Racial and Ethnic Relations Essay

Excerpt from Essay :

Racial and Ethnic Relations

Japanese-Americans and European-Americans.

Economical: Initial Reaction of Dominant Group.

The Europeans would not allow the Japanese to obtain jobs in their offices, corporations, and hospitals. The Japanese had to open their own businesses in order to survive because they could not find work in the European community. They were allowed to become middle Middlemen Minorities in order to service the European-Americans through smaller businesses. Their communities were well established and thriving. The middlemen theory is described as a group that is polarized within the economic structure of a society by filling a niche market or need within that society (Feagin & Feagin, 2011). The are able to pool resources and skills to supply a product or service in demand by a upper class societal market and a lower income/class market.

B. Political and Economical: Effect over time.

However, after the first wave of Japanese Immigrants, they were discriminated against by the Anglo/European-Americans on the basis that they were denied employment within the European communities or white Protestant Americans of the United States (Feagin & Feagin, 2011). The Japanese were segregated to certain areas on the west coast of the U.S. starting in 1942 after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. This politically charged discrimination was based on their race being the same as those that bombed Hawaii. This led to exclusion of Japanese from jobs in European communities. It also spawned legislation that would allow Japanese-Americans to be rounded up and forced to live within certain regional areas in California. The Japanese were given opportunities to open small shops, restaurants, and use their skills as tailors for example in order to provide goods and services to the elite group. The middlemen group provides services to the elite group while at the same time is often looked down on from minority consumers that seek employment or who also buy the goods and use the services of the middlemen. Other minorities resent the fact that the Japanese have businesses and they have not been given same economic resources and governmental opportunities to open businesses that has been given to immigrants.

A. Ideological: Japanese-Americans.

In later years the U.S. Federal Government gave reparations to the Japanese. The amount given to the Japanese is over $1 billion in aid since 1988 when President Reagan gave a formal apology for the forced separation of Japanese-Americans. This was an attempt to restore the losses incurred by 2nd generation of Japanese who were subject to unfair and unconstitutional violation of civil rights as American citizens.

B. Ideological: Effect over time.

This was instrumental in allowing 2nd and third generation descendants to attend college on grants and scholarships. In addition they have received loans and grants to start businesses in addition to receiving other aid such as medical care. When a Japanese business is very successful there is some backlash from the European businesses that may compete for the same niche market. This again puts the concept of Middlemen into play as the Japanese businessmen has the elite customer on one side, other minority consumers on the other and European competitors calling for regulatory or economic intervention to gain an advantage over the minority business owner.

A. Political and Economic: European-Americans and Cuban Americans.

Cuban American immigrate from Cuba to the Miami area. Europeans consider them as enclaves or ethnic communities that develop in cooperation or collaboration with European companies economically and politically. Because of the early history involves tobacco growing plantations in the Miami and Southern states, Europeans were more apt to encourage migrant workers. The enclave…

Sources Used in Document:


Feagin, J.R. & Feagin, C.B. (2011). Racial and ethnic relations. 9th edition. Pearson.

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