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The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are essentially organized around its primary office, the Office of the Director. In this capacity, director Thomas . Frieden serves as the president or perhaps the CEO of this entity. Frieden is aided by his second in command, Ileana Arlas, whose formal title is Principal Deputy Director. There are numerous other positions within this office, which serve to oversee and designate authority among the various facets of public health in which the CDC is involved. These include different areas of science, communication, and minority health equity, among others.
This principle entity, the Office of the Director, designates its authority over four chief agencies that are linked, somewhat, to the various positions that others serve within the Office of the Director. These four additional branches of the CDC include the Office for State, Tribal, Local and Territorial Support, the Office of Public…
CDC'S HEALTHY AGING WEBSITE
CDC Healthy Aging
CDC's Healthy Aging Website
CDC's Healthy Aging Website
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website (2011a) was designed to function as a ready reference covering most of the health issues confronted by aging adults and their caregivers. A diverse set of topics are covered, including descriptions of aging-related diseases and treatments, preventative services, chronic diseases and their management, statistics, and how to financially prepare for aging-related health problems. This resource is designed to provide a fairly comprehensive, up-to-date, information resource for both caregivers and patients, although comprehending the more technical material will require patients to be college-educated and English-literate.
Informational esources Provided
Featured at the top of the page is report titled the "Healthy Brain Initiative," which represents a program started after Congressional leaders provided funding to the CDC to focus on aging-related cognitive health issues (CDC, 2011b, p. 2). Building…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011a). Healthy Aging. Retrieved Oct. 30, 2011 from http://cdc.gov/aging/pdf/HBISummary_508.pdf
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011b). The CDC Healthy Brain Initiative: Progress 2006-2011. Atlanta, GA: CDC.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Administration on Aging, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2011c). Enhancing use of clinical preventive services among older adults. Washington, D.D.: AARP.
Library of Congress. (2000). Project on the Decade of the Brain. Retrieved Oct. 30, 2011 from http://www.loc.gov/loc/brain/
When it comes to possible or actual terror weapons, there are very few things that are portable yet as lethal as anthrax. As was seen during the days after 9/11 and at other times in the history of the United States, the threat of anthrax is so scary and real that people go pale at the mere site of any sort of white powder in or on a mailed letter or anything else along those lines. This report shall cover the health policy implications of anthrax and what can be done about it in terms of emergency preparedness. While the anthrax threat is not widespread in general terms, it is known to be potentially lethal and causes hysteria wherever it is threated or when it actually happens.
When it comes to healthcare policy when it relates to anthrax, the two main weapons that the Department of Homeland Security and…
CDC. (2016). What CDC is Doing to Prepare| Anthrax - CDC. CDC.gov. Retrieved 8 August 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov /anthrax/bioterrorism/cdc-action.html
Weiss, M., Weiss, P., & Weiss, J. (2007). Anthrax Vaccine and Public Health Policy. Am J. Public Health, 97(11), 1945-1951. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2006.102749
The Latest Global Health Emergency
The international news in recent weeks has been flooded with reports and opinions about what is referred to as the Zika Virus. The World Health Organization declared the Zika virus and its suspected link to birth defects an international public health emergency, which represents an uncommon classification that is meant to signal the seriousness of the outbreak and prepare countries around the world to quickly position themselves in such a way that they can mitigate the worst consequences of the virus (Tavernise & McNeil, 2016). Despite the seriousness of the threats issued by international health leaders, most of the common symptoms associated with Zika are relatively mild in nature and typically only last for a few days to a week. About one in five individuals infected are thought to become sick and their symptoms include things such as (CDC, 2016):
Fever, rash, and…
CDC. (2016, January 29). Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment. Retrieved from Center for Disease Control: http://www.cdc.gov /zika/symptoms/
Cha, A. (2016, February 2). Zika crisis: What is microcephaly? And what does this mean for babies? Retrieved from The Washington Post: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/to-your-health/wp/2016/02/01/zika-virus-and-microcephaly-scientists-investigate-mystery-of-whether-mosquito-bite-is-responsible-for-brain-defect/
Tavernise, S., & McNeil, D. (2016, February 1). Zika Virus a Global Health Emergency, W.H.O. Says. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/02/health/zika-virus-world-health-organization.html
WHO. (2016, January 17). Epiidemiiollogiicall Updatte. Retrieved from World Health Organization: http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&Itemid=&gid=32879&lang=en
Strategic Planning and SWOT Analysis
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CDC has a mission protecting the health of all Americans at all times. Notably, the jurisdictions of their actions are the protections of American both within and outside America. The organization focuses on preventions and cure of the chronic disease that compromise the health of the Americans (Xu et al. 2016). The entry of ZIKA virus into the world has prompt many health organization into intensive research to identify the cause cure and the preventions. CDC is on the health stallholders that were in the lead attempting to provide a solution to the problem. The following is a table of the SWOT analysis for the problem-solving process.
Availability of resource to finance the project
CDC has skilled health professional
Strong and able leadership
Clear goals of the COP
Financial constraint to finance inventions of new drug
Heinrich, R. (2014). Business Process Quality. In Aligning Business Processes and Information Systems (pp. 21-57). Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden
Holtgrave, D. R., & Greenwald, R. (2016). A SWOT Analysis of the Updated National HIV / AIDS Strategy for the U.S., 2015-2020. AIDS and Behavior, 20(1), 1-6
Jurecka, P. (2013). Strategy and Portfolio Management Aspects of Integrated Business Planning. Central European Business Review, 2(1), 28
Xu, J., Bergquist, R., Qian, Y. J., Wang, Q., Yu, Q., Peeling, R. & Zhou, X. N. (2016). Chapter Fifteen-China -- Africa and China -- Asia Collaboration on Schistosomiasis Control: A SWOT Analysis. Advances in Parasitology, 92, 435-466
governmental agency, CDC, regulates governs health care industry a segment industry. • Describe history agency, source scope authority, structure, carries day -- day responsibilities, effects health care industry a segment industry.
Center for disease control
History of CDC
The Center for Disease Control (CDC) has become a household name in the healthcare sectors of most countries across the world. The institution boasts a broad coverage and fame across the world which arises out of the wide scope of its activities and the global presence it cuts. The origin of the institution dates back on 1st July 1946 when the Communicable Disease Control Center was organized in Atlanta, Georgia in the United States. It was basically established as a branch of the Public Health Service by its founder Dr. Joseph Mountil who had high hopes for the then tiny institution. The fundamental objective of CDC at its establishment was to address…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention infectious diseases snapshot 2008. (2009). Atlanta, GA: Dept. Of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Pendergrast, M. (2010). Inside the outbreaks: the elite medical detectives of the epidemic intelligence service. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Regis, E. (1996). Virus ground zero: Stalking the killer viruses with the Centers for Disease Control. New York: Pocket Books.
Measure of associations
1. Rate ratio comparing current smokers with nonsmokers
Rate ration = rate of current smokers/rate of nonsmokers
(Rate of current smokers = rate of smokers per 1000 persons-years = 1.3)
(Rate of nonsmokers = rate of nonsmokers per 1000 persons-years = 0.07)
Rate ration = 1.3/0.07
2. Rate ratio comparing ex-smokers who quit at least 20 years ago with nonsmokers
Rate ration = rate of ex-smokers quitting at 20 years/rate of nonsmokers
(Rate of ex-smokers quitting at 20 years = rate per 1000 persons-years = 0.19)
(Rate of nonsmokers = rate per 1000 persons-years = 0.07)
Rate ration = 0.19/0.07
3. What are the public health implications of these findings?
Based on the calculation above, it is evident that the rate of lung cancer incidences among smokers is way too high, 18 times, as compared to nonsmokers. This leads to the conclusion…
The exercises (6.1 to 6.9) address the core principles of investigating an outbreak using epidemiological methods including statistical analysis. Outbreaks are defined as “unexpected events,” which often receive sufficient media attention to warrant rapid public relations or action responses (Lesson 6: Investigating an Outbreak). Therefore, it is important to understand the principles of epidemiological methods like those offered in the exercises. In addition to the exercises (6.1 to 6.9) the CDC also offers the self-assessment quiz. The exercises and the quiz collectively summarize the main issues related to outbreaks and how an epidemiologist would address different types of outbreaks in different scenarios.
6.1. This exercise addresses the concept of clustering, in which a relatively small group of cases seems confined to a specific geographical area. For example, there may be reports of a certain type of cancer in an area where the drinking water is contaminated. Further investigation is warranted…
3. BMR stands for basal metabolic rate. It generally refers to the body's metabolism at stasis: while doing nothing. The BMR is the basic energy level needed to sustain life. A person's basal metabolic rate usually decreases with age. The best way to increase the BMR is to exercise regularly. Eating less does not raise the BMR but rather, usually lowers it. Therefore, exercise is in many ways more important than eating less if a person hopes to lose weight. A higher body fat percentage is also correlated with a lower basal metabolic rate. Therefore, individuals with a lot of muscle mass tend to have higher basal metabolic rates than individuals who do not because muscles are metabolically more active than fat. Fat is burned off when muscles are used, during intensive exercise when the intake of calories is less than the expenditure of energy.
Centers for Disease…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Obesity and Overweight: Health Consequences." Retrieved Feb 23, 2008 at http://www.cdc.gov /nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/consequences.htm
Metabolism." Retrieved Feb 23, 2008 at http://www.fatfreekitchen.com/weightloss/metabolism.html
CDC's Healthy Community Program Success Story Worksheet (modified version)
Thank you for choosing to share your story! This worksheet will help you gather and organize information. As you read each question, imagine you are telling a friend about your program or strategy. What is the first thing you would tell them that answers the question?
Consider this a summary of your policy, system, or environmental change strategy that you'll reference later. Keep your answers short, no more than a sentence if you can.
Do you have a name for the policy, system, or environmental change strategy you're trying to implement?
What risk factors does it address?
It addresses misinformation among school children regarding tabacco use and its popularity by raising children's self-esteem to a high enough level that they overcome unhealthy peer pressure to smoke.
What kind of change are you trying to implement?
The goal is to reduce the…
1. Which of the 7 Areas of Responsibility were demonstrated in the project? Give examples. The areas are listed at http://www.nchec.org/credentialing/responsibilities/
This model primarily addresses the first area of responsibility. There was a defecit in education regarding tabacco awareness. Once addressed, the numbers of teen smokers began dropping.
Healthy People 2020
Epidemiological considerations anthracis originates in soil in a lot of regions of this world in which we live. Environmental aspects (for example plentiful precipitation subsequent to a phase of water dearth) might improve spore mass in soil, even though the precise impact of such features remains badly understood (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002).
The organism by and large subsists in the endospore shape in environment; germination of spores exterior to an animal congregation might take place when the subsequent situations are encountered (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002):
elative humidity >95%
Presence of sufficient nutrients
Temperature amid 8°C and 45°C
PH amid 5 and 9 (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002)
Endospores are opposed to heat, drying, gamma radiation, ultraviolet light, and various antiseptics. Spores can continue in soil for decades, as exemplified by organic combat researches all through World War II on the Scottish island of Gruinard. All through 1943, as well as 1944,…
Bell, D.M., Kozarsky, P.E., Stephens, D.S. (2002). Clinical issues in the Prophylaxis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Anthrax. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(2), 222-225.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). Anthrax Disease Information
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Considerations for Distinguishing Influenza-Like Illness from Inhalational Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(44), 984-6.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Update: Interim Recommendations for Ant microbial Prophylaxis for Children and Breastfeeding Mothers and Treatment of Children with Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(45), 1014-6.
local city state agencies select a target population. Examples target populations poor, unemployed, children, elderly, people disabilities, persons mental illness, substance abusers, criminals, homeless, persons living HIV / AIDS.
eview the list of local city and state agencies and select a target population. Examples of target populations are the poor, unemployed, children, elderly, people with disabilities, persons with mental illness, substance abusers, criminals, homeless, and persons living with HIV / AIDS. Once you have selected a group, research a current issue or problem affecting this target population.
Identify the current and unmet needs of your chosen target population, and describe the possible obstacles that are preventing resolution of the problems. What human service programs addressing the problem currently exist, and how are they helping or hindering the problem?
Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper in APA format, with references, summarizing your findings. Use Appendixes C & G. And have…
Au, N.; (2012) The health care cost implications of overweight and obesity during childhood, Health Services Research, Vol. 47, Issue 2, pp. 655 -- 676
CDC; (2011) Childhood overweight and obesity, accessed on April 13, 2012 at: http://www.cdc.gov /obesity/childhood/index.html,
Ness, A.R.; Leary, S.D.; Mattocks, C.; Blair, S.N.; Riley, J.J.; (2007) Objectively measured physical activity and fat mass in a large cohort of children, PloS Medicine, Vol. 4, Issue 3, pp. 476 -- 484
THE ISSUE OF ACCIDENTAL FALLS
At some point, anyone who had learned how to walk has had the experience of falling down -- it is a universal experience for infants as they gain ambulatory ability. In hospitals, however, the accidental fall is the most reported type of patient safety incident, with elderly patient populations displaying a particular vulnerability (Oliver 2007, p.173). Approximately one-third of adults over the age of sixty-five will experience an accidental fall this year (CDC 2012, n.p.) Fischer (2005) offers some clarification as to how these incidents should be defined -- the simplest basic definition is "a sudden, uncontrolled, unintentional, downward displacement of the body to the ground or other object" (p822). This definition takes into account the unpredictable nature of the incident, and the fact that it frequently involves a certain loss of control on the part of the patient; it also reminds us that…
CDC (2012). Adult falls. Web. Accessed at: http:/ / www.cdc.gov/HomeandRecreationalSafety/Falls/adultfalls.htm
Currie, LM. (2006). Fall and injury prevention. Annual Review of Nursing Research. 24(1):39-74.
Fischer ID; Krauss MJ; Dunagan WC et al. (2005). Patterns and predictors of inpatient falls and fall-related injuries in a large academic hospital. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 26(10):822-7.
Grubel, F. (1959) Falls: A principal patient incident. Hosp Manage. 88:37-8.
C. Mayor Adrian Fenty made HIV / AIDS the most important public health priority (Greenberg et al., 2009). Funding from the CDC allowed for a partnership between the D.C. Department of Health's HIV / AIDS Administration and the George Washington University School of Public Health and Healthy Services, which was responsible for the Epidemiology Annual eport for 2007 -- the first to be published for D.C. since 2002 (Greenberg et al., 2009). The Department of Health also initiated a routine HIV screening campaign to help provide testing resources and lower stigma, titled "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" (Greenberg et al., 2009).
Efforts to address the epidemic in D.C. included a combination of increased resource availability and educational services as offered by public health departments. The "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" campaign provided approximately 73,000 tests in 2008, which was a 70% testing increase from…
Brown, M., & Henriquez, E. (2008). Socio-demographic predictors of attitudes towards gays and lesbians. Individual Differences Research, 6(3), 193-202.
CDC HIV Fact sheet. (2011, November 07). HIV in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/resources/factsheets/us.htm
CDC Fact sheet. (2011, September). HIV and AIDS among gay and bisexual men. Retrieved from
acial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (EACH 2010 Program)
The health objectives for the United States for the 21st century have been described in The Federal Initiative to Eliminate acial and Ethnic Health Disparities and Healthy People 2010. The national interest in the areas of racial and ethnic disparities has been renewed with the public health initiatives with the leadership for the discussion being taken by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The overall health of the nation has improved a lot, but the members of the minority groups in the ethnic and racial areas have not been benefited. This includes the African-Americans, Alaska Natives, American Indians, Asian-Americans, Hispanic-Americans and Pacific Islanders.
This segment of our population is more likely to have poor health and premature deaths than the white Americans. During 1992 to 1998, the deaths from breast cancer have come down noticeably, but there are more…
Author Unknown) (n.d) Chronic Diseases, Risk Factors, and Preventive Services, Alabama. Retrieved at http://www.4woman.gov/owh/reg/4/overview.htm. Accessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) Health Disparities and Non-insulin Type 2 Diabetes. Retrieved at http://www.medicalnewsservice.com . Accessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) HHS Awards more than 65 Million to eliminate health disparities. Retrieved at http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/BurdenBook/DeathCause.asp?state=alAccessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) Overview of Region lV. Retrieved at http://www.cdc.gov /nccdphp/exemplary/racial.htm. Accessed on 15/10/2003
5. There were 2,340 deaths attributed to IPV in 2007 (70% female; 30% male).
Describe the relevance and application of this information to criminal justice professionals.
Despite an increasing amount of research into intimate partner violence, no single theoretical approach has been offered that can explain it (Begun, 1999). The research to date indicates that there is an inextricable relationship between intimate partner violence and problems with stress, depression, or substance abuse (Anderson, 2002).As also noted by the CDC, IPV exists along a "violence continuum" that includes "abusive behaviors that occur within intimate partnerships, such as controlling choices and resources, humiliation and denigration, harassment, stalking, coercion, and so forth" (Begun, 1999, p. 239). This means that intimate partner violence would be of particular interest to criminal justice professionals since early detection and interventions are required in order to prevent an escalation in the level and types of violence that is…
Adler, L.L. & Denmark, F.L. (1999). Violence and the prevention of violence. Westport, CT:
Anderson, K.L. (2002). Perpetrator or victim? Relationships between intimate partner violence and well-being. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(4), 851-852.
Begun, A.L. (1999). Intimate partner violence: An HBSE perspective. Journal of Social Work
Obesity is a serious social problem in America. The effects of obesity in childhood are well documented in both the social science literature and medical journals. During the last 30 years, the percentage of obese children between the ages of 6 and 11 has risen 200% while the percentage of obese children between 12 and 19 has tripled (CDC, Preventing Childhood Obesity, 2010). Obesity in the nited States has increased among all cohorts and ethnicities, spans across generations, and is not limited to income or educational levels. However, the incidence of obesity among African-American women is of particular concern given the prevalence and severity of the issue in America.
Public health issue
More than two-thirds of Americans are now obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Rates of adult obesity now exceed 20% in 49 states and D.C and 25% in 40 states. By way of comparison, in 1991, rates…
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vital Signs: Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension -- United States, 1999 -- 2002 and 2005 -- 2008
Ward, S., Gray, A., Paranjape, A. (2008). African-Americans' perceptions of physician attempts to address obesity in the primary care setting. The Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(5), 579-584.
Coenen, K.R., Hasty, A.H. (2007). Obesity potentiates development of fatty liver and insulin resistance, but not atherosclerosis, in high-fat diet-fed agouti LDLR-deficient mice. Retrieved from: http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/293/2/E492.short
Developmental perspective was the concept that the nursing students participating in this study were typically younger than they patients they were caring for. This made it difficult for them to ask the "older" patient questions about a lifestyle they had been practicing for many years.
Environmental constraints were noted that prevented the participants in the study from fully implementing best practice guidelines. The primary of which was time. They noted that because of other duties and paper keeping requirements, they had little time to properly present the best practice guidelines. Some noted that they had little time to do expected things such as breathing, much less introduce the patient properly to best practice guidelines.
During their third year of training the nurses were introduced to a comprehensive program concerning cigarettes and cessation programs. In addition they had already been taught more efficient time management training. With these new tools they…
10) Sanders, D., Fowler, G., Mant, D., Fuller, a., Jones, L., & Marziller, j.
Randomized controlled trial of anti-smoking advice by nurses in General practice. Journal of the Royal College of General
Practitioners, 1989, 39, pp 273-276.
HIV testing/Screening be made part of Primary Prevention?
This analysis backs up research on behavioral interventions that lower HIV transmission. The aim of the analysis are to reinforce interdisciplinary research that develops, implements, and evaluates practically and theoretically based interventions intended to prevent HIV transmission. This knowledge needs to progress understanding of the interaction between psychological, behavioral, biological and social factors that influence the acquirement of HIV in our populations. The analysis supports research that acts as the base for an empirically-based public health policy plan to prevent several new HIV infections as possible. Similarly, ASPQ supports basic prevention and intervention research that tackle multiple levels factors that facilitate or obstruct lowering of HIV risk.
Immense progress have been made over the ancient times decade in behavioral research on how to assist people prevent contracting HIV infections (primary prevention) and how to reduce or alleviate unfavorable consequences among individuals…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). HIV / AIDS Surveillance Report. Vol. 19. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
CDC (2004). Cases of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States
HIV / AIDS, Surveillance Report 2005; 16:16 -- 45.
CDC. (2001) Revised recommendations for HIV screening of pregnant women. MMWR; 50(No. RR-19):63 -- 85.
1. The dilemma of Obesity
Mokdad et al., (1999) in his study found that the issue of unhealthy weight, overweight and obesity are perhaps one of the rising concerns for the Americans in the 21st century as more and more U.S. citizens become vulnerable to the circumstantial risks and dangers of the phenomenon (Mokdad et al., 1999). It is usually the body mass indexes (BMI) that indicate whether a person is actually overweight or not. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) carried out a study for the years 1999 to 2002 using the BMI phenomenon and concluded that about 65% of U.S. citizens in the adulthood years were categorized under the overweight group because of their BMI (Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2005).
To understand the phenomenon of obesity and its rise, it's important to understand…
Adam Drewnowski and S.E. Specter (2004), Poverty and Obesity: The Role of Energy Density and Energy Costs, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, no. 1: 6-16.
Akande, a. & Akande, B.E. (1994). On becoming a person: Activities to help children with their anger. Early Child Development and Care, 102, 31-62.
Akande, a. Wyk, C.D.WV. And Osagie, J.E. (2000). Importance of Exercise and Nutrition in the Prevention of Illness and the Enchancement of Health. Education. 120: 4.
Alexander, M.A., & Blank, J.J. (1988). Factors related to obesity in Mexican-American preschool children. Image, 20(2), 79-82.
Hispanics Living in Alabama
The United States has a large number of minority groups and the largest among them are the Hispanic population. According to the latest census, the Hispanic population in Alabama now number 75,830. The census authorities in U.S. had coined the term 'Hispanic' to denote specifically the people from 22 countries in Latin America, and living in the United States. The growth of population in this community has been very high during the last ten years - a growth of 247 per cent. They constitute a large consumer market worth $685 million annually, and contribute $251 million to the state and local authorities in taxes. It is obvious that the large growth is due to the classic reasons for migration - poverty. They had an expectation of a new and better life in the United States when they first set foot on U.S. soil.
Of all industries…
What are Bacteria and Viruses?
The most basic difference between bacteria and viruses is their size. Whereas both bacteria and viruses are too tiny to notice with the naked eye, most bacteria are about one micrometer in length and can be perceived with a good optical microscope. On the other hand, viruses are smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which suggests that they can only be perceived by using an electron microscope (Nursing Times, 2006). Infection, every so often the initial phase, takes place when bacteria, viruses or other microbes that cause disease enter the human body and start to multiply. Disease comes about and ensues when the cells in the human body are damaged, as a result of the infection, and signs and symptoms of a disease appear.
Bacterial and viral infections are contaminations caused by bacteria and viruses. Bacteria release poisons known as toxins into the…
Health Promotion Pamphlet
• Layout appeal • Content quality • eading level • Clarity • Examples health promotion pamphlet • Usefulness • Cultural sensitivity competence • Helpful hints tips -care management • Appropriate literacy level target audience Include publication information pamphlet
The importance of fruits and vegetables:
A current health promotion pamphlet's appropriateness for the general public
Obesity is on the rise in America. Given this concern, the CDC (Centers for Disease Control) has produced a pamphlet on the need to incorporate more fruits and vegetables into meals. The title of the pamphlet reads: "How to use fruits and vegetables to manage your weight," so it is explicitly promoted as weight maintenance publication. The cover is orange and features photographs of a cauliflower, cherries, a banana, an orange pepper, and peas, presumably chosen because of their attractive colors, the balance they signify in the eater's diet, and also their relative…
How to use fruits and vegetables to manage your weight. (2012). CDC. Retrieved:
NEDSS: What do you think would be three hurdles to successful implementation (at CDC and in the state of Mississippi)?
"The National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) is a secure online framework that allows healthcare professionals and government agencies to communicate about disease patterns and coordinate national response to outbreaks…. The CDC mandates that hospitals, clinics and state health agencies all adopt NEDSS standards so that the speed, accuracy, standardization and viability of data about diseases are improved" (National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS, 2012, Tech Target). The goal of NEDSS is seamless integration and coordination between state and federal authorities when combatting sudden epidemics (such as H1N1) or long-standing chronic diseases that must be addressed over time, such as obesity.
One problem with implementing such a system "is the delay experienced from incident awareness, through laboratory testing and ultimately to public health investigation" (Tracking silent killers, 2012, Center for…
Centers for Disease Control (2011). National electronic disease surveillance system: NEDSS
overview. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /phin/tools/NEDSS/
Mississippi State Department of Health. (2004). State Health Plan FY- 2004: Priority Needs.
Retrieved from: http://msdh.ms.gov/msdhsite/index.cfm/19,835,184,210,pdf/SectionA-Chapter4-PriorityNeeds.pdf
A brief explanation of the public health need you identified.
Childhood obesity is an increasingly prevalent problem in our homes, schools and in the United States as a whole. ith obesity comes a host of health risks including heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and a significantly shorter lifespan. This is why early intervention in critical.
Describe the population whom you plan to target for your public health program and explain why.
Early intervention should take the form of addressing obesity in your elementary school aged children. It is at this age that health behaviors become habit-forming and more difficult to break. Additionally, because it appears that younger people are ever more susceptible to obesity, it is critical to take corrective action now.
Describe potential sources of funding.
Funding will largely be elicited through the combined support of government grant programs aimed at reducing childhood obesity and private companies such as…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011). Health People 2020. CDC.gov.
Primary Text. (?). Planning a Health Promotion Program. .
Discussion #1 Diabetes (either type 1 or type 2) can cause many problems for the patient when the disease is uncontrolled. Please choose one of the problems associated with diabetes and describe what happens to the body to cause the problem. Examine what causes the problem in the patient with diabetes and create a teaching strategy for a patient who is at risk for the problem. Include the types of Insulin in your post, Lantis, Lispro, egular and Intermediate acting and illustrate how evidence-based practice can improve outcomes. Justify your answers and cite your references.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas such that it produces only a little or no insulin. Accounting for 5 to 10% of diabetes in the U.S., the disease occurs primarily in children and young adults. Prior to the discovery of insulin in 1921, everyone…
Drugs & Medications - Singulair Oral. WebMed. Retrieved http://www.webmd.com/drugs/mono-8277-MONTELUKAST+-+ORAL.aspx?drugid=6485&drugname=Singulair+Oral
Why Is This Medicine Prescribed? Med Line Plus. Retrieved http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a600014.html#side-effects [Type text]
Children with autism can be hard to assess. Many children who fall under the criteria needed to determine autism, may be in fact be socially awkward, shy, among other things. As the CDC websites explains: "Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability caused by differences in the brain" (CDC, 2014). Some have even identified a gene that could play a role in the development of autism. This however does not speak for the majority of children diagnoses with autism so therefore other assessment tools as well identification methods must be used to determine whether a child has autism.
"A diagnosis of ASD now includes several conditions that used to be diagnosed separately: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome. These conditions are now all called autism spectrum disorder" (CDC, 2014). Along with the new guidelines for proper diagnosis comes a set of identification methods…
By helping to solve their problems voluntarily, Bayer can avoid circumstances like the aspirin debacle by building a stockpile of goodwill to be used later.
One step Bayer should undertake is to continue to be aggressive in meeting FDA guidelines on the taking of Cipro. The company should include these recommendations, in English, on supplies sent to Mexico, because they know that some of these will end up in the U.S. Given the nature of the anthrax scare, however, Bayer should increase its labeling standards. Consumers are more likely to take the drug inappropriately under these circumstances. Although Bayer would not have had any way to knowing it at the time, they could have faced significant risk if their labeling, in light of the panic, was considered to be inadequate (yeth v Levine, 2008). Therefore, Bayer should support the recommendations of the CDC, as that should meet the standard for…
Wyeth v Levine. 2008. Supreme Court of the United States. Retrieved November 15, 2009 from http://www.supremecourtus.gov/opinions/08pdf/06-1249.pdf
Dunne, A. (no date). Rent seeking and the social cost of monopoly. Trinity College of Dublin. Retrieved November 15, 2009 from http://www.maths.tcd.ie/local/JUNK/econrev/ser/html/rent.html
Sterckx, S. (2006). The moral justifiability of patents. Ethical Perspectives. Retrieved November 15, 2009 from http://www.ethical-perspectives.be/page.php?LAN=E&FILE=ep_detail&ID=109&TID=973
Chlamydia is the most common and frequently occurring sexually transmitted disease in the United States. According to a recent CDC report there are more than 2.8 million persons infected every year. [CDC] The disease is caused by a bacterium known as Chlamydia trachomatis which is also found to exist as 15 different serotypes. The estimated annual treatment costs for Chlamydia is around $2 billion. The asymptotic nature of the disease presents a big problem in the early diagnosis and a substantial number of infected persons are unaware of their condition. Though totally curable, this 'silent disease' can cause trachoma, infertility, tubal pregnancy and other urinogenital disorders if left untreated. A brief overview of the disease, treatment options and preventive strategies would give a better insight of this medical condition.
Chlamydia trachomatis (Life Cycle)
Chlamydia trachomatis is a parasitic bacterium that cannot produce its own ATP and hence depends…
1) Andrea DeMets, "Chlamydia Trachomatis," Accessed on 5th November 2004,
2) CDC, "Chlamydia Fact Sheet," Accessed on 5th November,
childhood is a fascinating time for children, and the adults around them who watch them grow. It is a time of exploration, self construction, and improved understanding. Middle childhood is between the ages of 6 and 8, with some reports extending that age range to as much as 11 years old (CDC 2012). This is the period of the child who is featured in this observation and empirical analysis. She and her two parents live in a suburban neighborhood that can be seen as middle class. She is about six and a half, and has just entered elementary schooling in the context of first grade. As she closes in on her first year of real school, it is clear how the social environment of that school has impacted her overall development.
The observation was carried out in three stages. First, I met her and her mother at a local park,…
Bunce, Guy. (2011). Educational implications of Vygotsky's zone of proximal development on collaborative work in the classroom. Academics. Web. http://www.guybunce.co.uk/writings/academic/vygotsky-and-the-classroom.pdf
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Middle childhood. Child Development. Web.
Healthcare Disparity in Georgia
HIV infection continues to be a substantial trouble in Bibb County, Georgia. This illness substantially impacts lots of areas and Bibb County shares among the greatest HIV rates in America. One reason Bibb County deals with greater rates of infection is due to the high minority populace. Likewise, high levels of poverty and joblessness can make it tough for an individual to keep his/her health plan and access their primary-care service provider and acquire the required therapy for HIV. Social preconception likewise extends unfavorable mindsets of the community and can force the individual from looking for therapy or even testing for HIV.
The very best protection against HIV is enlightening the general public about the illness. outine testing for HIV is vital too. The first intervention would be to associate with a regional testing center and have the ability to check people as well as inform…
In today's day and age with the massive amount of resources to humanity, it is a wonder as to why infant mortality is still a problem. The impact of the healthcare system has made improvements in this area, but there are still issues that lack clarity. The purpose of this essay is to demonstrate the need for free basic health insurance for new born babies to prevent illness and suffering. This essay will first summarize the problem before offering solutions on how best to address the problem.
The Centers for Disease Conrol (CDC) defined infant mortality as "the death of an infant before his or her first birthday." In this first year of life, the child is especially vulnerable to the threats of his or her environment and the risk of an infant dying is especially strong. Through medical and social evolution, infant mortality has generally gone down…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). Public Health Approaches to Reducing U.S. Infant Mortality. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6231a3.htm
Chapman, S. (2009). Health Care and Infant Mortality: The Real Story. Creators.com 2009.
Dizikes, P. (2014). How a health care plan quickly lowered infant mortality. MIT News, 30 April 2014. Retrieved from http://newsoffice.mit.edu/2014/how-health-care-plan-quickly-lowered-infant-mortality-0430
Morman, E. (2011). Infant Mortality in Detroit: Finding Solutions. Metro Parent, Oct 2011. Retrieved from http://www.metroparent.com/Metro-Parent/October-2011/Infant-Mortality-in-Detroit-Finding-Solutions/
Elderly in Monrovia, CA
The population of people aged 65 years or greater is steadily escalating, as baby boomers come of age. It is estimated that this age bracket accounts for 10% of the total world population, and is statistically increasing. As this sector of the population steadily increases, there are of course, accompanying health care issues: osteoarthritis, cardiac and kidney issues, Alzheimer's or dementia, and an ever-growing problem with depression. For this essay, we will concentrate on several health issues that plague seniors nationally, but will specifically focus on the aging population over 65 in Monrovia, California.
Monrovia is a smallish city located at the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains in the San Gabriel Valley, Los Angeles County. Monrovia was settled in the late 1800s as a central hub for the growing orange grove industry, but has now become more of a bedroom community that supports the urban…
Breathe California of Los Angeles County. (2009). Cited in:
California Department of Public Health. (June 2009). "Healthy California -- 2010
Midcourse Review." Executive Summary. Cited in:
cruzi is included in the waste of the insect vectors and gets entrance into its mammalian hosts by way of infection. This method of spread is different than that of the two species of African trypanosomes that cause human illness, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which are conveyed by means of the saliva of their vectors, and with the device by which the nonpathogenic trypanosome found in the Americas, Trypanosoma rangeli, is passed on to its mammalian hosts. As with other vermin that contaminate both mammalian and insect hosts, the life cycle of T. cruzi is multifaceted. The T. cruzi life cycle is made up of three major developmental types. Epimastigotes are an extracellular and non-infective appearance of the parasite found in the midgut of insect vectors, where they increase by binary fission (Kirchhoff, 2009).
There are two advances to healing when treating Chagas, both of which can…
Chagas Disease. (2009). Retrieved November 7, 2010, from CDC Web site:
Chagas Disease. (2010). Retrieved November 7, 2010, from Medline Plus Web site:
Further research is needed for determination of type and strain, as well as longitudinal graphing of various populations at risk for HHV-3. In addition, dormancy issue and likelihood of shingles is an important area of future research (Orrin and Goldman, 2006). Additionally, when chickenpox becomes fatal in children, it appears that the liver becomes compromised, either with anti-inflammatory drugs or through burdening it with other toxins. Further research into this phenomenon is clearly necessary (Krasner 1999).
Arvin, a. And a. Gershon, eds. Varicella-Zoster Virus: Virology and Clinical
Management. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Varicella-Chickenpox. April 2009. Cited in:
"Chickenpox -- Healthier You." CPM Medica. 2008. Cited in:
Krasner, G. "Chickenpox: Why Do Children Die?" Coalition for Informed Choice.
1999, Cited in:
Orrin, S. And G. Goldman. The Chickenpox Vaccine: A New Epidemic of Disease and Corruption. Viritualbookworm.com, 2006.
Poland, G. "The…
Arvin, a. And a. Gershon, eds. Varicella-Zoster Virus: Virology and Clinical
Management. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Varicella-Chickenpox. April 2009. Cited in:
A way to better distribute the information that is being taught in the classrooms is also through the community so that the changes are also effecting the parents to the students, as a change on their part as well would be helpful in the battle against obesity. It would be useful to initially target pamphlets, an informational booth or table at grocery stores, where the foundation of the problem lies. It would be effective if information is given before families go grocery shopping so they are more conscious of the items that they are purchasing. Furthermore, information should also be initially presented on TVs, in newspapers and magazines and other mediums that would likely be used in the more low-key and sedentary setting in order to galvanize individuals to get outside. Once outside, in order to sustain the physical activity, it would be nice to have water and juice at…
Ahuja, Gitika, & Salahi, Lara. (11, February 2010). School nutrition program takes up obesity fight. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/OnCall/school-nutrition-program-takes-obesity-fight/story?id=9802468
CausesofChildhoodObesity.org, Initials. (2010). Causes of childhood obesity. Retrieved from http://causesofchildhoodobesity.org/
Facts about obesity in the United States. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /pdf/facts_about_obesity_in_the_united_states.pdf
Mayo Clinic Staff, Initials. (2011, May 06). Risk factors. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obesity/DS00314/DSECTION=risk-factors
Immunizing Your Baby, Protecting or Harming?
Positives for Vaccinations
Recommended and Minimum Ages for Early Childhood Vaccinations
Negatives for Vaccinations
Vaccines against diphtheria, polio, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella, hepatitis B and chicken pox, have given humans powerful immune guards to ward off unwelcome disease and sickness. Because of this the CDC works closely with public health agencies and private partners in order to improve and sustain immunization coverage and to monitor the safety of vaccines so that public health can be maintained and expanded in the future. Despite the good that vaccines appear to do there is a debate stirring in regards to the safety of vaccines and whether or not they are link to disorders such as autism. There are some studies that appear to link childhood vaccinations to autism but the evidence is very weak at best. But because of these types of studies…
Carolyn Drews-Botsch, et al. "Timeliness of Childhood Immunizations: A State-
Analysis." American Journal Of Public Health 95.8 (2005): 1367-1374. Business
This results in healthy, hygienic practices such as washing hands, cooking meat properly, and ensuring a sufficient daily intake of the correct nutrients without encouraging obesity.
Government legislation is another important component in public health infrastructure. This component is essential in protecting the public from unsafe foods such as unpasteurized milk, dangerous insecticides used on fruit and vegetables, and disease-carrying components in imported foods (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report., 1999).
In terms of food security, all the above components of the public health infrastructure can be utilized to help those who feel insecure of their food supply. A thorough scientific investigation can be backed by the other components in order to remedy the situation.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1999, October 15). Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: afer and Healthier Foods. October 15, 48(40);905-913. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4840a1.htm
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (2000, October 20).…
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1999, October 15). Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Safer and Healthier Foods. October 15, 48(40);905-913. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov /mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4840a1.htm
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (2000, October 20). Self-Reported Concern About Food Security - Eight States, 1996 -- 1998. October 20, 49(41);933-6 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Government Created a Committee
An electronic health record is a digital record of a patient's health information generated from every medical visit a patient makes. This information includes the patient's medical history, demographics, known drug allergies, progress notes, follow up visits, medications, vital signs, immunizations, laboratory data and radiological reports. The EH automates and streamlines a clinician's workflow. (Himss, 2009)
Due to the multiple advantages of an EH, health care agencies have been aiming to push up this technology. In 2004, the FDA approved of an implantable EH microchip into patients. Each microchip has a specific code which is identified through sensors. The device is implanted under the skin, in the back of the arm, requiring a twenty minute procedure, without needing the use of sutures. ("Fda approves computer," 2004)
According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, deaths due to preventable medical errors rank as the fifth most…
CDC. (2011, October 24). Deaths and mortality. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /nchs/fastats/deaths.htm
Fda approves computer chip for humans. (2004, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6237364/ns/health-health_care/t/fda-approves-computer-chip-humans/
Himss. (2009, September 2). Implanet using ibm software to protect patients in the event of medical device recalls. Retrieved from
Hepatitis C: New CDC Screening Recommendations
The objective of this study is to review the article written by Doug Campos-Outcalt entitled "Hepatitis C: New CDC Screening Recommendations" published in the Journal of Family Practice, Volume 61, Number 12 in December 2012.
Campos-Outcalt (2012) writes that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released new recommendations for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection screening including a one-time screening for all individuals in the United States that were born between the year of 1945 and 1965 "regardless of risk." The new recommendations are reported to be rather than a replacement to be instead an enhancement of "the recommendations for HCV screening" stated in 1998 calling for those who were considered high-risk to be screened.
HCV results in a high level of morbidity and mortality in the United States. There are reported to be 17,000 new infections to have occurred in 2010 with…
It is reported that the two groups at the highest risk for HCV are those who are users of illegal drugs, which they injected, and those who received blood transfusions prior to 1992 when HCV blood screening began. There are other risk factors, which include having been incarcerated, having sex with someone infected with HCV, and the acquisition of a tattoo at an establishment that was unregulated, among others risk factors for contracting HCV. According to Campos-Outcalt, sustained virological response following treatment was demonstrated in individuals exhibiting a "reduction in all-cause mortality >50% compared with nonresponders." (Campos-Outcalt, 2012) Individuals born between 1988 and 1994 are much more likely to have contracted HCV than those born between 1999 and 2002.
Observational Studies and Reported Outcomes
Twelve observational studies are reported that examined treatment effects on the incidence of HCC and are reported to have shown a "75% reduction in HCC rates in those who achieved viral clearance compared with those who did not." (Campos-Outcalt, 2012) Physicians are advised that if there is a positive on a confirmatory test that the patient should be assumed to have HCV infection. The patient must decide if treatment is to be initiated and must undergo additional assessment to check for chronic liver disease. Measures should be taken to protect their liver from receiving additional damage including alcohol consumption reduction, medication avoidance and use of herbal products that result in liver damage. Patients infected with HCV should focus on the maintenance of an optimal weight and should receive vaccines against hepatitis A and B. AS well, patients should be instructed on how to avoid spreading the HCV infection to other people. There is noted by Campos-Outcalt (2012) to be controversies on HCV screening in regards to improvements in outcomes. For this reason the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force is presently conducting a revisement of the HCV recommendations for screening.
Treatment does not simply mean taking care of the patient after a physical injury has occurred.
The CDC statistics confirm other studies which indicate that homicide rates for young, African-American males are rising. "The number of homicides involving black youths -- as victims and perpetrators -- surged by more than 30% from 2002 to 2007" according to a recent report by Northeastern University with guns being the most common method of death (Why are so many young black men being murdered, 2008, NP). The study also found that "426 black males ages 14-17 died in gun crimes -- 40% more than in 2000; nearly 1,000 young black males used guns to kill someone in 2007 -- 38% higher than in 2000" (Why are so many young black men being murdered, 2008, NP).
As well as helping patients on a personal level, providers can also take a role in attempting to…
Why are so many young black men being murdered? (2008). NPR. Retrieved:
WISQARS. (2013). Injury Mortality Report. Retrieved:
According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) (2010), childhood obesity has more than tripled over the past 30 years. The frequency of obesity among children aged 6 to 11 years rose from 6.5% in 1980 to 19.6% in 2008, while among adolescents aged 12 to 19 years the obesity rate increased from 5.0% to 18.1% during the same period. Obesity results when more calories are consumed than expended, and is influenced by genetic, behavioral and environmental factors. Let us take a look at four paradigms associated with this phenomenon.
The functionalist perspective asserts obese are necessary in order to drive others to become healthy and learn what is making people obese. From this perspective the key is not to eliminate this condition, but to utilize this state to explore the psychological and emotional factors that make this situation possible.
Functionalists are concerned with the stability of society…
Center for Disease Control. "Childhood Obesity." CDC/Healthy Youth. 3 June 2010. Web. 28 April 2012.
Public Health Achievements
hat factors accounted for the control of tobacco in the U.S. Currently, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about 42.1 million Americans smoke cigarettes, which is about 18.1% of all adults (18 or over). About 20.5% of men smoke cigarettes and 15.8% of women smoke cigarettes (Liss, 2013).
the information environment -- mass media and counter-advertising. There is no doubt that media campaigns have a positive impact when it comes to anti-smoking campaigns. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that the first year of the federal government's national advertising campaign called "Tips from Former Smokers" "exceeded expectations; an estimated 1.6 million cigarette smokers attempted to stop smoking. Of those, about 100,000 actually succeeded in quitting, and that information came from a study published by the medical journal, The Lancet. Moreover, the campaign run by the CDC reportedly "inspired millions of nonsmokers to encourage…
Centers for Disease Control. (2011). Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States. Retrieved April 11, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov .
Liss, S.M. (2013). CDC's Anti-Smoking Ad Campaign Spurred Over 100,000 Smokers to Quit;
Media Campaigns Must be Expanded Nationally and in the States. Center for Disease
Controls. Retrieved April 12, 2014, from http://www.tobaccofreekids.org .
Did America justly fulfill its manifest destiny? Explain your opinion.
America did fulfill its destiny. This occurred with the country uniting as one nation embracing these ideas of personal freedom and equality. While at the same time, it went from a series of small backward colonies to becoming a world power. These objectives were realized over the course of American history. (Kennedy, 2012)
The biggest reasons for the westward expansion were based upon the desire to obtain land and have access to various natural resources (i.e. gold, silver, coal and oil). This was a part of America's expansion into becoming a new nation that embraced the ideas of personal freedom. A classic example of this peaceful expansion occurred with the purchase of Alaska from ussia in 1867. To this day, it is continuing to contribute economically and militarily. (Kennedy, 2012)
However, the westward expansion often involved the use…
National Vital Statistics System. (2012). CDC. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov /nchs/nvss.htm
Brewer, P. (2004). Near Zero Deficit Accounting with Sigma Six. Journal of Corporate and Accounting Finance, 15 (2), 67 -- 72.
Kennedy, D. (2012). The Brief American Pageant. Mason, OH: Southwestern.
Department of Homeland Security Grants
The HSGP (Homeland Security Grant Program) for the fiscal year 2017 contributes significantly to NPS (National Preparedness System) implementation through promoting the creation, delivery and sustenance of key capabilities vital to the achievement of America’s NPG (National Preparedness Goal) geared at improving its security and resilience. The provision of key capabilities necessitates integrated community-wide efforts and not the sole, independent endeavors of a particular governmental level or agency. HSGP’s allowable expenses foster attempts at developing and sustaining key capabilities over the Protection, Prevention, Mitigation, Recovery and Response mission domains, with the following prioritized:
· Development and Maintenance of Terrorism Prevention Competences by Law Enforcers
· Development and Upgradation of Key Urban Area and State Fusion Centers
FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency)
This Homeland Security agency was first established under the 1978 Presidential Reorganization Plan III, and put into service under a couple of Executive Orders…
In order to treat this condition, patients were hospitalized and given a series of treatments that nearly always included multiple daily dosages of doxycycline. Other treatments included intubation, ventilation, intravenous penicillin (for the patient provisionally diagnosed with leptospirosis), antimicrobial drugs, and digital amputation (for the patient suffering from digital necrosis) (Hanson). Most patients were able to recover after hospitalization for seven days, and continued to be treated for another seven days with doxycycline out of hospital. Other more severe cases were kept hospitalized for two weeks, and in one case, the patient was unable to return to work for two months (Hanson). Multiple tests were performed on each patient in order to determine further infections that may have developed in skin and blood tissues and to discover other common symptoms and effects of this specific disease. It was through these tests that the best treatments for each case were also…
Anderson, Catherine, et al. "Diagnosis of Queensland Tick Typhus and African Tick Bite Fever
by PCR of Lesion Swabs." Emerging Infectious Diseases. 15.6 (2009): 963-965. 23 Jan.
Hanson, Joshua P., et al. "Severe Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiosis, Australia." Emerging
Addressing myths targeting the young is particularly important to stress online, given that is where anti-vaccine myths are often disseminated. The fact that the flu shot has minimal risks should also be addressed, to counteract the urban myths about its dangers. Online, links to useful 'myth-busting' sites about the flu and the spread of the flu can be provided.
Various types of persuasive motivations should be emphasized, across all the types of media used in the campaign. Older individuals may be motivated to get vaccinated because of a fear for their more fragile health -- but also because they do not want to put their grandchildren at risk. Older people may also be motivated by a sense of civic purpose, so as not to spread the disease. So might healthcare workers and teachers, both of whom are in contact with high-risk members of the public on a frequent…
Questions and Answers: Seasonal Flu Shot. (2010). Centers for Disease Control (CDC).
Retrieved October 28, 2010 at http://www.cdc.gov /flu/about/qa/flushot.htm
Preferably, females should be vaccinated before onset of sexual activity. Sexually active females may also benefit from vaccination since there are very few young women are infected with all four HPV types that are targeted by the vaccine. Females who already have been infected with one or more HPV types would still get protection from the vaccine types they have not yet been exposed to. At the present time there is no test available for clinical use to determine whether a female has had any or all of the four HPV types targeted by the vaccine (HPV Vaccine Information for Clinicians, 2008).
The only way to prevent the spread of HPV and reduce the amount of cervical cancer cases that exist is to make the HPV vaccination mandatory. Those who argue against making the vaccination mandatory often claim that providing the vaccine will encourage promiscuity. This was the same argument…
Boskey, Elizabeth. (2007). Should States Be Allowed to Mandate the HPV Vaccine? Retrieved
November 2, 2009, from About.com Web site:
HPV Vaccine Information for Clinicians. (2008). Retrieved November 2, 2009, from Center for Disease Control and Prevention Web site: http://www.cdc.gov /std/hpv/STDFact-HPV-vaccine-hcp.htm
It also seems rather short, and leaves the reader wondering if the researchers could have done more to create a more vital and important document. They did not find the Segway was unsafe, however, and many of the comments of the postal employees who used it were very positive.
Other studies go father than many of the findings in this report, including the safety of the transport itself. Another study notes, "The Segway PT and its rider were found to have the second shortest braking distance, highest sight lines, one of the smallest footprints, and quickest perception-reaction time" (Landis, Petritsch, and Huang, 2004, p. 97-98). These are concrete safety details that seem lacking in the other report, and it seems as if the report could be much more useful if they had included data such as this in the report. In addition, Segways have been recalled due to accidents while…
Arnold, C. (2003). Safety concerns prompt Segway recall. Retrieved 31 Jan. 2008 from the NPR.org Web site: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1447863 .
Habes, D.J. And Tubbs, R.L. (2004). Topic: Health hazard evaluation report, HETA 2002-0239-2922, United States Postal Service Norman, Oklahoma - Note: Deals with the use of Segway Human Transporter. Retrieved 31 Jan. 2008 from the CDC.gov Web site: http://www.cdc.gov /niosh/hhe/reports/pdfs/2002-0239-2922.pdf
Landis, B.W., Petritsch, T.A., and Huang, H.F. (2004). Characteristics of emerging road and trail users and their safety. Retrieved 31 Jan. 2008 from the TFHRC.gov Web site: http://www.tfhrc.gov/safety/pubs/04103/04103.pdf.
The success of PPACA, and its provisions for people who are currently or chronically uninsured, will depend on reform of public programs as well as private insurance practices to create "new pathways to coverage (Gulley) and address the problematic link between employment and insurance coverage. In other words, employment should not be the only viable option for securing affordable insurance, nor should there be "significant work disincentives for people with disabilities" (Gulley). The law should help "reduce disparities in [healthcare] access (Gorin, 2010).
A number of provisions of PPACA have already taken effect. Beginning January 1, the law provided for a 50% discount on covered brand-name drugs. This provision was designed to close the coverage gap in Medicare Part D coverage, the so-called "Donut Hole." There is a 7% discount on generic drugs. The coverage gap will be completely eradicated by 2020, according to PPACA, making it even easier for…
Cobb, K., & Davis, C. (2007). The faces of the uninsured: One in four Texans has no medical coverage, posing dire physical risks for them and consequences for the state. Houston Chronicle 4/15/07.
Doheny, K. (1999). Filling a Health-Coverage Gap. WebMD. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/features/filling-health-coverage-gap
Gorin, S.H., Gehlert, S.J., & Washington, T.A. (2010). Health care reform and health disparities: Implications for social workers. Health & Social Work 35(4), pp. 243-247.
Gulley, S.P., Rasch, E.K., Chan, L. (2011). Ongoing coverage for ongoing care: Access,
National Health Goals and Behavioral Influences
Nurse Educators in Downstream, Midstream, and Upstream Obesity Interventions
The professional nurse has numerous opportunities to advocate for changes in social policy, community awareness, and behavioral risk factors associated with the choices of individual patients. With respect to obesity intervention, nurses can contribute their efforts to upstream, midstream, and downstream interventions. McKinley describes a framework that details the manner in which professional nurses can intervene to reduce the risk factors in obesity at three distinct levels: upstream, midstream, and downstream.
The types of obesity risk factors that exist at the upstream level include the prevalence of poor dietetic choices in the community, advertisement campaigns for unhealthful food choices targeted to children and other vulnerable populations, and the absence of government regulation over areas where appropriate legislation could reduce some of those risk factors by mandating socially conscious behavior on the part of food manufacturers…
Kovner, A.R., and Knickman, J.R. (2011). Health Care Delivery in The United States
(10th ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
S. inhabitants would be vaccinated and thus the spread of influenza mitigated.
In regards to flu transmission, the virus can be transferred in numerous ways. First according to the CDC, influenza a is found in many different animal products. These products include, ducks, chickens, pigs, and whales. According to the CDC, "Wild birds are the primary natural reservoir for all subtypes of influenza a viruses and are thought to be the source of influenza a viruses in all other animals. Most influenza viruses cause asymptomatic or mild infection in birds; however, the range of symptoms in birds varies greatly depending on the strain of virus." These symptoms can provide wide spread fatalities among wild animals.
Influenza B, circulate widely through human interaction. Symptoms include runny nose, sore throat, coughing, congestion, and nausea. More importantly, in regards to transmission, if an animal such as a pig is infected with a human…
FY2012 President's Budget For Health Human Services
One of the most prominent roles of the federal government in health care is as a purchaser of health insurance and third-party payer for health care. The federal government serves in this capacity for almost forty million elderly and disabled persons, nine million federal government employees and their dependants, and six million active members of the military and their families. It finances, in combination with the states, state-run insurance programs for the poor and near-poor children. It runs a health care delivery system intended to serve military veterans. Additionally, the federal government influences the health system by serving as a main locus for collecting health data and the principal source of funding for health services research. Notably missing is a national health planning task, although various federal agencies track health system characteristics, trends and aspects of performance (Public and private sector roles…
Overview. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://goals.performance.gov/agency/hhs/overview
Public and private sector roles in the U.S. health system. (2002). OECD Economic Surveys:
United States, 222.
The Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.hhs.gov/about/whatwedo.html
Genomics and Genetics in Nursing: Online esources
Genetics and Genomics in Nursing: Online esources
Genetics and Genomics
Genetics and Genomics in Nursing: Online esources
Genetics and Genomics in Nursing: Online esources
Genetics and genomics has become an integral component of healthcare in developed countries. Providing the best care for patients therefore requires a working and up-to-date knowledge of this area of medicine. One of the best ways to stay abreast of genetic and genomic developments, at least those that have matured made the transition from research laboratories into clinical practice, is through several internet websites.
The National Human Genome esearch Institute (2011a) maintains an easy to navigate website intended to provide current information on genetics and genomics for patients and the public. The two primary information components provided through the main webpage defines key concepts and terminology and offers a tool for developing a family medical history. The other two…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Public health genomics. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /genomics/
National Human Genome Research Institute. (2011a). Genetics and genomics for patients and the public. Retrieved from http://www.genome.gov/19016903
National Human Genome Research Institute. (2011b). Genetics and genomics in nursing. Retrieved from http://www.genome.gov/17515679
Diabetes and Obesity: What Are the Choices?
Diabetes is becoming an increasingly serious health problem across the United States, and indeed across the world. The majority of cases of diabetes, both in terms of new diagnoses and of current cases, are those of Type II diabetes, which is a condition generally brought on by overweight or obesity and lack of exercise, that prevents an individual's body from being able to metabolize the glucose in food in an efficient and healthy way. Individuals with Type II diabetes (as opposed to individuals with Type I diabetes) can generally be quite successfully treated by losing weight and increasing exercise. Individuals with Type II diabetes can often bring their symptoms and risks under control and even potentially eliminate them through good diet and weight loss.
Given that Type II diabetes can have very serious long-term consequences (including early death due to stroke or heart…
Early Release / Vol. 59 August 3, 2010. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm59e0803.pdf.
Laska, M.N. et al. (2009). Latent class analysis of lifestyle characteristics and health risk behaviors among college youth. Prevention Science 10: 376 -- 386.
Laska, M.N. et al. (2011). The Differential Prevalence of Obesity and Related Behaviors in Two- vs. Four-Year Colleges Obesity 19: 453 -- 456.
Nelson, M.C. et al. (2008). Emerging adulthood and college-aged youth: an overlooked age for weight-related behavior change. Obesity 16: 2205 -- 2211.
Public health as a discipline is really both the science and art of preventing disease, improving health, and prolonging the quality of life within a given society by use of public and private organizations. Overall, it is concerned with threats that are the type that may hurt society as a whole -- epidemics, dangers, social and mental well-being, etc. Modern public health is a multi-disciplinary field that includes medical professionals, statisticians, biologists, ecological and environmental professionals, dental professionals, nutritional experts, veterinarians, engineers, lawyers, sociologists, anthropologists, academics, and the political process itself (Rosen, 1993).
Historically, disease vectors, polluted water and pathogens, and lack of sewage without any scientific basis for control or actual understanding of pathogens created public health problems. In the modern world, public health focuses on several levels of health: local/regional, state, national and global -- typically based upon population statistics, demographics and the analysis of disease. Even in…
Breslow, L. (Ed.). (2002). Encyclopedia of Public Health. New York: Macmillan.
Centers for Disease Control. (2012, April). National Public Health Performance Standards - Local Public Health Systems. Retrieved from cdc.gov:
African-Americans and Diabetes
Diabetes in the African-American Adult Population
Diabetes is a serious public health issue, and often seen in the African-American adult population. According to the CDC, African-Americans are twice as likely to have type II diabetes as Caucasians (Diabetes, 2011). This is highly significant, since 90 to 95% of new diabetes cases each year are type II (Diabetes, 2011). There are several reasons for these cases, and genetics is one of them. Additionally, people can develop type II diabetes from obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, age, and poor eating habits. In order to thoroughly address the issue, it is important to look at what African-Americans know and do not know about diabetes, and how they handle the disease if they do develop it or are told they are at risk for developing it. Many of them have pre-diabetes, and can avoid the disease if they are conscientious regarding the…
Agurs-Collins, T.D., Kumanyika, S.K., Ten Have, T.R., Adams-Campbell, L.L. (1997). A randomized controlled trial of weight reduction and exercise for diabetes management in older African-American subjects. Diabetes Care, 20(10): 1503-1511.
Baptiste-Roberts, K., Gary, T.L., Beckles, G.L.A., Gregg, E.W., Owens, M., Porterfield, D., & Engelgau, M.M. (2007). Family history of diabetes, awareness of risk factors, and health behaviors among African-Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 97(5): 907-912.
Diabetes. (2011). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /chronicdisease/resources/publications/aag/ddt.htm.
McCleary-Jones, V. (2011). Health literacy and its association with diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy and disease self-management among African-Americans with diabetes mellitus. The ABNF Journal: 25-32.
As to the availability of safe and clean water supplies, and safe waste disposal facilities, Native Peoples are again on the short end of the stick. About twelve percent of Native People do not have adequate supplies of fresh drinking water and dependable waste facilities while only one percent of the general American population do not have those needed facilities (Indian Health Services).
The U.S. Commission on Civil rights reports that the rates Native Americans are dying resulting from diabetes, alcoholism, suicide, unintentional injuries and other health conditions is "shocking" (www.USCCR.gov). Going back to the arrival of the Europeans on the North American Continent, many diseases were brought to the Native Peoples which were "far more lethal than any weapon in the European arsenal" so anyone even preliminarily examining the health care history of Native Peoples can clearly see that this dilemma has been a plague for Indians (www.USCCR.gov). The…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population. Retrieved April 14, 2009, from http://www.cdc.gov /nchs/faststats/indfacts.htm.
Indian Health Services. (2006). Facts on Indian Health Disparities. Retrieved April 14,
2009, from http://www.americanindianhealth.nim.nih.gov.
United States Commission on Civil Rights. (2004). Broken Promises: Evaluating the Native American Health Care System. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from http://www.usccr.gov/pubs/nahealth/nabroken.pdf .
The cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, Self-Aid uddy Care and the Fire Extinguisher training are mandatory to all fuel systems personnel. Initial and annual recertification is conducted during squadron block training. Each personnel must possess a current CPR card.
All personnel are trained to use and care for all protective equipment in the work center.
And they are trained to recognize potential hazardous symptoms while working in confined spaces and to immediately evaluate the confined space as directed by the attendant.
efore the start of fuel systems maintenance, the shift supervisor insures that the applicable aircraft checklist is accomplished, the required fuel systems equipment are inspected and maintained in serviceable condition, emergency communications established by radio or emergency phones, and the Fire Department of Job Control Department notified of fuel systems maintenance.
efore entering the fuel systems repair area, all non-fuel systems personnel shall check in and get briefed by the…
Baird, R.L. (1996). Fire protection and health program. Air Force Occupational and Environmental Safety. 58 pages. Retrieved January 31, 2007 at http://www.epublishing.af.mil/pubfiles/af/91/afi91-301/afi91-301.pdf
Breed, P. (1998). Respiratory protection program. Air Force Occupational Safety and Health 48-138. Aerospace Medicine. 37 pages. Retrieved January 31, 2007 at http://22.214.171.124/pubs/info_asp?shorttitle=30SWI48-103
Millar, J. Donald. (1986). Preventing occupational fatalities in confined spaces.
NIOSH Publications 80-110. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 9 pages. Retrieved January 31, 2007 at
This is particularly ironic in light of the 2001 ashington anthrax attacks ("Communicating in the," 2007).
For this reason, the training of the APN/CPL as first responders is critical, particularly in the areas of teamwork and communication in a crisis zone. The APN/CPL professional knows this from firsthand experience in working in triage or emergency situations as first responders. In 2003 in an article in the journal Public Health Nursing a bulwark in the preparedness for a bioterrorism attack (Mondy, Cardenas & Avila, 2003, 424). hile this journal article urges the expansion of training of first responders, we have noted the declining funding levels. e have also noted the importance of making use of other funding and training in the areas of disease prevention and that funding programs in other sectors can do double duty in the preparation for a bioterrorism emergency. Referring back to the Public Health Nursing article,…
Communicating in the first hours bioterrorism agents. (2007, May 14). Retrieved from http://www.bt.cdc.gov/firsthours/bioterrorism.asp.
Texas scored seven out of ten key indicators for emergency health preparedness in new report. (2011). Retrieved from http://healthyamericans.org/reports/bioterror10/release.php?stateid=TX.