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Data Collection Essays (Examples)

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Determining How to Gather Research
Words: 470 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19709004
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Conducting Survey-Interviews
Assignment #1
Interviews can be incredibly valuable research tools, but there are definitely problems associated with them. For one, in an interview, there is opportunity clarify the question, so if the respondent needs clarification, it can be obtained. This is unlike most other forms of research. The interviewer can also encourage participation, and there is the opportunity for deeper probing of a subject. However, the interview could lead or bias the interviewee, skewing the results, and with an interviewer the respondent could be either more open or less open. That ends up being dependent on the interviewer and the interviewee, depending on subject matter and overall context.
Surveys have some merits, too, however. They are easier to administer, and less time-consuming, so the cost per response is usually much lower than for interviews. However, there is a fairly low response rate, and many times a survey risks falling…

Data Input Accuracy
Words: 912 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 390384
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Data Input Accuracy

Why Accuracy of Data Input is Important

The continuous operation in today's many systems depends on the accuracy of data that the systems use. As the amount of data increases, it is critical to ensure that every data input and used in a system is error-free to eliminate unwanted system problems.

Computer systems, software, and applications are basically created to provide efficiency in accomplishing a task. If the data used by a system is inaccurate, what help and sense will a computer system provide to its users? Accuracy of data input is important because data is considered as the life of a successful system operation. Jack Olson has the following view on the importance of data. Such importance provides the reason why accuracy of data input is similarly important.

Corporate databases are filled with data that reflects their business activities. This data is collected through routine business…


Olson, J. Data Accuracy: The Challenge.

Retrieved July 31, 2004, from DM Review Online. Web site: 

Star, J. Data Input.

Retrieved July 31, 2004, from University of California Online. Web site:

Data Warehouse a Strategic Weapon of an Organization
Words: 10375 Length: 38 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99774450
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Data Warehousing: A Strategic Weapon of an Organization.

Within Chapter One, an introduction to the study will be provided. Initially, the overall aims of the research proposal will be discussed. This will be followed by a presentation of the overall objectives of the study will be delineated. After this, the significance of the research will be discussed, including a justification and rationale for the investigation.

The aims of the study are to further establish the degree to which data warehousing has been used by organizations in achieving greater competitive advantage within the industries and markets in which they operate. In a recent report in the Harvard Business eview (2003), it was suggested that companies faced with the harsh realities of the current economy want to have a better sense of how they are performing. With growing volumes of data available and increased efforts to transform that data into meaningful knowledge…


Agosta, L. (2003). Ask the Expert. Harvard Business Review, 81(6), 1.

Database: Business Source Premier.

Babcock, Charles (1995). Slice, dice & deliver. Computerworld, 29, 46, 129 -132.

Beitler, S.S., & Lean, R. (1997). Sears' EPIC Transformation: Converting from Mainframe Legacy Systems to Online Analytical Processing (OLAP). Journal of Data Warehousing (2:2), 5-16.

Collections A History Reference &
Words: 1303 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62942250
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(2001) research has considerable questionable areas that require questions to the overall application of the specified survey research. he provided statistical analysis does not assist with validation of their research findings with the provided information having uniformity or little description in the application. For instance, there is an analysis of varying questions through the application of varying confidence levels with t-distributions only provided to support specified statistics. Another concern potential is the author's application of scholar's self-assessment as the core tool for data collection. Not only little information provided concerning the research design and methodology with the questionnaire content, but also there is also no indication given concerning the application tackled.

As a significant data collection instrument, care is considerable with the areas under research to enable the validation and substantiation of the given results. he last concern is on the Miller et al. (2001) general conclusions arising from the…

The statistical analysis of the experimental study had detailed information with the provision of future study base. The mediation analysis addition is a positive means of identifying inconsistencies to enable the avoidance of inconclusive results. While there is an omission of certain information, the experimental study is well executable with researched results.

Additional reference

Neuman, W.L. (2006). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Data Analysis Techniques
Words: 1083 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53305496
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eflexivity and esearcher's Voice In Qualitative esearch

A key feature of qualitative research is that the entire research process involves reflection and the researcher has a primary role in the research. According to Watt (2007) and itchie et al. (2013), a qualitative research is done with the primary objective being to understand and get insights on human phenomena, aspects of and nature of human experiences and the dynamic nature of process-oriented elements in human live. As a result, qualitative research is interpretive and doing a qualitative research means questioning the way humans experience the world and understand better the world. Qualitative research would therefore be credited for presenting us with the plausible possibility of understanding that makes the living-experience better and improved contact with the world.

Despite the crucial role of qualitative research, this type of research doesn't involve following rules, as the case with quantitative research (Watt, 2007; Knapik,…


Eriksson, P., & Kovalainen, A. (2015). Qualitative Methods in Business Research: A Practical Guide to Social Research. Sage.

Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health Promotion Practice, Vol 16, Issue 4, pp. 473 - 475

Phelan, S. K., & Kinsella, E. A. (2013). Picture this... safety, dignity, and voice -- Ethical research with children: Practical considerations for the reflexive researcher. Qualitative Inquiry, 19(2), 81-90.

Ritchie, J., Lewis, J., Nicholls, C. M., & Ormston, R. (Eds.). (2013). Qualitative research practice: A guide for social science students and researchers. Sage.

Data Supported Instruction
Words: 1417 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29467486
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driven) instruction?

DDI is a systematic and precise method designed to enhance learning by students. The cycle of inquiry for data driven instruction entails assessment, analysis of the student performance and action. It is a central causal factor for the realization of student success. The student tasks indicate to us what our learners are capable of doing and what they know. They also indicate points of weakness in their learning activities. The central question is how to make use of such data to close the gaps in the learning process. Experts in the education sector cite the use of data driven instruction and inquiry as an important tool in improving student performance (Data Driven Instruction, 2016).

What did you learn in the program you are now completing, including in student teaching, about the use of data-supported instruction?

The data that shows student achievement is highly valuable in helping education managers…


Barbara Means, Lawrence Gallagher, & Christine Padilla. (2007). Teachers' Use of Student Data Systems to Improve Instruction. Jessup: U.S. Department of Education.

Bongiorno, D. (2011). Student Assessment. Virginia: U.S. Department of Education.

Data Driven Instruction. (2016, October 9). Retrieved from Engage: 

Jerry L. Johns. (2002). What is Evidence-based reading instruction? Newark: International Reading Association.

Data Methods and Hypotheses of Two Studies
Words: 538 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99189358
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Kottke, J., & Pelletier, K. (2013). Measuring and differentiating perceptions of supervisor and top leader ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(3), 415-428. doi:10.1007/s10551-012-1312-8

Davis, A. L., & othstein, H. . (2006). The Effects of the Perceived Behavioral Integrity of Managers on Employee Attitudes: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, (4). 407.

Locate, download, and print "Empirical esearch Checklist."

For this assignment, selection of quantitative studies is preferred.

Instructors will be scoring your submission based on the number of correct identifications of empirical articles as noted in the checklist submitted. To be accepted as an empirical article, at least 13 of the 15 characteristics identified in the checklist must be present.


ead the Kottke and Pelletier article in the topic materials.

ead the articles in detail.

Complete the Empirical esearch Checklist for each article by giving the page number where the characteristic is found or marking an "X" in the…

References used in the study are presented.

Data Storage Design Large Business
Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11439355
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NET, PHP, Crystal Reports, and more.

In order to support the end-user database application, the user must maintain files like Adobe, Acrobat (pdf), PostScript, and FrameMaker to rapidly setup, test, modify, run, save and print database. Microsoft Excel files are also needed to enable information distribution in spreadsheet form and mark-up files (e.g., HTML, XML, etc.). There is no need to learn a programming language or meta-language and the setup can be accomplished by using a graphical user interface (GUI).

The most popular way to design a database is through Relational DMS, which provides a collection of operations to manipulate relations, where data is presented as a collection of relations. A table depicts each relation, attributes as Columns, and Rows ("tuples") represent entities. Among the main features and functions of the software include: Supports various configurations (single-user, networked multi-user, and client-server); Ease of installation and distribution; Transaction processing; High speed…


F. Stamatelopoulos, N. And Roussopoulos, B. Maglaris. (1995). "Using a DBMS for Hierarchical Network Management" "LEAP: Frequently Asked Questions" taken on November 10, 2006 from

Stanczyk, Stefan, Bob Champion and Richard Leyton. 2nd Edition. "Theory and Practice of Relational Databases."

Student Data Is Vital to the Student's
Words: 1229 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76942783
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student data is vital to the student's readiness, interest, learning profile and affect. As studies have shown, the more comprehensive the data about a student, the more capable a teacher becomes in tailoring lessons to use each student's strengths and address each student's challenges. By assessing X with even a simple tool like "Learning Style Inventory" and discussing the student's strengths, weaknesses, likes and dislikes, a clearer picture is obtained for accommodating her strengths and addressing her challenges with unique lessons.

The Importance and Value of Collecting Data

Rather than relying on happenstance to discover information about our students, teachers are now consciously collecting pertinent data about students, for "research and experience in increasingly global classrooms are revealing the complex interplay of factors that influence a student's learning" (Powell & Kusuma-Powell, 2011). The goal of such data collection is "personalized learning -- to use what we find out about our…

Works Cited

Anonymous. (nd). Learning style inventory. Retrieved on June 3, 2012 from Web site:

Popham, W.J. (2009, May). Assessing student affect. Retrieved on June 3, 2012 from Web site: 

Powell, W., & Kusuma-Powell, O. (2011). How to teach now: Chapter 1. knowing our students as learners. Retrieved on June 3, 2012 from Web site:

Crime Data Sources in the United States

The collection of crime data in the United States is carried out through different approaches including Uniform Crime eports and the National Incident-Based eporting System, which also act as the two primary sources of crime data for crime reporting. The data obtained from these sources are used for research and documentation of crime status at the county, state, and national levels. Notably, the National Incident-Based eporting System emerged as an advancement of the conventional summary of Uniform Crime eports that were used to track crime in the country. In addition, the Congress uses data from these sources together with those from the National Crime Victimization Survey to guide policy decisions and create suitable responses to crime. While the use of these sources helps in dealing with crime in the United States, they have some similarities and differences between them with regards to methodological…


Addington, L.A. (2008, February). Assessing the Extent of Nonresponse Bias on NIBRS

Estimates of Violent Crime. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(1), 32-49.

"Data Collection Guidelines." (2000, August). National Incident-Based Reporting System.

Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice website:

Coding and Collecting Data for
Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 75173609
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First, there is open coding, where frequently used words or concepts help separate useful data from other data that may not be useful in that particular research context. Next, the researchers turn to selective coding, which is "the process that links all categories and sub-categories to the core category thus facilitating the emergence of the 'storyline' or theory" (Corbin & Strauss, 2008, p. 155). This style of coding focuses on making relationships out of the emerging categories of more abstract qualitative data. Last, there is axial coding, which strengthens relationships between core concepts and categories. According to the research, "this process is used to make connections between categories and sub-categories and allows a conceptual framework to emerge" (Corbin & Strauss, 2008, p. 154). By using such coding methods, core concepts can help point to meaningful answers.

Moreover, data collection can be overlapping with data analysis within the context of qualitative…


Corbin, J.M., & Strauss, a.L. (2008). Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

National Science Foundation. (1997). What is qualitative analysis. Analyzing Qualitative Data. Web.

No Child Left Behind Data
Words: 2255 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 56259650
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State education agencies and local school districts needs to work to incorporate the major provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act (U.S. Department of Education, 2004a). The evaluator feels it is imperative that as teacher preparation programs, along with state and local education agencies, address the training, recruitment, and retention of highly qualified teachers and conduct counseling sessions for every American classroom.

Teacher education programs can prepare future teachers to work in true collaborative arrangements with a variety of community stakeholders and families by helping teachers and school administrators understand the mandates, timelines, and overall missions of other public human services agencies. This type of information is critical and could be easily incorporated into the general and special education teacher preparation curricula, including field experiences in schools as well as in community human service agencies (such as mental health centers or juvenile justice).

As more educators are trained and…


Kolbe L, J. (2006) A framework for School Health Programs in the 21st Century. Journal of School Health. Pg 75:226-228.

Lechtenberger, D.A., & Mullins, F.E. (Fall, 2004). Promoting better family-school community partnerships for all of America's children. Beyond Behavior, 14(1), 17-22.

Lewis, T.J., Powers, L.J., Kelk, M.J., & Newcomer, L. (2002) Reducing problem behaviors on the playground: An investigation of the application of school-wide positive behavior supports. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 181-190.

Miles, P., Burns, E.J., Osher, T. W, Walker, J.S., & National Wraparound Initiative Advisory Group. (2006). The Wraparound process users guide: A handbook for families. Portland, OR: Portland State University, National Wraparound Initiative, Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health.

Organizing Data in Qualitative and Quantitative Studies
Words: 576 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24201868
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Tracking Data

In research, data and information collected needs to be organized in a manner that makes sense for the researcher at the analysis and report writing stages. Data can be organized depending on the data analysis objectives of the researcher. The researcher would organize qualitative data differently than a survey or quantitative data. It is through data organization that the researcher, at times, would make sense of the data at hand and would either confirm or change the direction or focus of the data analyses (while keeping in mind that any changes should still be aligned with the study's objectives).

Organizing data collected using qualitative methods require a different kind of organization or approach to data analysis. Qualitative data are made up of text relevant to the study at hand, and may be in the form of a key word, phrase, sentence, or passage from a specific discussion into…


Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Reisman, J., Gienapp, A. And S. Stachowiak. 2007. A Handbook of Data Collection Tools: Companion to "A Guide to Measuring Advocacy and Policy." Organizational Research Services.

Sampling Design & Data Method
Words: 1442 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38737103
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(362) One additional note on this half of the duel research study was that the pair of applicants with and without fictitious criminal records was rotated throughout the experiment to reduce the odds that a single applicant would alter results if assigned the rigid role of ex-con or clean record applicant.

In the second half of the research study the same set of potential employers was surveyed using a vignette method. The vignette described the scenario of applicants who matched the (tester) applicants. The employers who were screened by asking for the person in charge of hiring at the place of business were then asked to respond to the scenario by answering questions regarding if they would or would not hire or consider hiring the applicant in the vignette. Data was collected utilizing the responses to the survey questions, which avoided direct racial comparisons but simply stated the race of…

Works Cited

Pager, Devah and Lincoln Quillian.. "Walking the Talk? What Employers Say vs. What They Do." American Sociological Review 70: 2005, 355-380.

Gray, Paul S., John B. Williamson, David a. Karp, and John R. Dalphin the Research Imagination: An Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Sampling Data Analyses the Single-Study Critique Paper
Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80304165
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Sampling Data Analyses the single-study critique paper 2 individual assignment. Develop individual response Single-Study Paper 2 IOM topic area. Use article Single Study Critiques 1-2. It a requirement a quantitative study paper.

Quantitative article analysis

The Nursing esearch article "Effectiveness of an Aspiration isk-eduction Protocol" addresses a proposed method to reduce the risk of aspiration in critically ill patients through a three-pronged intervention strategy. The intervention strategy components include "maintaining head-of-bed elevation at 30 degrees or higher, unless contraindicated; inserting feeding tubes into distal small bowel, when indicated; and using an algorithmic approach for high gastric residual volumes" (Metheny, Davis-Jackson & Stewart 2010: 1). It used a two-group quasi-experimental design of critically ill, mechanically ventilated adult patients receiving tube feedings. 329 were in the control population, 145 in the experimental group (Metheny, Davis-Jackson & Stewart 2010: 1). The patients were all drawn from the same five ICUs at a Level…


Metheny, Norma A., Jami Davis-Jackson & Barbara J. Stewart. (2010). Effectiveness of an Aspiration Risk-Reduction Protocol. Nursing Research, 59(1): 18 -- 25. Retrieved: doi:10.1097/NNR.0b013e3181c3ba05.

Urban Data Review Reades Et Al 2007
Words: 487 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87435306
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Urban Data eview

eades et al. (2007) presented some interesting ideas about the use of data collection and its practical application in an urban setting. The authors discussed spatiotemporal data as a new object of desire for those wishing to control and understand human behavior in large city. The authors called for a synthesis of data information from all available sources, including telecommunications companies to assist in urban planning and understanding the complex and chaotic idea of urban dynamics.

This paper discussed this topic by explaining the details of a study conducted by MIT and Telecom Italia (TI), in ome, Italy's largest city. TI supplied data that recognized bandwidth usage on mobile phones and classified them as Erlongs. The data was collected, synthesized and modeled to help paint a picture of how ome operates and how people move about and communicate. Ultimately, the paper concluded that "Our preliminary findings suggest…


Reades, J. et al. (2007). Cellular Census: Explorations in Urban Data Collection. Pervasive Computing, 6(3), July-September, 2007.

Project Data
Words: 768 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93176321
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The FEP (Fundraising Effectiveness Project) aims at helping non-profits quicken fundraising. The Project strives towards the above objective by offering yearly charity growth tracking and evaluation features to nonprofits. An increase in giving may be defined as net gains minus net losses in contribution (Tools - Fundraising Effectiveness Project). Nonprofit entities raise a larger sum of money via investments in growth-focused fundraising methods which amplify gains as well as decrease losses. FEP's emphasis is "effectiveness" (or charity growth maximization) instead of "efficiency" (or cost minimization). A yearly survey is performed, helpful performance measurement instruments for gauging increase in giving are provided, and loss/gain statistics are issued via an annual report, by partnering with The Urban Institute, the Association of Fundraising Professionals (AFP), and participant donor software companies. FEP resources back growth-focused fundraising initiatives. The Gig (Growth in Giving) program endeavors to increase philanthropy's GDP (gross domestic product) share. This initiative…

Keeping Digital Data Secure
Words: 2444 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3974927
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Future of Data Storage in Computer Networks

There are a number of problems facing the future of information technology including the fact that networks are increasingly asked to expand in order to accommodate more and more data. Many experts believe that such increases will mean two things; one that the networks will become increasingly secure, and two because of the security, the data contained on the network will become more difficult to access. This study sought to determine the various processes that are currently being used to secure data on various networks, and to determine if that security will, or will not, ensure that data will become incrementally more difficult to obtain. To this end, this study used the most current literature available to determine if there is a problem with the data being stored in the current manner, or if there is a perception that the data will be…


Axellson, A-S. & Schroeder, R. (2009). Making it open and keeping it safe: E-enabled data-sharing in Sweden. Acta Sociologica, 52(3), 213-226.

Datt, S. (2011, Winter). The information explosion: Trends in technology review. The Journal of Government Financial Management, 60(4), 46-54.

Folk, M. & Barkstrom, B. (2003). Attributes of file formats for long-term preservation of scientific and engineering data in digital libraries. Paper presented at the Joint Conference

on Digital Libraries, Houston, TX, May 27-31.

Manage and Organize Qualitative Data Lecompte 2000
Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79418643
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manage and organize qualitative data. LeCompte (2000) notes that data can be organized using traditional organization techniques like creating files, cataloging, labeling, and creating indices. These techniques are often applied to qualitative data that comes in the form of field notes or other written information. Today, the information might be stored in a database on the computer. Often the data might be recorded on a smartphone or tablet, which will make it even easier to transfer to a computer. However, the techniques of indexing, cataloging and labeling are still used to manage large amounts of qualitative data.

It is important that the research is able to make sense of the data, but it should also be remembered that one of the most valuable traits of qualitative research is that it has a lot of flexibility with respect to how that data can be analyzed and presented. As such, it is…

Works Cited:

Bansal, P. & Corley, K. (2011). The coming of age for qualitative research: Embracing the diversity of qualitative methods. Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 54 (2) 233-237.

Guest, G., Bunce, A. & Johnson, L. (2006). How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and validity. Field Methods. Vol. 18 (1) 59-82

LeCompte, M. (2000). Analyzing qualitative data. Theory Into Practice. Vol. 39 (3) 146-154.

Morse et al. (2002). Verification strategies for establishing reliability and validity in qualitative research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods. Vol. 1 (2) 13-22.

Database Data Warehouse Design Our Company Data
Words: 1488 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82596978
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Database Data Warehouse Design

Our company, Data Analytic Limited, specializes in collecting and analyzing data for various organizations. Over the years, we have assisted various companies to turn raw data into valuable information that assists the companies in making effective decision profitable in the short and long run. Our research and data analytics are geared towards giving extra edge to various companies. Our services include processing and analyzing terabytes of data to provide customer meaningful information for business decision and enhance competitive market advantages. ecent growth of our company necessitates the needs to design and develop data warehouse that will accommodate large volume of customer data.

Objective of this project is to design and develop the data warehouse for our company.

Importance of Data Warehousing for our Organization

Comprehensive portfolios of our business include Business, Market, and Financial research, Data processing services and Domain based analytics. While the relational database…


Hillard, R. (2010). Information-Driven Business. UK. Wiley.

Microsoft (2012).Data Warehousing | Microsoft SQL Server 2012. Microsoft Corp.

Patil, P.S., Srikantha, R., Suryakant, B.P. (2011). Simplification in the Reporting and Analysis Optimization of the Data Warehousing System:, Foundation of Computer Science, 9 (6): 33 -- 37.

Rostek, K. (2010). Data Analytic Processing in Data Warehouses. Foundations of Management, 2(1), (2010), 99-116.

Comfortable Do You Feel With Data and
Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94286637
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comfortable do you feel with data and the data collection and analysis process?

A better understanding on data, data collection, and analysis process informs me on the need to have effective training and professional development. With the increased diversity in data collection methods, I often face the challenge of grasping differentiated data, which require great skill and knowledge level. While enhancing the skills related to collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data, I am potentially equipped to adjust my knowledge to accommodate different needs. While accessing great data volumes, I have learnt to collect and analyze them in a timely manner (Johnson & La, 2010). Experts consider such skills crucial in understanding and identifying the areas that need improvement whilst applying tailored data in such situations. Data collection and analysis are useful processes especially when one has to make an informed decision.

Are you more likely to rely on quantitative data, qualitative…


Johnson, R.S., & La, S.R.A. (2010). Data strategies to uncover and eliminate hidden inequities: The wallpaper effect. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Corwin.

Klein, M.F. (2011). The Politics of curriculum decision-making: Issues in centralizing the curriculum. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Easily Reduced to a Single Data Point
Words: 1289 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95770258
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easily reduced to a single data point. This allows researchers to find the answers to their questions quickly and in direct relation to the research question. However, one of the key drawbacks to quantitative research is that it often does not allow for a detailed exploration or to explore the "human" side of the equation. Quantitative research gives quick and simple answers, but it does not always provide the best solution to the research problem. Qualitative research provides greater depth and insight into the problem at hand.

According to Creswell (2007), "we conduct qualitative research because a problem or issue needs to be explored" (pg. 39). esearchers embark on the exploration of a phenomenon because of a "need to study a group or population, identify variables that can be measured, or hear silenced voices" (2007, pg. 40). esearchers ask open-ended questions to allow the participants to tell their stories, and…


Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Flyybjerg, B. (2006). "Five Misunderstandings About Case Study Research." Qualitative

Inquiry, vol. 12, no. 2, April, pp. 219-245.

Flyybjerg, B (2011). "Case Study," in Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln, eds., The Sage

Themes to Data
Words: 1138 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 58961240
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emerged from the various sources above about how often a review of data should take place?

In principle, review of data should occur continuously and, more importantly, at intervals contemporaneous with ongoing lesson delivery to confer the maximum benefit to learners. By contrast, retrospective review of the data completely excludes current learners from the benefits of even the most prescient data analysis and any corresponding changes to the educational program or curriculum inspired by those analyses. In theory, the more frequently and regularly data review is conducted, the better for all stakeholders. Ideally, data review should occur on a day-by-day, hour-by-hour, or even minute-to-minute to provide maximum benefit. Realistically, periodic data review at practical intervals allows educators to respond to the implications of those data while those responses can still benefit current learners and without over-burdening the institution or the system's resources.

In the Canadian Report of Data Use PDF…

5. As you read through the SEDL article on school improvement through the use of data, can you see common themes to the Schmoker, Canadian Report, and the Texas School Turnaround center initiatives? Explain detailed reasons as to why or why not there have common themes.

All of the referenced articles share a broad common theme: namely, that the quality of modern education systems can be improved through a purposeful collection of relevant data and the implementation of policies, practices, and procedures according to the evidence of need disclosed by data analysis. Where the referenced articles differ is in connection with what they regard as the most important aspects of improvement through conceptual vision, strategy, and operational change management. The SEDL article mainly presents the process of educational system improvement through the application of data for that purpose. The Texas Turnaround Austin ISD Program suggests that the necessary data-analysis skills and conceptual understanding among educators can be established through annual summertime retreats.

Mike Schmoker would characterize the goals set by the 2011 Region XIII Texas Turnaround Framework as too complex and overly ambitious and would encourage the more conservative framing of goals and strategies for reaching them. The Canadian report would support the approach provided by Schmoker, but would apply the same focus on preparing educators to understand and apply data at two different levels. That outline advocates the training of individual educators to understand data but it also introduces the concept of promoting a culture of data comprehension throughout educational institutions and systems.

Balancing Data Quantity and Quality
Words: 402 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70070130
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Quantity and Quality

Describe the strengths and limitations of the provided data collection instrument for gathering data you need to evaluate the fitness course in the scenario provided.

The strength of the data collection instrument suggested is that it can be uniformly applied. The students are enrolled in three weeks each of five different activities for a total of fifteen weeks each. The research study will be for a period of three years meaning that at least ten groups of students can be utilized in the research and the same questionnaire can be used in all ten groups of students. The limitation is that with any survey, the results will be dependent on the reports of the participants of the study. Given that it is both a pre- and post- questionnaire, researchers must believe in the self-report of the individuals participating which allows for a great deal of fallibility (McKenzie…

Works Cited

Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012). Program evaluation and evaluation instruments. Baltimore, MD: Author.

McKenzie, J.F., Neiger, B.L., & Thackeray, R. (2013). Measurement, measures, measurement instruments, and sampling. Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating Health Promotion Programs (6th ed.). Pearson: San Francisco, CA.

Improving Classroom Discipline- Potential Data
Words: 495 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 93610259
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control group as well as potential other study groups (grade level and ability level

DCS2 -- Field Notes/Observational ecords -- Observation of the above classes engaged in either a various lessons; take detailed notes on behaviors observed and current strategies being use to refocus or mitigate that behavior.

DCS3 -- Audiotaped Interviews (Children) -- Interview students about ways they believe behavior or management intervention can be effective. Students innately understand that certain behaviors are acceptable and certain ones unacceptable, within the classroom. Use this to get their view on how they believe a teacher can be effective in classroom management and what that means to them.

DCS4 -- Interviews with experts -- Similarly, interview experts in the field of behavioral psychology, long-term teachers, or specialists in classroom management to discuss appropriate levels of classroom management and intervention techniques.

DCS5 -- Behavioral Scales -- Once literature review and interviews are complete,…


Churchward, B. (2009). 11 Techniques for Better Classroom Discipline. Discipline by

Design. Cited in:

Craig, D.V. (2009). Action Research Essentials. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Databases and Data Communications Understanding Whether or
Words: 1242 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77006703
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Databases and Data Communications

Understanding whether or not the need for a database exist occurs within several types of businesses at all levels. Several professionals have taken time to determine this need in order to improve operations within their operations. These professionals include educational institutions and doctors, as well as insurance companies. Databases are becoming a part of everyday living. There are several things a database can bring to a company which includes, efficiency and the ability to manipulate, input and use information. These benefits provide organizations with powerful decision making tools that aid in onscreen delivery and printed reports. Possessing a database management system is an essential tool in the ability of an organization to retrieve and store mass amounts of data at command. Although the possibility of a database being nothing greater than a time consuming expense, when used properly, a database can be an asset to any…


Business Dictionary, (2012), Decision Support System (DSS), Retrieved from 

Kroenke, D.M. (2012). MIS Essentials (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice


Collecting Using Describing Data
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Decision Making Situations

One of the most critical issues that gripping our national debate today is the issue of unemployment and the subsequent concerns the rate of unemployment raises, regarding the U.S. economy's ability to fully recover. According to the Bureau of Labor and Statistics, the unemployment rate was 5.6% in January.

Unemployment rates for most major worker groups, including adult men (5.1%), adult women (5.0%), teenagers (16.7%), whites (4.9%), and blacks (10.5%) -- were little changed in January. The unemployment rate for Hispanics rose to 7.3% over the month, about the same rate as last fall. The unemployment rate for Asians was 5.2% in January, not seasonally adjusted." (Unemployed situation summary, 2004).

The Government conducts a monthly sample survey called the Current Population Survey (CPS) to measure the extent of unemployment in the country. (FAQ, 2004) Thus the method of data compilation is not universal; rather it is a…

Works Cited

FAQ." (2004). Bureau of Labor and Statistics. Retrieved on February 23, 2004 at 

Unemployment situation summary." (2004) Bureau of Labor and Statistics. Retrieved on February 23, 2004 at 

Occupational outlook handbook." (2004). Bureau of Labor and Statistics. Retrieved on February 23, 2004 at

Evaluating Data Analysis Software
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Qualitative data is characterized by the deep, rich aspects that enable researchers to enter the realm of the participants in a study. Qualitative research projects are characterized by considerable coordination challenges and tight deadlines. Business clients of market research providers and academic research colleagues anticipate that the value qualitative researchers bring to inquiry is the ability to analyze and interpret, providing insights or contributions to themes. But often these processes are given short shrift with regard to time allotments in the overall inquiry process.

Challenges of Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA)

Data analysis software is a strong tool for textual analysis, and the benefits fall primarily into three categories: (1) Efficient systematic analysis, (2) effective retrieval and identification of data, and (3) capacity. Data analysis software is a grounded in machine learning -- algorithms and mathematical approaches to textual analysis that are interpretation neutral. That is, either patterns exist in…

NVivo: NVivo supports the cognitive activities associated with qualitative research and the productivity capabilities for managing large amounts of data are strong. The students-only license is $189. The full NVivo 9 license is $650 for 1 computer installation with indefinite use.

Source: NVivo. 

Atlas.ti: Use Atlas.ti collect, manage, analyze, and share both primary and secondary qualitative data. The learning curve is short, operations are intuitive, and it has embedded survey and transcription components. The cost is $99 for a student license and $1,800 for a regular single user license. Source: Atlas.ti.

City of Alexandria -- Time Series Data
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City of Alexandria -- Time Series Data

Tufte (2001) and other ambassadors of the visual display of data have shown us how easily it is to understand complex data when it is graphically represented in ways that our minds are designed to understand. Tufte argues that "experience with the analysis of data…is essential for achieving precision and grace in the presence of statistics, .but even textbook of graphical design are silent about how to think about numbers" (Tufte, 2001, p. 104). Tufke remarks, that "Illustrators too often see their work as an exclusively artistic enterprise -- the words "creative," "concept," and "style" combine regularly in all possible permutations -- a Big Think jargon for the small task of constructing a time-series a few data points long" (Tufte, 2001, p. 204). Visual display of data has other uses than simply an elegant way to view, appreciate, and analyze data. The process…


Averch, H.A. (XXX). Chapter 10 Using expert judgment. [In XXXX].

Gladwell, M. (2007, November 12). Dangerous minds: Criminal profiling made easy. The New Yorker.

Miller, J.E. (2005). The Chicago guide to writing about multivariate analysis. Chicago, Il.: University of Chicago Press.

Meier,, K.J., Brudney, J.L., and Bohte, J. (2005). Applied statistics for public and nonprofit Administration, 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Thompson Wadsworth.