Positive Effects Of Extracurricular Activity Research Proposal

Length: 17 pages Sources: 100 Subject: Teaching Type: Research Proposal Paper: #48354620 Related Topics: Sound Effects, Positive Psychology, Math, Assessment Activity
Excerpt from Research Proposal :



Objectives

During the proposed study's process, the researcher plans to fulfill the following objectives.

Objective 1: Address each of the proposed study's research questions during literature review:

Examine the effect athletic participation has on student GPAs;

Identify the effect athletic participation has on student DC CAS math scores;

Determine the effect athletic participation has on student DC CAS English Reading scores;

Explore the effect music participation has on student GPAs;

Investigate the effect music participation has on student DC CAS math scores;

Discover the effect music participation has on student DC CAS English Reading scores.

Objective 2:

Complete study with 150 tenth grade student participants in the first semester of school year 2008-2009.

Objective 3:

Analyze test results and compare with findings from literature reviewed.

One of the Best Investments

Despite current reported budget cuts and constraints in education, high school activity programs continue to constitute one of the best investments schools can make, as cost range from only one to three percent (less in a number of cases) of an overall school's budget. In vital extracurricular programs, including "sports, music, speech, drama, debate[,]... young people learn lifelong lessons as important as those taught in the classroom (the case for extracurricular...," 2008). As this researcher enters the next phase of the proposed study, the Literature Review chapter, the researched information will help the researcher, as well as the reader begin to see, feel and understand more about the inherent effects extracurricular activities possess.

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1: A Good Education's Challenges good education ought to help people to [sort] the pertinent from the irrelevant with an ever finer touch, increasingly able to integrate what...[the student sees]...." (Daloz, as cited in Columbia, 1996)

On Academic Achievement

Michelle Draper (2008) appears to agree with Daloz regarding what a good education ought to do.

In"Vic: Principals link mental health to academic achievement," Draper argues that academic performance directly links to students' mental health. "The study of more than 1,200 principals, including 270 in Australia, also found about one in five Australian students needed mental health support" (¶ 2). In addition to concerns regarding GPA, principals identified concerns that students regularly have to contend with that may adversely affect their mental health. These issues include, but may not be limited to harassment, bullying, family dysfunction and drug and alcohol issues, depression, anxiety, and depression, as some of the problems affecting students.

Self-Selection Factors and Adjustment

In "Participation in extracurricular activities in the middle school years: Are there developmental benefits for African-American and European-American youth?," Jennifer a. Fredricks, an associate professor in Human Development at Connecticut College, along with Jacquelynne Eccles (2008), the Wilbert McKeachie Collegiate Professor of Psychology, Women's Studies and Education, as well as a research scientist at the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, found some gender, race, and socioeconomic status variances in the relation between activity participation and adjustment. The sample participating in the study by Fredricks and Eccles (2008), a large and economically diverse sample of African-American and European-American youth, included "1,047 youth (51% female and 49% male and 67% African-American and 33% European-American)" (Abstract). Using a covariance techniques analysis, Fredricks and Eccles (2008) considered contemporary components relating to early adolescents' participation in organized activity and their ensuing adjustment. Fredricks and Eccles focused on connections between the adolescents' participation on school sports teams, in school clubs, and their engagement in out of school recreational activities, along with the participating youths' adjustment at 8th and 11th grade. During their study, Fredricks and Eccles (2008) controlled for a set of the adolescents' self-selection...

...

The adolescents' organized activity participation, Fredricks and Eccles (2008) found, correlated with higher than expected grades, school value (i.e. perception of importance of school for the future), self-esteem, resiliency, and prosocial peers, and lower than expected risky behaviour. (Fredricks & Eccles, 2008, Abstract)

The pattern of findings Fredricks and Eccles (2008) report, albeit, varied with context, activity time point and outcome.

During this chapter of the proposed study, the researcher presents a sampling of the myriad of information to be later accessed from credible sources. The four themes the researcher plans to explore with the particular study include:

Extracurricular Activities

Athletic Participation's Effect

Music Participation's Effect

GPA

2.2 Extracurricular Activities

Self-Selection Factors and Adjustment

In "Participation in extracurricular activities in the middle school years: Are there developmental benefits for African-American and European-American youth?," Jennifer a. Fredricks, an associate professor in Human Development at Connecticut College, along with Jacquelynne Eccles (2008), the Wilbert McKeachie Collegiate Professor of Psychology, Women's Studies and Education, as well as a research scientist at the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, found some gender, race, and socioeconomic status variances in the relation between activity participation and adjustment. The sample participating in the study by Fredricks and Eccles (2008), a large and economically diverse sample of African-American and European-American youth, included "1,047 youth (51% female and 49% male and 67% African-American and 33% European-American)" (Abstract). Using a covariance techniques analysis, Fredricks and Eccles (2008) considered contemporary components relating to early adolescents' participation in organized activity and their ensuing adjustment. Fredricks and Eccles focused on connections between the adolescents' participation on school sports teams, in school clubs, and their engagement in out of school recreational activities, along with the participating youths' adjustment at 8th and 11th grade. During their study, Fredricks and Eccles (2008) controlled for a set of the adolescents' self-selection factors, measured at 7th grade prior to the participants' activity involvement. The adolescents' organized activity participation, Fredricks and Eccles (2008) found, correlated with higher than expected grades, school value (i.e. perception of importance of school for the future), self-esteem, resiliency, and prosocial peers, and lower than expected risky behaviour. (Fredricks & Eccles, 2008, Abstract)

The pattern of findings Fredricks and Eccles (2008) report, albeit, varied with context, activity time point and outcome.

Support Stimulates Support

Robyn Muldoon (2008), the coordinator of the student learning support unit of the University of New England, Australia, reports in "Recognising and rewarding the contribution and personal development of peer supporters at university" that support stimulates support. According to the study by Muldoon: "Students who participate in peer support programmes as peer supporters or mentors develop valuable skills and attributes while involved in the support of others" (Abstract). Muldoon focuses on benefits students receive in terms of graduate attributes from participation in extra-curricular activities sponsored by the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA), along with the impact on students' perceptions of those gains the students obtain from acting as peer supporters.

Due to the small sample size, albeit, Muldoon (2008) asserts that the study's results may not be generalisable. The underlying perception of acknowledging and rewarding student development through acting as peer supporters, nevertheless is transferable. The NEA, according to Muldoon constitutes "a credible vehicle for institutional recognition of extra-curricular achievement" (Abstract). This type activity (NEA related) appears to serve as an effective means to enhance most graduate attributes, other desirable attitudes, and personal qualities.

Support students receive from their participation in extracurricular activities often stimulates the process of student's supporting others.

Organization Type, Race and Gender

In" Under-represented college students and extracurricular involvement: the effects of various student organizations on academic performance," Christina Baker (2008), a postdoctoral research associate with the Center for Research on Educational Opportunity at University of Notre Dame, contends that college students gain positive experiences from participating in extracurricular activities during their tenures. In fact, according to Baker, a number of studies purport that "students who are involved in extracurricular activities during college are more academically successful than are those who are not" (Abstract). The majority of studies, albeit fail to distinguish between various types of activities and do not sufficiently consider under-represented college students' unique experiences. Baker (2008) draws on Tinto's theory of educational departure, as well as Ogbu's theory of oppositional culture to explore the effect of student involvement in six various kinds of student organizations in a co-ethnic student organization. In addition, simultaneously considering the academic performance of African-American and Latino college students attending 27 different selective colleges, Baker examines student involvement. Ultimately Baker finds the type of organization, as well as the race and gender of the students affect academic performance differently.

2.3 Athletic Participation's Effect One comprehensive, statewide study the North Carolina High School Athletic Association conducted in North Carolina, which explored the academic performance of high school student-athletes over a three-year period, found significant differences do exist between athletes and non-athletes. During the study, researchers utilized the following five criteria:

Grade-point average, attendance rate, discipline referrals, dropout rate and graduation rate.

Table 1 denotes the differences the North Carolina High School Athletic Association indicated.

Athletes

Non-athletes

Grade-point average

Average number of absences per 180-day school year

6.52 days

12.57 days

Discipline referrals

Dropout rate

Graduation…

Sources Used in Documents:

References

Baker, Christina. (2008, August). Under-represented college students and extracurricular involvement: the effects of various student organizations on academic performance. Social Psychology of Education, Volume 11 (3). Retrieved January 27, 2009 at http://www.springerlink.com/content/b6432j1361233004/

The case for extracurricular activities. (2008). National Federation of State High School Association. Retrieved January 23, 2009 at http://richwoodstrack.com/extracurricular_case.htm

The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). Columbia University Press, New York. Retrieved January 27, 2009 from www.bartleby.com/66/.

Draper, Michelle. (2008, September 7). Vic: Principals link mental health to academic achievement. (www.highbeam.com/Search.aspx?q=publication:%22AAP+General+News+(Australia)%22&sort=DT&sortdir=DAAP General News (Australia). Retrieved January 28, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1-156068940.html


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