Human resource management helps to contribute to the development of an organization through the provision of insight as to what resources are available to an organization, as well as what resources are necessary and required for the continued success of said organization. Human resource management helps an organization attain success through the recruitment, training, and retention of valuable and qualified employees. Recruitment specialists are often consulted in order to assure that the most competent and qualified candidates are employed within an organization.
Recruiting, or recruitment, is "the process of identifying and hiring the best qualified candidate (from within or outside an organization) for a job vacancy, in a most timely and cost-effective manner" (Recruitment, n.d.). The task of recruiting candidates for a specific job vacancy within an organization is often delegated to a recruitment specialist, which can be employed by the organization itself and be a part of the human resources department, or be delegated to an outside recruiter, or headhunter. A recruitment specialist is someone that "maintains contacts within the community and may travel considerably, often to job fairs and college campuses, to search for promising job applicants ("Human Resource, Training, and Labor Relations Managers and Specialists," 2009). Unlike a recruiter within an organization, a headhunter is charged with searching for and recruiting candidates who are usually executives within a company, or candidates that will fill an executive position within a company (Lindauer, n.d.). Headhunters are hired and paid by their clients on either a contingency basis or on a retained basis (Lindauer, n.d.). Recruiting firms that work on a contingency basis receive payment once a suitable candidate has been found and said candidate has been hired by the organization they were providing their services for. On the other hand, recruitment firms that work on a retained basis often receive their payment before a search has been completed. Generally, recruitment firms work on a contingency basis when trying to fill lower level positions and work on a retainer basis when trying to fill a job vacancy at a higher level (Lindauer, n.d.). Lois L. Lindauer (n.d.) contends that industry standards dictate that contingency and retained fees are equivalent of 25 to 33% of the new hire's first year compensation including sign-on bonuses, base pay, and any estimated bonus or commission. Both recruitment specialists and headhunters are charged with screening, interviewing, and ensuring applicants are qualified to fill a job vacancy through testing and other assessments. Furthermore, recruitment specialists and headhunters must check references and employee backgrounds, as well as have the power to extend job offers to qualified candidates ("Human Resource, Training, and Labor Relations Managers and Specialists," 2009).
In order to be an effective recruiting specialist, there are several factors that must be considered. One of the first factors to be considered is the qualifications and education that an individual has attained in order to be hired within an organization as a recruitment specialist and as a member of an organization's human resource department. Often, employers search for college graduates with a technical or business-related background, or graduates with a "well-rounded liberal arts education" ("Human Resource, Training, and Labor Relations Managers and Specialists," 2009). Because human resource degrees are not often made available until the graduate level, many programs offer courses in human resource related topics at an undergraduate level. It is also advisable that a recruiting specialist candidate has an interdisciplinary background, which may include studies in social sciences, business administration and management, and behavioral sciences ("Human Resource, Training, and Labor Relations Managers and Specialists," 2009). While many human resource specialists have education and training in management, organizational structure, and industrial psychology, training in accounting and financial management has become increasingly important ("Human Resource, Training, and Labor Relations Managers and Specialists," 2009). Many times, entry-level workers will learn by aiding in the performance of administrative duties such as helping to enter data into computer systems, through the compilation and revision of employee handbooks, research and compilation of data for a supervisor, or answering phones and answering routine questions. These entry-level employees are often assigned to specific areas within a human resource department that enables them to learn more about a certain field and helps them to gain experience. In the future, these entry-level employees may advance to other positions and oversee a major component of the human resource department such as training, compensation, or recruitment ("Human Resource, Training, and Labor Relations Managers and Specialists," 2009). Additionally, human resource specialists, including recruitment specialists may obtain certificates that demonstrate that they have specialized in a specified field within human resource management. These certifications are further signs of a human resource specialist's competence and credibility ("Human Resource, Training, and Labor Relations Managers and Specialists," 2009).
An effective and successful recruiting specialist must also be well informed about the job vacancy that is currently available, as well as the organization that they are employed by. The recruiting specialist must also be well informed of the human resource policies of the organization they are hiring for in order to be able to discuss monetary compensation for services rendered within a company and the present (and possibly future) working conditions within an organization. In addition to presenting the details of a job vacancy to a potential job candidate, the recruiting specialist must also explain the limitations of the job, up to and including any opportunities for advancement within an organization ("Human Resource, Training, and Labor Relations Managers and Specialists," 2009). A successful and effective recruiting specialist must also stay informed of federal regulations such as equal employment opportunity and affirmative action guidelines, which includes the American with Disabilities Act of 1990 ("Human Resource, Training, and Labor Relations Managers and Specialists," 2009).
The recruitment process is not overly complex and defines the steps that are taken in order to fill an open job position. The first step is to identify the vacancy and then to prepare the job description and person specification for the open position ("Recruitment Process," 2007). Once the position and job description has been identified, it is the recruitment specialist's responsibility to begin to advertise the vacancy ("Recruitment Process," 2007). Due to changes in marketing and advertising, the realm in which jobs are advertised has changed dramatically. No longer are job postings limited to print, but also include electronic media such as social networks and online job boards. Once the job has been posted, either online or in print, then the recruitment specialist must sort through the responses that the job vacancy posting has received. It is during this time that the recruitment specialist must sort through candidate responses and determine which candidates are suited for the job posted and which candidates are under-qualified for the position. Once the recruitment specialist has sorted through the responses, he or she will create a list of the most qualified candidates and arrange for interviews to be held ("Recruitment Process," 2007). The recruitment specialist is also responsible for conducting the arranged interviews and helps in the decision making process. Once the recruitment process has been completed, the selection process may begin ("Recruitment Process," 2007).
Like any other field, recruiting is not without its challenges and pitfalls. There are currently four major challenges that recruiting specialists are being faced with. These challenges include adapting to globalization, lack of motivation, process analysis, and strategic prioritization. Adapting to globalization requires that recruiting specialists keep up-to-date with changes taking place across the world and change the way they function in order to prevent falling behind. Adaptation can also mean that a recruiting specialist must keep up-to-date not only with changing recruiting practices and procedures, but also with changing technologies ("HR Challenges in Recruitment," 2007). As technology advances and is introduced into the workforce, some jobs become obsolete as they are replaced by these technologies and job descriptions must be revised to meet the demand that is created with these changes. A second challenge presented in recruitment is lack of motivation. Recruitment is sometimes considered to be a thankless job and is often overlooked. ("HR Challenges in Recruitment," 2007). Motivation of human resource specialists is crucial because they are, in turn, responsible for motivating the employees within and organization and maintaining morale. Motivation of employees is often achieved through financial rewards and other incentives. Human resource specialists utilize behavioral sciences in order to determine what motivates people and to help them feel a sense of accomplishment and achievement through psychological and physiological rewards. Because of this service that human resource specialists provide to an organization, it should be expected that the organization also try and motivate their human resource specialists so that they can perform to the best of their abilities. A third challenge encountered by human resource specialists is process analysis. A major concern of human resource specialists is the speed and immediacy of the recruitment process ("HR Challenges in Recruitment," 2007). The recruitment process should ideally be flexible, adaptive, and "responsive to the immediate requirements" of an organization ("HR Challenges in Recruitment," 2007).…