Reading is a complex process and as with most other cognitive processes there are generally two approaches considered when trying to understand it. A bottom-up process occurs when an individual takes the stimuli from the external environment, in this case letters and words, and attempts to process that information without referencing stored or higher -- level knowledge. A top-down process is guided by the person's prior knowledge and expectations. During top-down reading strategies whole words and phrases are comprehended based on prior experience. Reading has been proposed to be a procedure that uses both top-down and bottom-up processing in concert in order to extract meaning from the stimuli.
When an individual is reading a new or unfamiliar article there will still be quite a few familiar words. For instance, conjunctions such is "and" and familiar words such as "cat" will be recognized as whole words with specific meanings by the reader and the comprehension of these words will follow top-down process. For instance when the experienced reader comes across the word "and" in a sentence the reader automatically understands that the two phrases appearing prior to and following this conjunction are connected in some way and experienced readers understand the implicit meaning of the word "and." This process of reading is the classic whole word approach where familiar words and familiar contexts are recognized as phrases...
Thus, even when reading unfamiliar material, part of the process will contain top-down strategies to make sense of the material and to comprehend the message. Readers will form hypotheses about words and phrases that they encounter and will test hypotheses regarding the relationships and meanings of these phrases based on previous knowledge. This top-down process will help the reader to get a gestalt of the material.
However, in reading new or unfamiliar material there may also be words and combinations of words that are unfamiliar to the individual. When the reader encounters a word like "microcephalic" for the first time the reader will typically break up the word into a pattern of segments (e.g., "mi -- cro -- ce -- pha-lic") and then attempt to combine the segments in order to form a mental representation of the word. Moreover, combinations of words or phrases that are unfamiliar to the individual will be broken down in the similar bottom-up fashion and then combined to extract meaning. For an individual who may be reading text in a different language for the first time this process could be very slow and broken initially until specific words or phrases can become recognized as…
Reading Education Special needs and special education students have traditionally had more immediate needs in cooperative learning settings when compared to typical students. To be an effective teacher is not always as easy as telling the students to just sit-down and read. Teachers have to understand that there can be less obvious problems at hand like dyslexia, AD/HD, or English as a second language to name a few. When there are
This needs to be role modeled by the peers and adults with whom the young child comes in contact. When children observe this strong positive interest in learning, be it through reading books, playing word games, telling stories or many other activities, they will surely follow suit. First, they have an innate desire to learn. Second, they want their actions to receive a positive reaction. Third, more than anything,
Reading is an activity that many people take for granted. Here in America it is easy for us to take for granted a fully stocked library, or access to hundreds of classic works through our computers. Yet, I wonder how many people actually take advantage of these rich opportunities that they have? With all of the study guides and assorted methods of getting around reading, why do it? Is something
Reading Improvement in Third Grade Students Applied Dissertation Proposal for the Degree of Doctor of Education Making resources available to the third grade students and teachers lends itself to the appropriate data, types of instruments, and instructional strategies used to enhance education. Wilson School leaders are getting acquainted with reading resources that are beneficial in order to provide teachers with test data, reading instruments, and specific strategies to assist them in raising
Reading is fundament skill necessary for our children to compete in a more globalized world. Evidence has shown strong correlations between education and income. These correlations have endured multiple generations and reflect the need for continual improvement on the part of students. The ability to read and comprehend passages therefore is the first of many building blocks needed to be help students within a more competitive and highly dynamic environment.
This particular program is designed for grades K-8 and is both a reading and a language arts program. This reading program has as a foundation "literacy instruction that stimulates, teaches, and extends the communication and thinking skills that will allow students to become effective readers, writers, communicators, and lifelong learners." The program also uses themes to instruct students. In addition to programs that addressed the needs of beginning students, there