Thus instrumental condition would rely on the notion that a person generates a response rather than an environmental stimulus. I have found that both people and stimulus may elicit certain behaviors both in and outside of the classroom.
Instrumental conditioning is modeled after animal experiments which showed that the individual's environment can reinforce response controls, thus the best responses occur when reinforcement of a particular behavior is given. This I have learned to be the case in the classroom most assuredly, where students are more likely to exhibit positive behaviors more frequently when they are reinforced immediately for demonstrating positive behaviors. Generally the patterns that emerge from such conditioning are self-directed, meaning that I have found that most students engage in behaviors and continue to engage in behaviors which they find result in a positive response regardless of the environment they are placed in.
With regard to controlling adverse behavior, instrumental conditioning has proven most effective in my personal teaching experiences. Usually instrumental conditioning can be used interchangeably with classical conditioning. However in instrumental conditioning the reward is determined by the behavior; meaning the results of ones behavior generally determine whether or not their behavior is more or less likely to occur in the future (Klein, 2002).
A often implemented both conditioning techniques within the classroom to encourage students to repeat positive behaviors that would result in the best possible outcome for both the student and myself.
Most psychological theorists suggest that human behavior stems from stimulus, in a classroom setting the supposition is that behavior stems from learning specifically (Chang, 1998). People aren't naturally born with the ability to know how to behave, rather they learn how to behave based on unconscious and conscious activity that is influenced by certain stimuli (Chang, 1998).
Animal studies of cognition and behavior patterns have generally demonstrated that random behavior is very different from organized behavior, which usually comes about from the desire or memory of a positive end or result of a behavior, which conditions...
In the classroom I have learned that student learners are indeed for the most part passive, as they do not necessarily control the "emission of the response" rather they require reinforcement in order to exhibit desired behaviors (Chang, 1998).
Thorndike more of the instrumental conditioning school of thought examined the effect of punishment on animal as well as the relationship between association. He found hat as the association or connection between an object and successful responses became more evident, the animal involved in the experiment is more likely to engage in successful behaviors (Chang, 1998). He found that punishment and other forms of negative reinforcement are much less successful than positive ones (Chang, 1998). This is due in part to the notion that the association a person makes (or in the case of the experiments an animal receives) in a negative situation is diminished.
I have definitely found this theory practical in the classroom, and consistently use positive reinforcement to elicit productivity and positive behaviors from students. Generally it seems that most students learn based on a number of factors, therefore a number of techniques can be implemented successfully in the learning environment to influence both motivation, learning and the likelihood for a positive outcome.
Chang, Min-Yu S. (1998). "Learning Theory and Advertising." CIA Advertising. 23,
October 2004, Available: http://www.ciadvertising.org/studies/student/98_spring/theory/learning.html
Klein, S.B. (2002). "Principles and Applications of Appetitive Conditioning." Mississippi
State University. McGraw Hill. Education. 22, October, 2004, Available:
Parish, T.S., Maly, J. & Shirzai, a. (1975- Oct). 41(2):651-8
Tauber, Robert T. (1999). "Classroom Management: Sound Theory and Effective
Practice." Westport, Bergin Garvey.
Williman, D. (2004). "Instrumental Conditioning." From, Skinner, B.F. (1990,
November). "Can Psychology be a Science of Mind?" American Psychologist, 45: 1206-1210. 22, October 2004, Available: http://www.viterbo.edu/personalpages.faculty/DWillman/p335_op_cond.htm
Psychological Trait Theory in Criminology: The field of criminology can basically be described as the scientific study of criminals and criminal behavior since professionals in this field try to develop theories that explain the reason for the occurrence of crimes and test the theories through observation of criminal behavior. The criminological theories in turn help in shaping the response of the society to crime in relation to preventing criminal behavior and
This idea of guidance is important; children need the framework and support to expand their ZPD. Since the ZPD defines the skills and abilities that children are in the process of developing, there is also a range of development that we might call a "stretch goal"(Mooney). For Vygotsky, supplying the child with a combination of theoretical and empirical learning methods is a more robust way to ensure cognition. This leads
Learning Theories to Current Education In psychology and education, learning is normally described as a process that brings together cognitive, emotional, and influences of the environment being experienced for obtaining, enhancing, or enacting changes in an individual knowledge, values, skills, and views of the world. Learning as a process put their center of attention on what takes place during learning. Explanations of what takes place forms learning theories. A learning theory
It documented the preceding era's educational beliefs and styles in the field of mathematics and the results from implementing those beliefs on a wide scale. The study sought to organize three themes including; "broad sociopolitical forces, particularly highly publicized educational policy statements; trends in mathematics research and theories of learning and instruction" (Mathematics, 2004, pg. 16). These themes, in particular, were focused on the effect (or lack thereof) they had
Apa.org). Critical thinking input: Good teachers that truly understand how distracted today's young people are (with technology, etc.) learn how to get the most out of students by combining proven strategies of engagement with scholarship challenges that are both entertaining and compelling to their active minds. B.F. Skinner Historical views of transfer. When something is said to you and it reminds you (without you having to conjure up memories) instantly of something from
The role of language was less visible in Skinner, other than as one, among many reinforcement tools. Vygotsky stressed language acquisition as a vital, constant, but again, not always predictable and sequential part of different individual's learning, and that the word could be a microcosm of a human consciousness, if the right words could render a concept uniquely comprehensible to individuals in a particular learning environment. Thus in Skinner's