Philosophical Ideals And Contributions To Term Paper

Length: 4 pages Subject: Black Studies - Philosophy Type: Term Paper Paper: #553742 Related Topics: Albert Camus, John Stuart Mill, Eastern Religion, Moral Relativism
Excerpt from Term Paper :

Identify the following ten terms or philosophers: (Be sure your answers contain details and sufficient information for college level work.) 1) Buddha 2) Freud 3) Plato 4) Relativism 5) Camus 6) Kierkegaard 7) What is your definition or morality? 8) Does God exist and intervene directly in our affairs? 9) What is the relationship between religion and reason? 10) What philosophical ideals are you developing as a result of your reading in this course?

1) Buddha

Buddha is a person who has achieved enlightenment (awakening) through nirvana (liberation). It is furthered by Buddhism, a popular eastern religion that stresses the importance of self-discovery through peace and understanding. The person Buddha is often associated with the historical founder of the Buddhist faith. The individual must liberate him or herself from the physical world in order to be awakened to its reality.

2) Freud

Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, a precursor to modern psychology. He began to focus the world on the idea that there is an internal self within a person's mind that can influence all outward actions and is influenced by all outward actions of others, but especially by early life, and the development or lack of development of specific goal oriented stages of being, that are universal to all. Freud was particularly interested in gender differences and believed that by unlocking the events of one's past through dream analysis and hypnosis one could realize and repair any current problems or issues. Freud divided the self into the ID, the Ego and the Superego and defined each area of ones mind by the desires that each furthered, the id being the child selfish self, the ego being the middle ground that wishes to have things occur for the betterment of self and those around him or her and the superego the controller of morality for the whole of the community.


He is known particularly for his furtherance of the philosophies of his teacher Socrates, a famous Greek philosopher who was tried by the Senate and put to death, regardless of the pleas of his friends to escape. Plato demonstrated his ideas through dialogues with Socrates and others, through the traditional idea of reason meeting between to logical minds discussing the right and wrong of any given situation.

4) Relativism

Is the branch of philosophy, furthered by many individuals, that stresses that every aspect of human life is dependant upon other aspects (or relative to them). The theory loosely states that individuals can only understand reality in the terms of the whole of the context of its occurrence.

5) Camus

Albert Camus was an absurdist furthering the idea that the human existence is dominated by dualism and that the majority of life is spent trying to reach happiness as apposed to the reality of death and disaster that is so much a part of the human existence.

6) Kierkegaard

Kierkegaard was also an existentialist who stressed the importance of self, and rejected religion, or at least its auspices, instead asking the individual to seek answers to difficult life qwuestions within him or herself.

7) What is your definition or morality?

Morality is the guide within the self that determines actions, according to the best intentions of the individual. The most ardent moralist would equate all decisions to how they will effect others, as apposed to self, but in truth morality must include the self as a determining factor to decisions.

8) Does God exist and intervene directly in our affairs?

God exists as an essence, rather than as an individual being. In each individual is a more amorphous representation of the essence of God.

9) What is the relationship between religion and reason?

Religion as an institution is dominated by challenges not of God, but of politics and human concerns, therefore reason can only play a limited role in Religion.

10) What philosophical ideals are you developing as a result of your reading in this course?

The ideals that I have gained from and am developing as a result of this course can be summed up in one idea, that human existence is complicated and requires extensive thought and consideration, but that…

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