Omega-3 Fat Intake and Athlete's Health
How helpful is it for athletes to take omega-3 fatty acids? What are the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids and what are the possible negative impacts? This paper will review and critique those issues, utilizing the available literature including original research articles. According to the New York Times-owned About.com website, the health benefits for anyone taking omega-3 -- including athletes -- include first of all "heart health." Taking omega-3 is a way of reducing cholesterol levels, lowering blood pressure, and reducing the risk of heart attacks (Wong, 2013). For the athlete engaged in a strenuous workout or competitive activity, omega-3 can -- among other benefits -- "…reduce morning stiffness and reduce swollen joints" (Wong).
The Literature on Omega-3
Meanwhile, looking deeper into the subject of athletes and omega-3, an article in Athletics Weekly points out that among of the best-known benefits of taking omega-3 is that it can prevent damage to the muscles, which of course is extremely important to active athletes. Also, omega-3 is known to reduce soft-tissue injuries (Lorimer, et al., 2013). When Lorimer discusses muscle damage he is referring to the painful muscle condition following a vigorous, challenging marathon or other activity that can take a toll on muscles (like running up and down steps in a stadium or going full steam up a very steep mountain).
What actually happens to the muscles following strenuous and taxing workouts and competition, Lorimer continues, is that the protein structures become somewhat degraded in the soft tissue. And it takes quite a bit of time for the body to return to normal healthy condition. Perhaps up to four days are needed in some cases for full recovery. In that time, the pain doesn't naturally disappear, but some athletes take common pain killers (that can be purchased over the counter), which is a typical misconception because Lorimer asserts that those pain killers are only "masking" the pain. The reason that taking pain killers -- or alternatively, using icing, taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or amino-acid supplements -- is not a good idea, according to Lorimer, a sports scientist, is that masking the pain only...
The researchers conducted a test using "…dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation" on the "levels of oxidative stress, muscle damage, and inflammatory markets" after a serious workout by young athletes (the workout involved "acute resistance exercise") (Atashak, et al., 2013). The research involved using twenty young athletes and ten of those received three doses of omega-3 a day (3000 mg) for seven days; and ten were given a placebo for seven days.
Neither group of ten knew which dose they were taking. All twenty were then put through what Atashak refers to as "high intensity acute resistance" workouts. A week before this research all twenty were given blood tests; and then Venous blood samples were collected immediately before each exercise and 24 hours after each exercise (Atashak, 22). The researchers were testing for Malondiadehyde (MDA), plasma total antioxidant capacity (FRAP), C-reactive protein (CRP), and CK concentrations. After the collecting of blood samples and the analysis, the results revealed that vigorous, high-intensity "resistance exercise induces oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and cellular damage indices in athletes" (Atashak, 22). However, given omega-3 fatty acid supplements "…may ameliorate these effects" (Atashak, 22).
The researchers went out of their way to make sure all twenty of these participants were doing the same thing and eating the same meals. In fact, all the participants completed a "…validated food intake questionnaire" and all twenty kept a strict record of food they ate on a 24-hour basis. The idea was to keep both groups on the same diet, and all reported that they had indeed adhered to the protocol (Atashak, 23). One part of the program stood out as significant, Atashak continues (23): the C-reactive protein was increased by significant degrees 24 hours after the resistance workout in the group taking the placebo, but not for the omega-3 group (24). What does this signify vis-a-vis the outcome of the study? It points out that omega-3 supplements can…
Concussion Management and the NCAA Litigation Case -- Concussion Management The case of Adrian Arrington, Derek Owens, Mark Turner and Angela Palacios v. National Collegiate Athletic Association arose from the consolidation of a On September 12, 2011, a class action filed against the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), Adrian Arrington v. NCAA, on September 12, 2011, and a second lawsuit, Derek Owens et al. v. NCAA. The complaints allege that the NCAA
Sports Injuries - Concussions What is a Concussion? The Latin word concutere -- the source for the English word concussion -- means, literally, "to shake violently," according to Dr. Robert Cantu, Chief Clinical Professor of Neurosurgery and co-director of Boston University's Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy. In his book, Concussions and Our Kids: America's Leading Expert on How to Protect Young Athletes and Keep Sports Safe, Cantu reports that nearly
productions absolutely change the way that the author of this response looks at the league. The league and its leaders (which would obviously include Tagliabue and Goodell) certainly knew about the dangers of football including the risks of things like concussions, dementia (including early-onset dementia) and CTE. That being said, to completely lay this at the feet of the NFL is less than fair. Anyone with an active brain
Concussion The complex issue of providing adequate care and preventative testing to a population that is increasingly unable to afford the rising expenses associated with such care remains a substantial problem in the United States, and directly impacts care provided for cases of head traumas in rural areas. The Canadian CT Head Rule (CCHR) and the New Orleans Criteria (NOC) are two clinical decision making methods for determining when the expense
Gender on Concussion Reporting in Division 1 College Athletics Joesaar, H., Hein, V., & Hagger, M.S. (2011). Peer influence on young athletes' need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and persistence in sport: A 12-month prospective study. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12(5), 500-508. Prior research has demonstrated that teens play a critical role in helping establish the motivational atmosphere of their sports teams. Motivational environments with supportive peers have a greater association with
234). Culturally, trainers may simply be paying more attention to girls' injuries due to our culture's tendency to protect females more than males (Tierney, et al., 2005, p. 278) and/or boys may simply under-report concussions due to "macho" tendencies to play through pain in order to continue playing (Covassin, et al., 2012, p. 926). Hormones may contribute to the greater incidence of concussions among female high school athletes because