person would learn from the material? Will the article help someone become more self-aware? This research would enable one to understand how a research article is put together and to draw insightful conclusions from it.
Identify the article, the author(s) and the date of publication, both in the body of the paper and in an attached Reference list, and the focus of the research
Annesi, James J., et al. "Effects of the coach approach intervention on adherence to exercise in obese women: assessing mediation of social cognitive theory factors." Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 82.1 (2011): 99+. Academic OneFile. Web. 11 Apr. 2011.
Describe the hypothesis of the study
The hypothesis for this study is that as obese individuals exercised, they were monitored to see if there was an improvement for "physical self-concept, exercise self-efficacy, total mood disturbance and body area satisfaction" (Annesi, 2011). One wanted to see if there is a correlation between exercise and participation with obese women in regards to "social cognitive theory" (Annesi, 2011). The longer one exercised the better one felt about themselves.
Describe how the study was conducted
Women were recruited by means of their local newspaper with the age range of 21-60. Each of the participants were put into a controlled and treatment group as well as provided opportunities to use the "YMCA wellness center" (Annesi, 2011). Each of them had a coach assigned to them, and they were monitored through having at least six sessions over a six-month period. This was an experiment to see if any improvement would occur during this timeframe.
In regards to how the data was analyzed is worth noting. With "exercise session attendance," staff kept track of this electronically by means of their computer system in order to see if there is a correlation. They looked at blood pressure, weight loss through waist circumference, resting heart rate as well as the percentage of body fat (Annesi, 2011). Furthermore, the "physical self-concept" was measured through using a scale. This consisted of fourteen items that were from one to five. With the internal consistency showing that it was .84 with the present sample. Additionally, another scale was used for self-efficacy. One can notice that a range from 1 to 7 was used as well as "test-retest reliability for at least two weeks, which was .90, and is dependable by having .77 with the sample in this study. However, mood was analyzed by means of studying depression, fatigue and so forth by using a scale of 0 to 4. The same measures used previously were used to analyze the results (Annesi, 2011). These were all filled out before and after a person exercised.
One needs to note how the six, one-hour meetings were done. "These one-on-one sessions included introductions to available exercise modalities, modification of exercise routines, and administration of The Coach Approach protocol" (Annesi, 2011). The person had the ability to choose which exercises' to do for that day. Adjustments were made based off the surveys presented to the participant.
This is how the data was analyzed from this study. They used a 95% confidence level with the statistics used, and the power level for the alpha was .80. "An independent t test was used to first assess differences in exercise session attendance percentage between the treatment and control group" (Annesi, 2011). Group membership was the independent variable, and the various scales that were used to measure self-efficacy and so forth were the dependent variables when examining the data.
The results from this research are important. With the treatment group, the mean was 49.27% and the standard deviation is 28.89, and was much greater compared to the control group because the average was 31.07%, sd=25.04. The descriptive statistics indicated that the f-value is 2.98, p=.02; however, the time was 18.36 because the p was less than .001 in regards to psychological factors. A difference is demonstrated by means of the "body area satisfaction" (Annesi, 2011). Additionally, mediators that had an indirect effect were in regards to the physical self, self-efficacy, mood and body area. This was 6.21. All of these impacted the attendance of exercise sessions. Finally, these mediators had effects. With the "Physical Self-Concept was significant (2.67; 95% CI = 0.28, 7.08)" (Annesi, 2011); however, with the "Exercise Self-Efficacy (1.58; 95% CI = -0.52, 5.66), (0.71; 95% CI =-1.61, 4.23), and Body Areas Satisfaction (1.25; 95% CI =-1.61, 5.31)" (Annesi, 2011).
The theory used in this article is worth noting. They used Albert Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory. This was used in regards to physical activity for this research. "Bandura related self-efficacy to an ability to cope with barriers and stressors," and said that one can overcome them through goal setting and experience (Annesi, 2011). Furthermore, through exercise, self-efficacy improves despite all the barriers that are present during that time. When an individual's concept of themselves improves, they are reassured of their abilities and are more positive than he or she was previously. According to Bandura, people tend to rely heavily on emotion when judging, but this is through behavioral theory, such as operant conditioning. This is done through rewards and punishment to influence behavior. All of these concepts have impacted psychology for the positive and persuade how the researchers did their work at the YMCA in order to understand ways in which to improve the lives of others through helping them to become healthy through this investigation.
The way the research was conducted was done quite well. However, limitations are worth noting. One has to consider using measures for those that have "cardiovascular disease, cancer and obesity" are recommended in order to add more confidence to the variables (Annesi, 2011). A way of studying further is by means of using "specific mechanisms" (Annesi, 2011). The treatments in order to improve the physical activity are to generalize behavior by means of restricting calories through this process (Annesi, 2011).
Three future research ideas were inspired by this article. One can use the self-efficacy scale and use coaching as a means of accountability but not the reinforcement aspect of it. This can make it more of a case study than an experiment. Since the ages of 20-61 were used, maybe one can consider having a larger sample size and advertise within the YMCA itself in order to gain participants. An individual can easily do this by means of having up flyers and brochures for anyone to look at or take, so that a decision is made on whether or not to participate.
Another elucidation is to use exercises and calorie count along with accountability to see if anyone feels better about themselves through this process. For example, the coach asks the person what kind of foods they are eating now, and what he or she recommends instead that is healthier. During each session, the person does not get a choice on what exercises to do because the goal is to have weight loss. When the person accomplishes this after each month of testing, then he or she can implement the mediators to find out how he or she is feeling at that time based off the results thus far. Upon the completion of the six-month study, the person is then able to decide if he or she wants to prolong it. If so, this would continue for another six months, which would provide more accurate results, but the data collected is through a mixed methods approach, so that everything is reliable and valid.
The last recommendation is that all people who are seeking to experience weight loss are encouraged to take part in this study that is members of the YMCA; however, they are allowed to have the free coaching sessions during this timeframe. The research would take place for six months, but in reality, this can…