscales, but not with proficiency.
Link to previous research: What the author (SATOMI TAKAHASHI) had done on this topic area and what he had found; unanswered questions that your research study plans to answer.
The role of attention in pragmalinguistics was introduced in Schmidt's Noticing Hypothesis, which claimed that learners have to notice L2 features in the input for subsequent development to occur in the L2. (Schmidt, 1990). Schmidt argues that noticing is central to SLA, and learners must first notice the surface structures of utterances inthe input to acquire virtually every…
It also requires conscious effort at objective because of the inherent of the method applied. Sampling plans narrows its frame to that particular sample, this to shows the group of people who are participating in the study. It samples can be selected through probability and non-probability (Mack & Woodsong, 2005).
In most cases research design is used in the education sector and it takes different meaning depending with how it's applied. it's normally used interchangeable with the term research method. However, according to Berliner (2002) research design should reflect the whole process of research, starting from the conceptualizing main problem to the question of the research, methods and the conclusion. Identifying a study's research design is important because it communicates information about key features of the study, which can differ for qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods. However, one common feature across research designs is that at one or…
Berliner, D. (2002). Educational research: The hardest science of all. Educational Researcher, 31(8), 18 -- 20.
Harwell M, (2000). Research Design in Qualitative/Quantitative/MixedMethods
Morgan B, (2008). PTC 604 - Communication Theory and Research
Fritz K, (2008). Ethical Issues in Qualitative Research MPH Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Department of International Health
gender discrepancies in regards to African-American education. There has been a noticeable, growing increase of the presence of African-American women in undergraduate and graduate education while the gap between African-American males and females has widened. The dissertation will use a mixed methods, grounded theory perspective to determine why this is the case. The overall theoretical perspective of the work will be rooted in critical race theory and poststructuralist concepts.
Quantitatively assessed questionnaires and coded qualitative interviews will attempt to answer the question of why African-American male participation in higher education lags behind that of African-American females. These trends will be contextualized in the overall, larger trend of increased female participation as a whole on the undergraduate and graduate levels, to the point that women are now graduating in greater numbers than their male colleagues.
As well as research questions specific to the dissertation, the relative merits of qualitative and quantitative…
Charmaz, Kathy. (2003). Grounded theory. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. Sage. Retrieved from:
The gender gap. (2012). Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Retrieved from:
The problem being researched or evaluated
The presenting problems are inattentive and non-cooperative behavior in two special education students during classroom instruction. The teacher needs to get the attention of the students and get them to sit in their seats in order to engage them in instruction. The teacher will need to determine how to reward the students for attending and engaging in the lessons being presented to them.
• The design label and overview of what the design might look like (example, if I use mixed-methods, is it sequential or concurrent? If a program evaluation, what kind?)
The research design will be action research in order to engage the practitioners in an evaluative endeavor that will encompass their behavioral and academic instruction with the students.
• ationale for the design based on the problem
The action research design will need to be designed to provide answers to…
Guskey, T. (2000). Evaluating professional development. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
Sagor, R (2003). How to conduct collaborative action research. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Trochim (2006) states that a quasi-experimental design is one that looks a bit like an experimental design but lacks the key ingredient -- random assignment. He notes that his mentor [Don Campbell] used to refer to quasi-experiments as "queasy" (2006) experiments because they give the experimental purists a queasy feeling.
With respect to internal validity, they often appear to be inferior to randomized experiments. But there is something compelling about these designs; taken as a group, they are easily more frequently implemented than their randomized cousins (Trochim 2006).
The most important part of both experimental and quasi-experimental research is the measure of the dependent variable, which it allows for comparison. Some types of data are very straightforward, but there are other measures, but there are other types of data that are completely subjective. In cases where the data is highly subjective, the quasi-experiment will have to have various strategies to…
Trochim, William K. & Donnelly, James P. (2006). The research methods knowledge base. Thomson Custom Publishing.
Experimental esearch Methods in Business
Experimental esearch Methods
The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.
The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…
Campbell, A. (2004). A quick guide to research methods, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 25(3), 163-165.
Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Demarco, T., Hruschka, P., Lister, T., Robertson, S., Robertson, J., and McMenamin, S. (2008). Adrenaline junkies and template zombies: Understanding patterns of project behavior. New York, NY: Dorset House Publishing Co., Inc.
Elliott F.F. (1929, October). Experimental method in economic research, Journal of Farm Economics, 11 (4) 594-596. [Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association]. Retrieved http://www.jstor.org/stable/1229899
Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:
(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?
(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;
(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)
ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:
(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…
Bryman, Alan (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How Is It Done? Qualitative Research 2006. SAGE Publications, London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi Vol. 6(1). Online available at: http://www.socsci.uci.edu/ssarc/pcs/webdocs/W-Readings/IntegratingQualandQuant.pdf
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel and Way, Niobe (2008) Mixing Qualitative and Quanitative Research in Development Science: Uses and Methodological Choices. Developmental Psychology 2008. Vol. 44 No. 3. Online available at: http://prod.baruch.cuny.edu/facultyhandbook/documents/YoshikawaWeisnerKalilWay2008DP.pdf
Niglas, Katrin (2004) The Combined Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Educational Research. Tallinn Pedagogical University. Online available at: http://www.tlulib.ee/files/arts/95/nigla32417030233e06e8e5d471ec0aaa32e9.pdf
Weinreich, Nedra Kline (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Social Marketing Research. Weinreich Communications 2006. Online available at: http://www.social-marketing.com/research.html
According to prior research studies, plagiarism is not just appearing in the academic environment. Now, plagiarism is being seen in corporate America as a way to "adjust" information that might otherwise seem unfavorable to stakeholders, higher-ups, or others who will be provided information regarding something to do with the company. Financial issues are often a part of the plagiarism issue, but there are other concerns that are not related to the company's finances. No matter what concerns a corporation has, it should be honest about those concerns and not attempt to cover them up with dishonesty of any kind. There are other dishonest practices other than plagiarism that are used in corporations today, but plagiarism is one of the more common problems that is discovered. It appears to be acceptable until it is discovered, and it is important that the researcher examines just how much plagiarism is permeating…
Aguilera, R., & Vadera, A. (2008). The dark side of authority: Antecedents, mechanisms, and outcomes of organizational corruption. Journal of Business Ethics, 77, 431-449.
Bailey, J. (2008, January). Whistleblowing: An international perspective. Internal Auditing, 23, 20-25.
Dewey, J. (1963). Experience and education. New York, NY: Collier Books.
Haggerty, J., & McKinnon, J. (2004, September 24). Fannie Mae ousters might come. Wall Street Journal, p. A12.
Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research
Research is imperative to quality analysis and development of theories. In any science, no matter if it is a physical, psychological, or sociological, research is integral to formulation of working theories. ithout research, not only can problems not be solved but problems cannot even be properly determined. Having said that, it is important to understand that there are many different types of research methodology. Not all forms of research, and thus the data that they collect, are created equal. Some methods of research are far superior to others and the findings of researchers more influential and verifiable than research conducted in other methods. In The Research Methods Knowledge Base, authors Trochim and Donnelly (2008) discuss the importance of research and also explain the difference between types of research that can be conducted. Two types of research that they explore are experimental and quasi-experimental and in so…
Trochim, W & Donnelly, J. (2008). The Research Methods Knowledge Base. (3rd ed.) Mason,
attainment of a desired research goal is to develop a scientific approach toward the situation, event, occurrence, or phenomenon being investigated. As such no research question can be answered by way of gathering and analyzing data if first investigative issue is not stated in testable terms or form. Once a research investigator has established and properly formatted the specific research design to be used to investigate and test a desired phenomenon attention can be given to the required method of data collection. On the basis of the method chosen the researcher will be permitted to draw the necessary conclusions from the data statistically analyzed. Should a research investigator not choose the best-fit method of data collection then any inferences drawn from the data analysis are subject to a tremendous amount of error and inaccuracy. In order to avoid data error and inaccuracy the research investigator must give particular attention to…
Furguson, George A. (1966). Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education. New York:
Kerlinger, Fred (1964). Foundations of Behavioral Research. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.
Ohlson, E.L. (1998). Best-Fit Statistical Practices. Chicago: ACTS Testing Labs.
It is helpful for oth the author and the readers. The literature review must identify works that have een pulished on the topic in case y accredited scholars and researchers (Taylor, 2010). Usually, the literature review is an introduction to the research project.
The purpose of the literature review consists in introducing the readers into the knowledge and ideas referring to the selected topic for the research project in case, and to help the readers adjust to the research topic. Also, a good literature review should not only list these issues, ut also identify and explain their strengths and weaknesses in order for the readers to e ale to develop a more clear idea on the researched topic.
As mentioned aove, conducing the literature review also helps the author of the research report to develop new directions that the research process can follow. This helps the author to develop more…
bibliography is more of a summary, focusing on presenting bibliographic information referring to each source used in the research project. Also, each source is briefly described, in order to provide the readers information on the issues they can find when accessing that source.
1. Sridhar, M.S. (2008). Research Methodology. ISRO Satellite Center. Retrieved March 4, 2010 from http://www.scribd.com/doc/1016595/Research-Methodology-Part-3-Research-Design-Plan .
2. Taylor, D. (2010). The Literature Review: A few Tips on Conducing it. University of Toronto. Retrieved March 4, 2010 from http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/specific-types-of-writing/literature-review .
Criminal Justice Research Review
Ricciardelli, R., Bell, J., & Clow, K. (2009). Student attitudes toward wrongful conviction, Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice, 51(3), 411-427.
There has been considerable research addressing the underlying factors regarding wrongful conviction; however, minimal research has been completed that investigates attitudes toward wrongful conviction. First and third year Canadian undergraduate students in criminal and non-criminal justice majors were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward various facets of wrongful conviction, the need to educate criminal justice personnel regarding contributing factors to wrongful conviction, the Blackstone ratio ("better that ten guilty persons escape than that one innocent suffer), and the question as to whether wrongful conviction causes individuals to lose faith in the criminal justice system.
The problem was sufficiently narrowed down into a researchable problem, and is certainly formidable enough to warrant formal research efforts. The authors complete a significant comparison to the most…
Hickle, K., & Roe-Sepowitz, D. (2010). Female juvenile arsonists: An exploratory look at characteristics and solo and group arson offences, Legal and Criminological Psychology, 15, 385-399.
The purpose of the study was to examine a sample of 114 female juveniles charged with arson in a large juvenile justice system, as there is limited descriptive literature about female juvenile arsonists. The methodology included looking into familial characteristics, abuse, neglect, school related issues, mental health, substance abuse, and crime characteristics. Individual and group offenders were explored in depth, and were followed over a five-year period of time.
The literature review was very detailed and provided comparative as well as empirical information that highlighted the current gap that this study was designed to address. T test and chi square tests were used to establish whether the 86 that were excluded from the study demonstrated any significant differences than those who participated in the study. The 114 females included represented 22 counties in the state of Florida. The supervision Risk Classification Instrument was completed by juvenile probation officers within 6 hours of custody. This is a standard tool used for all juvenile offenders. It was difficult to discern from the study whether or not the participants assented to participation in the study, or whether it was required. The study did indicate that permission for the study was granted by the Florida Juvenile Justice Review board. The research design is appropriate to address the research problem; and issues of internal and external validity are adequately addressed. Data collection instruments are adequately described and the statistical tests are correct for answering the questions posited by the hypothesis.
When conducting a research study, the researcher needs to pay particular attention to the reliability and validity of his or her research instruments. These concepts form the basis of the academic acceptability and even excellence in a study. Hence, any researcher should be concerned with maximizing especially the validity of his or her work. In addition to internal consistency, various forms of validity can be identified, including face validity, content validity, criterion validity, and construct validity. All these validity forms form an important component of ensuring the strength of a research project.
Internal consistency refers to the homogeneity of a measure. When a questionnaire is offered to sports apparel customers in one of the countries (United States or Kenya) represented in the study, for example, it should be ensured that all the questions would produce valid scores for specific populations. This can be done by comparing half the items…
sound technologies and sound design in Film
Sound in films
Experiments in Early Age
Commercialization of sound cinema: U.S., Europe, and Japan
Unified sound in film production
Sound designers in Cinematography
Sound Recording Technologies
History of Sound Recording Technology
Film sound technology
Modern Digital Technology
History of sound in films
Sound Recording Technologies
The film industry is a significant beneficiary of performing arts. The liberal arts combined with latest techniques and advancements experienced a number of stages. The introduction of films and sound in films was a significant development of its times. The introduction of first film along with sound was a unique event and it revolutionized the industry in such a way that it influenced every individual related to the industry to start thinking on creative and innovative grounds for improvements. The stages of films can be identified as silent films…
Alten, SR 2008, Audio In Media, Thomson Wadsworth, USA.
Altman, R 2004, Silent Film Sound, Columbia University Press, USA.
Ballou, G 2008, Handbook for sound engineers, Focal Press, USA.
Beck, J & Grajeda, T 2008, Lowering the boom: critical studies in film sound, University of Illinois Press.
Loans Envisioned Research Methodology
Association Loans: Association Loans Envisioned Research Methodology
Association Loans: Envisioned Research Methodology
Envisioned research Methodology and Design
Descriptive Research Methods
Research Designs Considered
Explanatory Sequential Design
Exploratory Sequential Design
The Embedded Design
Research Validity and Reliability
Strengths and weaknesses
Method of Data Collection
Primary Data Collection
Secondary Data Collection
Justifying Choice and Alternative methods/designs
The loan associations work on different grounds as compared with commercial bank loans. The commercial and saving bank loans and financing options are usually provided by the financial service providers are more focused to provide funds for business venture. The loan's security is also devised based on credit cards, business performance, and the likelihood of growth potential. However, the loan associations and building loans are more concerned about promoting land and building ownerships.…
Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2007). Business research methods. USA: Oxford University Press.
Caprio Jr., G., & Vittas, D. (Eds.). (2007). Reforming financial systems: historical implications for policy. USA: Cambridge University Press.
Creswell, J. W & Clark, V.L.P (2010). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. USA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Dexter, S. (2009). A treatise on co-operative savings and loan associations. USA: BiblioLife, L.L.C.
This research was permitted by the Human ights Committee, the institutional assessment board of the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh. There was conduction of a chart evaluation of three thousand a seven health administration visits to the Children's Hospital during a constant three-month period, from December 1, 2001, to February 28, 2002. The Patient visits were not included when the child's age was less than three months or when the visit was afterward recognized as a follow-up. If the patient had more than one health supervision visit during the selected period of study, his second visit was not included in the analysis. Four hundred and ninety two visits were not included on the foundation of these criteria .this left 2515 visits that were used for analysis.
As one goes through the essay, he will totally be perplexed by it. Presented in clear, simple and grammatically correct English, it should be…
Barlow SE, Dietz WH (1998). Obesity evaluation and treatment: expert committee recommendations. Pediatrics.1998; 102(3) . Available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/102/3/e29
Houser, J (2007)Nursing Research Reading, Using, and Creating Evidence
Medical Dictionary (2009) 'Sampling Bias' Retrieved on September 23, 2009
Marcellus, L (2004) Are We Missing Anything? Pursuing Research on Attrition .
In this project, two research study questions are outlined. This paper answers these questions in detail. The first part of the paper touches on quantitative approach in research and focuses on the first question. Here the paper highlights on the reasons for the approach selected highlighting on variables in the study. In the second part of the paper, qualitative approach is discussed as the appropriate choice as an answer to the second question. Here also, the approach is justified as a preferred choice.
Quantitative research is the best suited design and serves the purpose of this study. The study is aimed at determining the level of weight loss for patients in a primary care clinic who are using marketed natural supplements. The study involves a systematic empirical inquiry of the weight of these patients through a statistical method; their weight is assessed at 3, 6 and…
Mixed Methods Research
Two important aspects of qualitative research relates to the role of the researcher and the manner in which knowledge is viewed. These two aspects fundamentally distinguish qualitative research from quantitative research (Creswell, 2014). In qualitative research, the researcher seeks to cultivate a closer relationship with the subject(s). This means that the researcher focuses on a single or a small number of subjects, and utilises designs that allow closer interaction with the subjects such as in-depth interviews, observations, and focus group discussions. Cultivating a closer relationship with the subjects is informed by the need to gain a deeper understanding of the research phenomenon (Denscombe, 2010). This arises from the assertion that knowledge is subjective (Bryman, 2008). In other words, different individuals tend to have different meanings and worldviews about a given phenomenon. The role of the researcher, therefore, is to understand the unique interpretation a subject holds about…
sevice (Huse, Evangelho 2007). What is needed is moe concentation fist on the objectives of the study in light of the planes' poposed econfiguations' inceasing full sevice elative to low cost. Once that hypothesis in conjunction with a picing analysis of how much those loyal business leade taveles on the ailine today ae willing to pay, then a moe accuate eseach design can be developed.
Following a claification of the eseach design and hypothesis, the eseach team needs to also conside attitudinal and psychogaphic eseach in addition to puely looking at the economics of picing as it elates to poviding geate sevices on thei jets in the fom of meeting aeas. Specifically looking at what business leades conside to be exceptional sevice offeings elative to thei baseline levels of expectations is citical to see if the inclusion of tables is even in thei set of pefeences o minimum expectations (Enquist,…
references (Ping, 2004). Unfortunately the questionnaire quickly grew to include many objectives, growing to several pages, which will inevitably introduce respondent fatigue and either a social desirability bias of merely responding quickly to appear done or giving up on the questionnaire and leaving it behind in the jet. Incenting the flight attendants to gain as many responses is possible introduces sampling bias and
Problems in Correlational Research Design
In an attempt to determine how school children develop an interest in science -- more specifically, what factors might work to influence scientific interest in children -- a group of researchers has created and validated a measure of actual scientific interest. Equipped with this means of measuring their dependent variable, the researchers must now go about the task of determining what independent variables should be included in their model, thus answering their central research question. To this end, their plan is to use a variety of instruments to measure as many variables as possible as quickly as they possibly can, with the assumption that each additional variable they measure increases the probability that they will find variables that indeed have an influence on scientific interest. Their reasoning and the research that would result from it are flawed in many ways, and significant improvements…