2008). Indeed better screening is necessary due to the number of false-negatives from women with precancerous lesions among the most frequent reasons of medical malpractice in the United States (Steben, M. et al. 2007). If given the right external factors to its own viral integration into the host's DNA than continuous HPV infection may lead to precancerous lesions and cervical cancer itself. With a number of genetic, molecular, and protein markers being elucidated, tailoring both the treatment and screening processes can bring down overall cervical cancer mortality worldwide.
In the case of having a tissue sample to be tested, early stage cervical cancer can be differentiated from healthy cervical tissue by gene expression profile due to comparisons done with healthy and lymph node metastatic tissues which found certain genes upregulated and down regulated (Biewenga, P. et al. 2008). Early stage cervical cancers can be cured by radical surgery or radiotherapy with similar effectiveness (Biewenga, P. et al. 2008). Overall the treatment options for cervical cancer are based on whatever the outcome of clinical staging is and include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and/or chemoradiotherapy (Ellenson, L.H. & Wu, T.C. 2004). More sophisticated methods such as the use of MR imaging before, during and after radiation therapy is providing accuracy in the main evaluation of prognostic factors and staging (Engin, G. 2006).
Currently there is an HPV vaccine for women that have been shown to be 100% effective against HPV types 16 and 18, preventing subsequent development of CIN (Steller, M.A. 2003). This vaccine is the direct result of over two decades of research and ongoing trials to find a male equivalent vaccine are underway utilizing a number of species. Papillomavirus infections, however, are species restricted and do not infect of induce changes in the morphology of animal tissues, thus requiring the use of species specific HPV which is hard to equate to humans due to no cervico-vaginal challenge or natural sexual transmission (Schiller, J.T., & Lowy, D.R. 2006). Because of these issues it is difficult to evaluate potential benefits or efficacy.
Ultimately, cervical cancer requires HPV infection but once infection occurs the virus requires other factors such as its host's genetics, immunity, as well as environmental factors such as nutrition, hormonal supplementation like ...
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If given the right external factors to its own viral integration into the host's DNA than continuous HPV infection may lead to precancerous lesions and cervical cancer itself. With a number of genetic, molecular, and protein markers being elucidated, tailoring both the treatment and screening processes can bring down overall cervical cancer mortality worldwide.
Cervical Cancer Case Study and Care Plan Cervical Cancer The following represents an outline for a plan of care, including information intended to educate the patient about what she can expect given her recent diagnosis of cervical cancer at the age of 45. The good news is that a cervical cancer diagnosis is no longer a death sentence. Cervical cancer in women is common and afflicts close to 530,000 women worldwide each year
The ACS seems to contain a relatively balanced and unbiased approach, not categorically endorsing any treatment, for every patient, with every type of cancer. Its list of references, provided by a link on the site, contains numerous outside scholarly journals, as well as individuals associated with the ACS. It also provides helpful guidelines for talking to a patient's doctor about therapies to support conventional treatments, underlining the fact that
If the cancer is confined to this area, that may be the only treatment required. However, if the cancer has spread, there may be additional surgery necessary to remove the organs where it has spread. There may also be chemotherapy or radiation treatments necessary if the cancer has spread. With stage I or II cancers, the overall prognosis for survival is very good. The prognosis of stage III or
Cervical Cancer What it is Cervical cancer is cancer of the cervix. Cancer begins when a body's cells start growing and multiplying out of control. Any cells within a body can become cancerous with potential to spread to other parts of the body. Originating in the lining of the cervix or the womb, another name for this area is the uterine cervix. It connects the uterus to the vagina. Most occurrences of
Cervical Cancer Vaccine Cervical cancer will usually transpire when abnormal cell found within cervix grow out of control. However, when cervical is identified in its early stages it can be successfully treated. Through the help of Pap test this cervical cancer can be identified. Majority of cervical cancer tend to be caused by virus known as human papillomavirus (HPV). An individual can easily get HPV when they have sexual contact
Women's Health Promotion: Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is a serious women's health issue. While many women go to their doctor yearly for testing in order to detect cancer and other problems early, many other women ignore this important examination (Gadducci, et al., 2011; Harper, 2004). Additionally, women who have symptoms of cervical cancer often avoid seeing their doctor. They may not have health insurance, they may be frightened, or they may