School Are Designed To Be Research Paper

Length: 9 pages Sources: 6 Subject: Psychology Type: Research Paper Paper: #6088454 Related Topics: Graduate School, School Psychology, School, Educational Psychology
Excerpt from Research Paper :

Participants were allowed to use a calculator and were given a time limit of eighteen minutes to complete the exam. After the exam stimuli, participants completed a short questionnaire consisting of seven questions about basic demographics and confound checks.


To see if participants major was a confounding variable, an one way ANOVA with a LSD test, was performed to see if participants major had an effect on exam performance.

A 2 X 3 factorial ANOVA was performed for the analysis of the main affect of test anxiety and the main affect of question difficulty sequence, as well as the interaction between test anxiety and question difficulty sequence on exam performance. A LSD test was performed for the three-level independent variable, question difficulty sequence, to see if cell means varied for question sequences of easy to hard, random, and hard to easy. Three contrast t-tests were performed to test the interaction between each question sequence (easy to hard, random, hard to easy) and high-test anxiety vs. low-test anxiety. The hypothesis predicted that participants with low-test anxiety would perform better than participants with high-test anxiety on exams with random question sequence, and hard to easy sequence, but on exams with question sequence of easy to hard, there would not be a different in performance between the two-levels of anxiety.

For the confound check, participants major did have a an effect on test performance, F (4,41) = 4.75, p=.003. Participants performed differently depending on their major, Engineers (M = 8.31, SD = 1.55), education (M = 3.50, SD = 2.12), Business (M = 5.50, SD = 2.74), communication (M = 3.67, SD = .58), and other (M = 6.89, SD = 2.49).

Against hypothesis "A," there was no effect of test anxiety on test performance, F (1,36) = 3.14, p = .09. Participants performed approximately the same on exams regardless of low-test anxiety (M = 6.14, SD = 2.94) or high-test anxiety (M = 7.33, SD = 2.01).

As expected, and supporting hypotheses "B," there was a main effect of question difficulty sequence, F (2,36) = 8.22, p = .001. Participants...


Three pairwise comparisons were made showing that there was no meaning difference between cell means of performance for question sequence of easy to hard (M = 8.21) versus random question sequence (M = 7.07), p = .17. There was a meaningful increase between cell means of performance for question sequence of easy to hard (M = 8.21) versus cell means of performance for question sequence of hard to easy (M = 4.93), p = p < .001. There was a meaningful increase between cell means of performance for random question sequence (M = 7.07) versus cell means of performance for question sequence of hard to easy (M = 4.93), p = .01.

Against expectations and against hypotheses "C," there was no interaction between test anxiety and question difficulty sequence on test performance, F (2,38) = .50, p = .61. Three contrast t-tests were conducted to determine whether or not an interaction varied between cells. There was an no effect of easy to hard question sequence and low-test anxiety vs. high-test anxiety, t (36) = -.61, p = .54. Participants who received the exam with question ordered from easy to hard difficulty did not perform different with low-test anxiety (M = 7.86, SD = 2.41) than participants with high-test anxiety (M = 8.57, SD = 1.72).

There was an no effect of random sequence and low-test anxiety vs. high-test anxiety, t (36) = -.61, p = .54. Participants who received the exam with random question did not perform different with low-test anxiety (M = 6.71, SD = 3.45) than participants with high-test anxiety (M = 7.43, SD = 1.62). There was an no effect of hard to easy question sequence and low-test anxiety vs. high-test anxiety, t (36) = -1.84, p = .07. Participants who received the exam with question ordered from hard to easy did not perform different with low-test anxiety (M = 3.86, SD = 1.07) than participants with high-test anxiety (M = 6.00, SD = 2.00).


The purpose of this study was to test the theory that test anxiety can be alleviated enough to create a true representation of a student's grasp of the material they have learned through a variation in the structure of the examination. The original hypothesis was that students would perform better if the questions were sequenced from easy to difficult, in that order. The lower level of test-related anxiety would allow students to perform better on examinations, under this theory.

The experiment yielded results that were quite different from those expected. As a result of this experiment, it was determined that students who experience significant levels of test anxiety may not find any relief from this anxiety with an alternate test structure. Although experts have suggested that an easy-to-difficult structure of test questions may help to boost motivation and alleviate some of the anxiety associated with intimidating examinations, there is no evidence from this experiment that supports that hypothesis.

This study also found that students did not perform differently with regard to major. Students…

Sources Used in Documents:

Works Cited

Deffenbacher, J.L., & Hazaleus, S.L. (1985). Cognitive, emotional, and physiological components of test anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9(2), 169-180.

Nelson, J.T. (1975). Effects of anxiety type and item-difficulty sequencing on mathematics test performance. Journal of Education Measurement, 12(4), 241-249.

Tobias, S. (1985). Test anxiety: interference, defective skills and cognitive capacity.


Cite this Document:

"School Are Designed To Be" (2010, December 06) Retrieved June 12, 2021, from

"School Are Designed To Be" 06 December 2010. Web.12 June. 2021. <>

"School Are Designed To Be", 06 December 2010, Accessed.12 June. 2021,

Related Documents
School Personnel Functions
Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Topic: Teaching Paper #: 89114714

School Personnel Functions Personnel functions and their relationship to moving an instructional agenda forward Ultimately, a school's reputation lies in the hands of its teachers. Hiring, training, and retaining highly effective personnel to give instruction in the classroom must be the cornerstone of any effort to improve education at a school. Without good teachers to impart instruction, the best textbooks, goals, and procedures will not be meaningful. Teaching, however, is a skill

School Crime, Including the Characteristics
Words: 2347 Length: 7 Pages Topic: Teaching Paper #: 8865251

Several areas, if poorly designed, can lead to violent and criminal behavior, including parking lots, isolated spots on campus, locker rooms, and corridors. Often, violent behavior occurs in these areas when adults are not present (Astor, Meyer, and Behre, 1999, p. 3). Designing schools with more open areas, more planned classrooms, and a more defined perimeter can create a safer, less violent campus by creating a more functional and

School Delinquency Prevention Program
Words: 994 Length: 3 Pages Topic: Children Paper #: 89614620

School Delinquency Prevention Program Delinquency prevention is an initiative that was introduced into the United States system of justice in 1974, with the aim of protecting the rights of errant juveniles, and preventing them from continuing criminal activities into adulthood. Greenwood (2008) points out that a good crime-prevention program is one that incorporates policies that work to ensure that the participants are molded to become more responsible, law abiding adults. In

School Uniforms in Public School Has Been
Words: 1355 Length: 4 Pages Topic: Teaching Paper #: 86648601

School uniforms in public school has been a subject of national debate. Private and Parochial schools have a long history of school uniforms. Its implementation in public schools has been met with sharp criticism, it came to gain momentum in the late 1980's and it has been increasing steadily throughout the years. In some past few years the subject has gotten various boosts. The biggest boost was when in January

School Restructure the School Statistics
Words: 1465 Length: 5 Pages Topic: Teaching Paper #: 88900634

This is through facilitating effective curriculum planning; use of substantive research-based practice in implementing adequate and aligned curriculum, and efficient coordination of the curricular. Other techniques include use of technology and promotion of creative, critical, and problem solving things. Lack of sustaining an instructional program conducive for the professional and learning development of the students might also come into play in the low confidence levels and low accountability ratings. According

School Program Evaluation This School
Words: 4738 Length: 14 Pages Topic: Teaching Paper #: 68852150

From each of the four classes, the researcher will randomly select 5 students to undertake the CSCL tool teaching method, this will ensure that the students are selected without any conscious or unconscious prejudices. These students (20 from the four classes) will form Group A. The rest of the students (Group B) will be taught using existing teaching methods used by the school for teaching the subject. In the event