Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System PRAMS Term Paper

Length: 6 pages Sources: 5 Subject: Health Type: Term Paper Paper: #94008857 Related Topics: Smoking, Public Health, Infant Mortality, Cdc
Excerpt from Term Paper :

Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is a project involving examination of health departments and CDC (Center for Disease Control) of a given State. PRAMS was unveiled in 1987. This project gathers data relating to the experience and attitudes prior to, in the cause of and period immediately following a pregnancy. Data collected is always specific to a given State. The surveillance expedition takes care of up to 83% of Infant births in U.S.A (CDC, 2017).

When PRAMS was unveiled there was a serious national and statewide curiosity around infant mortality, reduction, and disparities. Prenatal care with State support had my interest as well. At the time there was no information in relation to States that would enlighten State or local program evaluation and development. PRAMS structure makes it possible for deep inquiry into topics of reproductive health compared to the extensive but limited information contained in birth certificates (CDC, 2013)

The community or population being targeted

PRAMS make available data that cannot be found elsewhere. The data collected is used in the identification of infants and women exposed to health risks, examining health status changes, and in the determination of progress made in enhancing infants and mothers health. Researchers make use of PRAMS data for investigation of issues emerging in reproductive health fields. Local governments and State government makes use of PRAMS as well for planning and reviewing of policies and programs designed for the alleviation of health concerns in infants and mothers (CDC, 2017).

Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), is really a combined-setting monitoring program made to offer state governments with continuing, people-based, condition-specific info on chosen maternal actions and encounters that happen prior to and throughout pregnancy and throughout a child’s earlier infancy. Even though the fundamental PRAMS technique, which is made up of postal mail questionnaire with telephonic calls for non-respondents, has not yet altered, numerous state governments have increased their endeavors to find and make contact with sampled females to be able to sustain sufficient degrees of answers (Shulman, Gilbert and Lansky, 2006).

The population of concern for PRAMS is actually all new mothers who give delivery in their place of residence to a new live-born baby within the monitoring time period. A state’s delivery-certification document functions as the sampling-frame for determining brand new mothers. Ladies are sampled among two and 6 months right after having a baby. The PRAMS test is stratified to ensure that subpopulations of specific public health consideration are oversampled, like mothers of reduced birthweight babies and racial/cultural minority communities (Shulman, Gilbert and Lansky, 2006).

Background & clinical significance

Effect of the issue/topic on the client & community

Even though there are significant advances made in medical care, there still are substantial threats facing maternal, child, and infant health in the U.S. The most conspicuous challenge is the reduction of preterm birth rates. Preterm births have increased by an excess of 20 percent for the period between 1990 and 2006. Another challenge is the reduction of infant mortality. In the year 2011 IMR was still higher than IMR in 46 countries (Maternal, Infant, & Child Health, n.d.).

Noticeable progress has been seen in the U.S. in the past half-century in the alleviation of IMR. This said, however, more needs to be done in prevention of IMR. Preliminary data shows that in 2011 IMR went down overall to 6.05 deaths. This number does not, however, capture the extent of geographical and racial disparities. Black infants that are not of Hispanic descent experience death almost twice as much as infant deaths encountered in the white non-Hispanic infants. In addition to this, deaths associated with preterm births for black infants happen at thrice the rate at which the same death occurs among white infants. Looking at this from a geographical perspective infant mortality top quartile happens in the Southern States of U.S.A. (CDC, 2013).

Effect of the issue/topic on the health care system as a whole

Wellbeing and health of children, infants, and mothers significantly influence the wellbeing and health of subsequent generations. This can be an indicator of even more challenges in the health of a community, families and health provision institutions. In addition, the outcome of healthy birth, timely recognition, and management of health issues in infants is fundamental in the aversion of disability and death among children as well...


IMR is a measure of instances of infant mortality for every 1,000 live infant births. IMR does not only mark child and maternal health but is also a fundamental measure of overall health of a society (CDC, 2013).

PRAMS continues a prolonged, proud custom of follow-up research within the "Maternal and Child Health" (MCH) area. Within the 1920s, the United States Children’s Bureau carried out the nation’s very first significant in-depth research on infant death utilizing a comparable follow-up technique. Within the ten metropolitan areas, each woman whose baby experienced death during the past year had been methodically interviewed. The outcomes supplied a preliminary knowledge of the type of infant death within the United states, implying that infant fatalities happened more frequently in low-income than high-income households, amongst bottle-fed as opposed to breasts-fed babies, and amongst twins than singletons. Starting in 1964 and every 8 years after that right through till 1988, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) carried out intense nationwide follow-up research of live births and infant fatalities, that has provided most of our much recent nationwide epidemiologic details about pregnancy and births, particularly regarding cigarette smoking, prenatal treatment use, and so on. (Kotelchuck, 2006)

Program goals/interventions

PRAMS is designed to explore why some children are born in good health while others are not. PRAMS studies query mothers on their new children and their pregnancy. The answers to the questions inform researchers about the babies and mothers hence assisting in the understanding of reasons contributing to health or otherwise of babies.

PRAMS avail data to health officials in a State for the purpose of enhancing infants' and mothers' health. PRAMS also make it possible for States and the CDC to survey variations in child and maternal health. PRAMS can, therefore, help reveal unintended pregnancy, infant health, smoking, breastfeeding, prenatal care etc. PRAMS also help enhance information contained in Birth certificates useful in the planning and review of infant and maternal health programs belonging to a State. PRAMS samples are taken from women who delivered successfully. This makes it possible to apply results gathered to an entire State population with respect to women who delivered successfully in recent times. PRAMS make it possible to compare participant information over and above providing Data relating to a State. This is because similar methods of data collection are applied in every State (CDC, 2017).

It enhances the continuity of maternal and newborn health from pregnancy right through the earlier post-partum time period. Professional obstacles involving the obstetric and pediatric areas (as well as their connected data source) frequently restrict understanding of elements that effect or pass the prenatal/postnatal time period. PRAMS enables an awareness of the sequelae of prenatal encounters around the earlier postnatal time period. Life-span designs have lately become a little more well-known within the MCH/pediatric areas, but we now have very few either national or state public health directories that deal with this essential early dyadic time period from the longitudinal point of view. For instance, how can maternal prenatal experience of harmful toxins, nutritional vitamins, anxiety, and so on., effect following infant growth? What effect do prenatal treatment usage, companion abuse, or pregnancy fat gain have on succeeding pediatric and women’s healthcare usage, post-partum abuse, or post-partum fat decrease/weight problems? PRAMS should carry on and clearly deal with these longitudinal issues (Kotelchuck, 2006).

An additional objective is dealing with maternal wellbeing. Even though PRAMS by label is really a “pregnancy” data source, using its preliminary concentration on delivery results, it really is very well positioned to deal with maternal health problems (as mediated by a female's pregnancy and delivery encounters) since it interviews new mothers. Latest endeavors to make use of PRAMS records to analyze spouse abuse, post-pregnancy bodyweight rehabilitation, breastfeeding, cigarette smoking decrease, sexually transferred bacterial infections, and maternal depressive disorders mirror an increasing concentration on maternal wellbeing, along with a brand new MMWR survey on maternal actions and encounters prior to, throughout, and right after pregnancy. PRAMS can even much more clearly concentrate on, and become the standard national directories for, the US Safe Motherhood project (Kotelchuck, 2006).

Supplementing disparity studies is an additional objective. Unsatisfactory gaps still exist among white and black maternal and infant results in the united states. PRAMS offers one of the many systems to investigate in-depth, in both national as well as state sampling, a few of the field’s…

Sources Used in Documents:


(What is Prams, 2017) CDC (2017). What is PRAMS? Retrieved February 9, 2018, from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. (2013). CDC Grand Rounds: public health approaches to reducing US infant mortality. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 62(31), 625.

Kotelchuck, M. (2006). Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS): Possible new roles for a national MCH data system. Public Health Reports, 121(1), 6-10.

Maternal, Infant, and Child Health. (n.d.). Retrieved January 17, 2018, from

Robbins, C. L., Zapata, L. B., Farr, S. L., Kroelinger, C. D., Morrow, B., Ahluwalia, I.,.. & Williams, L. (2014). Core state preconception health indicators—pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system and behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Surveillance Summaries, 63(3), 1-62.

Woodbury, R. M. (1926). Infant Mortality and its Causes. With an Appendix on the Trend of Maternal Mortality Bates in the United States. Infant Mortality and its Causes. With an Appendix on the Trend of Maternal Mortality Bates in the United States.

Shulman, H. B., Gilbert, B. C., & Lansky, A. (2006). The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS): current methods and evaluation of 2001 response rates. Public Health Reports, 121(1), 74-83.

Cite this Document:

"Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System PRAMS" (2018, February 28) Retrieved June 30, 2022, from

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"Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System PRAMS", 28 February 2018, Accessed.30 June. 2022,

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