Pedagogy and Andragogy
In general, pedagogy and andragogy are both forms of learning and education. However, based from the origin of the two terms, pedagogy and andragogy differs in the field of study that each covers. As it was defined and considered by some philosophers, pedagogy and andragogy differs in terms of the age of the learners and in terms of the methods of learning and teaching required.
According to Knowles, as indicated by Holmes and Abington-Cooper in their Pedagogy vs. Andragogy, the term pedagogy is defined as the art and science of teaching children"
The pedagogical model characterizes learning as a systematic transfer of knowledge and skills (Holmes & Abington-Cooper) that involves lectures, readings, examinations, memorization, etc. The assumption on this model was based on the scientific study that the monks of the 7th to 12th century had made on the reactions of children in their learning process. The pedagogical model is considered a form of dependent learning in which the learners rely on what the teacher instructs. Hence, it is sometimes called as a teacher-directed-learning.
On the other hand, the term andragogy, as defined by Knowles (Holmes & Abington-Cooper), was...
Compared to pedagogy that only depends on learning from what is being taught, andragogy is a learning process that is comprised of an integration of the presented information and the learner's personality, experience, and own concept of what is being taught.
The definitions of pedagogy and andragogy, however, presented issues to other critics and philosophers. Among those who contradict Knowles's concept of pedagogy and andragogy are Houle, London, and Elias (Holmes & Abington-Cooper). According to Houle (Holmes & Abington-Cooper), learning and education should be viewed as a single process in both children and adults. Others on the other hand suggest that pedagogy and andragogy are terms that have confused the process of learning, in which pedagogy should simply mean as a teacher-directed-learning while andragogy is a self-directed learning. Rachel (Holmes & Abington-Cooper) suggests that these simple definitions of pedagogy and andragogy can actually complement each other and must not be set exclusive to children's learning or adult's learning. Holmes & Abington-Cooper indicate this in the following.
The teacher-directed approach would still require the instructor to follow a free exchange of ideas and to allow students to pursue personal interests (through papers, projects, or presentations)…
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