The ancient philosopher Plato claimed that all immoral behavior was the result of some disorder in the soul (Gert and Culver, 2009, p. 489). Although very few people now hold this view, deviant sexual behavior is often considered symptomatic of a mental disorder. However, not all deviant behaviors fit the clinical definition. For example, if a heterosexual man becomes aroused by dressing in women's clothing, it is considered by most people to be abnormal behavior. However, his behavior may be ego-syntonic, meaning that the man is not troubled by either the impulses or by acting them out. Such an individual would not seek treatment. He is not a danger to himself or to anyone else and unless there were objections on the part of his wife or significant other, there is no compelling reason, in the man's mind, to manage his impulses or behavior. As Bhugra and McMullen (2010, p. 245) point out, dressing in women's clothing may not be considered an illness unless and until it results in criminal behavior (e.g., stealing women's clothing that then leads to an arrest.) The mere act of dressing in women's clothing is not a crime and there is no victim. Pedophilia, on the other hand, is a mental disorder by the same definition. For the perpetrator, it causes "clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning" (Gert and Culver, p. 488). For the young victim, the behavior can be devastating, with lifelong consequences.
Throughout history, there has been a range of perceptions in different cultures as to what constitutes sexual deviance, including degree of consent, location of the sexual behavior, the age of the individuals involved, whether or not any harm or distress occurs, the frequency of the practice, and the degree of distaste felt by others about the particular sexual behavior (Hensley and Tewksbury, 2003, cited in Gordon, 2008, p. 79).
Pedophilia is a clinical diagnosis usually made by a psychologist or psychiatrist (Hall and Hall, 2007, p. 457). "Pedophilia" is neither a criminal or legal term; "forcible...
According to the FBI's National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), forcible sexual offenses are those directed against another individual forcibly and/or against that person's will, or not forcibly or not against the person's will when that person is incapable of giving consent. The diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, defines a pedophile as one who fantasizes about, is sexually aroused by, or experiences sexual urges toward prepubescent children (under the age of 13) for a period of at least six months. Generally, these individuals are at least sixteen years of age and at least five years older than the object(s) of their fantasies.
There has long been debate about whether sexual deviancy, including pedophilia, is a mental condition that might be considered an impulse control disorder or whether it is a learned behavior that has its roots in other factors. Sexual practices are linked with kinship patterns and power structures within a society and influenced by such factors as age, social status, religious practice and educational status (Bhugra and McMullen, 2010, p. 246).
Individuals who were themselves offended as youngsters are at higher risk of becoming pedophiles. Alcohol and drug abuse can exacerbate these tendencies, although individuals who commit offenses against juveniles while intoxicated are not considered pedophiles according to legal and clinical definitions if the offense was not one the individual would normally commit, or even fantasize about, while sober. (Hall and Hall, 2007, p. 457). It is a fine distinction. Individuals with poor social skills, perhaps falling somewhere on the autism spectrum, can also be at risk for desiring sexual contact with children.
Treatment of the paraphilias began in the late nineteenth century, around the time sexual deviance was first thought of as a medical condition. The initial treatment approach was surgical castration (Gordon, 2008, p. 81). Modern treatments use counseling, medication or both. Marshall and Marshall (2006, p. 163) are critical of the "one-size-fits all" treatment programs that are guided by "excessively detailed treatment manuals… research-funding agencies and by the administrators of institutional services that provide treatment in several settings." A number of recent…
The documents we provide are to be used as a sample, template, outline, guideline in helping you write your own paper, not to be used for academic credit. All users must abide by our "Student Honor Code" or you will be restricted access to our website.
Additionally, Aristotle furthered the field of educational philosophy by creating subjects and a logical inquiry process, insisting that education be moral or ethical, and defining it as intertwined with politics to such a great extent that the best and most necessary education is a state-sponsored education (Chambliss 2008). Influence Toward My Educational Philosophy: Practically, Aristotle's creation of subjects and his primitive research, which set the foundation for further research, influenced my
In addition to this, the epistemic area of concern dealing with how knowledge is formed will be another arena to explore. By understanding this area, I will be better able to determine how certain groups were able to portray stereotypes as knowledge. In addition, I will be able to explore whether the process of forming knowledge is different for members of different cultures and groups, which might explain how
Even with the fact that he is well aware of the futility of his struggle; the essay's protagonist does not give in and constantly stresses the importance of his mission. Sisyphus should nonetheless be considered to be happy, as Camus describes, considering that the character accepts his fate and proceeds to perform his pointless task. Camus' essay demonstrates how the much hated absurdness of life can become less malicious when
Philosophers of Ancient Greece Ancient Greece offers a plethora of great thinkers all of whom contributed greatly to understanding the mysteries of natural and unnatural phenomena. From the Pre-Socratic era to the Classical Age of thought, we come across various schools that painstakingly define the workings of the mind, soul, matter and the whole universe. This paper aims to outline the philosophical beliefs of the spearheads of Greek thought and compare
Philosophers and Fingerprints Gandhi and Fingerprinting Today's environment has a lot more security measures that seem to border the notion of a police state. With the threat of terrorism constantly looming over the American public, there have been a lot more allowances in security measures. This, however, would be seen as a violation of rights and privacy by many philosophers, including Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi was a powerful force in the fight against oppression
Still he explored the possibility of imagination and unusual experience but he knew his theory limited his results. Hegel and Marx Both Hegel and Marx dwelled on the concept of historical development. They each have a different understanding of how these laws work with respect to history's role. Marx focused on the past and present history as it relates to society. He focused on class struggles throughout history. He believed out