Moreover, EBSCO, U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, PubMed, and Sage Publication databases also contain thousands of research articles on the TEDs, DVT, Pulmonary Embolism, Anti-Embolism Stockings and the safe use of TEDs within the clinical units.
To identify the articles and research papers relevant to the study, the paper uses the keywords to search for data from the database and the keywords include:
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT )
TEDs (thromboembolic disease stockings)
PE (Pulmonary Embolism).
TEDs Anti-Embolism Stockings
Prevention of DVT,
The goal of using the keywords is to search the articles and research papers relevant to the study. When the author submits the keywords to the database, numerous articles come out from the database and the study only selects the articles that relevant to complete this study. Using the relevant search strategies, the author has been able to source for the quality research papers to complete the study.
3.0: Analysis of Data
Data analysis is the process of cleaning, inspecting, and transforming the data with the goal of delivering valid and reliable research paper to enhance decision-making. Data mining is the data analysis technique that the study uses in screening the reliable data from the database since the goal of this study is to produce high quality data to complete the study.
One of the best methods to check the data reliability is to check the abstracts of all the data collected to ensure that the overall structure of the data are relevant to the study. After checking the abstracts, all data relevant to the study are selected and those not relevant are discarded.
Another strategy used for the data analysis is to review the articles from peer-reviewed journal. Since not all published medical materials have the same credibility, the author specifically uses the peer-reviewed articles for the report. The peer-reviewed articles have more authorities because they have been properly scrutinized and approved by scholars, and the study specifically handpicked the articles from the peer-reviewed journals. The benefits of using peer-reviewed journals are that the articles published in the peer-reviewed journals have already undergone extensive process to improve on the quality of the articles before being accepted for publication.
Typically, many of the medical journals used for the report are peer-reviewed journals that have undergone critical evaluation before being published. It is essential to realize that peer-reviewed articles have already undergone series of evaluation from editorial staff, who improve, and edit the articles to remove the flaws identified within the articles. For example, the Annals of Internal Medicine receives 1200 submissions yearly; however, only 15% are subsequently published. Thus, the strength of peer-reviewed is that it has become an accepted method to carry out data analysis. (William, 2006).
Covidien (2012) provides overview of TED anti-embolism stockings. The author shows the complication that patients could have with Deep Vein Thrombosis, which can lead to major health risks to patients. Thus, the report reveals that TEDs are the clinical proven anti-embolism stockings that could be used to prevent and manage complications associated with Deep Vein Thrombosis. Essentially, "TEDs Anti-Embolism Stockings improve blood circulation in the leg veins by applying graduated compression." ( Covidien, 2012 P. 7). Despite the important of anti-embolism stockings for the prevention and management of DVT, not all anti-embolism stockings have the same level of direct clinical evidence protection.
Thompson et al. (2011) also reveal that anti-embolism stockings (AES) are the effective clinical tools that decrease the risk of DVT. Typically, the AES decreases the effect of DVT on patients who have undergone a general surgery. Thus, the authors further reveal that risk of developing DVT after total knee replacement (TKR) or total hip replacement (THR) without any thromboprophylaxis is nearly 56%. However, the risks are lower to 37% with the application of compression stockings. (Agu, Hamilton, and Baker,1999).
University of Edinburgh (2010) also presents data on the graduated compression stockings, where author reveals that the graduated compression stockings are widely used to manage deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis. However, the authors argue that below knees stockings are widely used than the thigh-length stockings. Typically, DVT and pulmonary embolism are common among patients specifically hospitalized for surgery as well as patients associated with immobility and stroke. DVT could lead to an avoidable death and graduated stockings are widely used to prevent and manage the risk of DVT. However, the findings delivered by the author show that incorrect use of TEDs stockings could lead to skin problems for patients wearing thigh-length stockings, and patients using below-knee stockings.
Walker & Lamont, (2008) also focuses on the correct use of graduated elastic compression stockings in the prevention of the DVT for surgical patients. Typically, prophylaxis against DVT is critical in nursing care, and graduated elastic compressions increases the velocity of blood in the veins thereby reducing the risk of thrombus formation.
Miller, (2011) show that anti-embolism stockings are the effective clinical tool for the prevention of DVT. Typically, anti-embolism stockings are effective in reducing the pain within the overall cross-sectional area of the limb as well as increasing velocity of venous within the limb. More importantly, anti-embolism stockings have also been demonstrated to reduce the relative risks of DVT that surgical patients may develop after surgery. To enhance effective utilization of anti-embolism stockings for the prevention of DVT, stockings must be correctly sized. The data collected from the authors reveal that anti-embolism stockings prevents patients who have undergone surgical operation to develop the risk DVT, and the risk for surgical patient generally reduces by 60-80%.
While there are several elastic compressions that could be used to manage DVT, however, not all the graduated elastic compression is effective for the prevention and management of DVT. The data collected on TEDs reveals that TEDs are long, tight fitting anti-embolism stockings that assist in providing graduated pressure on the legs. Despite the importance of TEDs, proper size and fittings of the stockings is critical to make the TEDs to be effective and safe for patient's use. Typically, nurses could only provide the safe use if the stockings are in the proper size and fit for patients.
The goal of this study is to review the "current practice for safe use of thromboembolic disease stockings (TEDs) within the Surgical Care Unit." The report identifies DVT as the most recognized common diseases among patients who undergo surgery in the hospital. Typically, DVT may lead to pulmonary embolism, which may consequently lead to death. The report identifies TEDs Anti-Embolism Stockings as the clinical methods to manage and prevent DVT. Despite the benefits of anti-embolism stockings for the prevention and management of DVT, the important issue is that not all the anti-embolism stockings are safe for patients. Typically, there is still contra-indication associated with the anti-embolism stockings because they could not be recommended for all patients suffering from DVT. The report also reveals that not all anti-embolism stockings have the same level of clinical benefits. Evaluation of TEDs anti-embolism stockings reveals that TEDs anti-embolism stockings could deliver high benefits for patients. However, medical practitioners need to critically evaluate the TEDs stockings before allowing patients to use during the clinical settings to enhance patient's healthy outcomes.
Correct selection of anti-embolism stockings is very critical to enhance patient's safety. The report recommends that medical practitioners should provide correct fitting of stocking for patients to enhance patient's safety. Typically, correct fitting will avoid discomfort or skin irritation, which maximize patient outcome. Thus, patients must strictly follow the instruction directed by physicians or nurses on the method to wear the stocking to enhance patient's safety. The stockings should also be changed every 2 or 3 days. The report recommends the following precautions with the use of stockings:
1. Patients should not roll their stocking downward in order not to impede the blood flow.
2. It is critical not to turn down the top of the stockings;
3. Patients should not use their knee length stockings to cover portion of their knee.
There is a need to carry out a further research on the method to enhance effective safety use of TEDs anti-embolism stockings for the prevention and management of DVT.
List of References
Agu, O., Hamilton, G., and Baker, D. (1999). Graduated compression stockings for the prevention of venous thromboembolism. British Journal of Surgery, 86- 992-1004.
National Health and Medical Research Council (2009). Guideline of Clinical practice for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) in patients admitted to Australian hospitals. Commonwealth of Australia 2009.
Miller, J.A. (2011). Use and wear of anti-embolism stockings: a clinical audit of surgical patients. International Wound Journal. 8 (1):74-83.
Thompson, a. Walter, S. Brunton, L.R. et al. (2011). Anti-embolism stockings and proximal indentation. British Journal of Nursing, 20 (22): 1426- 1430.
University of Edinburgh,(2010). Below-Knee Stockings vs.Thigh-Length for Deep Venous Thrombosis Prophylaxis After Stroke. Annals of Internal…