Sharon Kemp's "The Hidden Workforce: Research Paper

Length: 7 pages Sources: 15 Subject: Sports Type: Research Paper Paper: #54256341 Related Topics: Olympics, Volunteering, World Cup, Sports Sociology
Excerpt from Research Paper :

Volunteers, volunteering and the way they are organized and managed differ from context to context, and in viewing the Olympic Games, management of the administration of questionnaires is essential for overall management of volunteers and of the overall research project at hand (Graham and Stebbins 2004, pp.177).

Data analysis techniques for the administering of questionnaires must include the evaluation of all the major personality inventories samples, methods for integrating questionnaire data and findings from observation studies, the use of computers in analyzing personality data, elimination of bias, and requirements for the construction of scoring personality measures (Cattell 1973, pp.532). In the case at hand and with the simplicity of the questionnaires used in the initial experiment, scoring these questionnaires will prove simple if handled correctly. In order to eliminate any bias, some of the initially-used open-ended questions can be eliminated altogether or turned into closed questions in order to eliminate any subjectively different responses which can sway the results. With questionnaires that involve "situational" responses, data must be carefully prepared for analysis, coding must be specifically laid out and researchers must know how to select and use all charting and statistical techniques that are employed within the methodology (Zijlstra 2011, pp.186). In eliminating questions with multiple subjective responses, researchers and volunteers alike are more adept at understanding the questions at hand in a manner that allows a valid assessment of respondents to be made.

In making these seemingly miniscule changes to the overall research project at hand, more accurate results can be attained, and these results can be managed according to time and duration of the Olympic Games being analyzed. Overall, one can understand that such a project falls under the categorization of social research, and while outcomes may provide a basis for standards in social science, there is no assurance that these standards will parallel the laws in the natural...


21). Additionally, the research provided by this experiment cannot account for the motivations or learning within all mega-events, as the Olympic Games bring with them a sense of national pride and duty that other mega-events cannot. A center or region which hosts a major event attracting global attention is affected in many positive and negative ways (Smith 1991, pp. 3). As such, an understanding of two Olympic Games in two completely differing countries can never account for mega-events on a universal level. As such great amounts of additional research in the designated areas of social research: statistical survey analysis, panel methods, latent structure analysis and contextual analysis are necessary to account for before making a generalized statement about mega-events as Kemp seems to do in her initial research methodology and conclusion (Jeabek and Lazarsfield, 2011, pp.229). While Kemp's initial research provides a solid starting point in understand the phenomena of volunteer motivation and learning, it is certainly not comprehensive and is in need of adjustment.


Assael, H. And Keon, J. (1982). "Nonsampling vs. sampling errors in survey research," in Journal of Marketing, 46(2): pp. 114-123.

Cattell, R. (1973). "Personality and mood by questionnaire," in American Psychology

Association Journal, 73(1): pp. 532.

Clarke, a. And Jack, B. (1998). "The purpose and use of questionnaires in research," in Professional Nurse, 14(3): pp. 176-179.

Flyberg, B. (2001). Making Social Science Matter: Why Social Inquiry Fails and How it

Can Succeed Again. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Graham, M. And Stebbins, R. (2004). Volunteering as Leisure/Leisure as Volunteering:

An International Assessment. Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing.

Henderson, K. (1990). "The market value of volunteers," in Parks and Recreation, 25(6):

pp. 60-67.

Hynek, J. And Lazarsfield, P. (2001). "The founder of modern empirical sociology: a research biography," in International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 13(1): pp. 229-244.

Kemp, S. (2002). "The hidden workforce: volunteers' learning in the Olympics," in Journal of European Industrial Training, 26(2-4): pp. 109-116.

Lynn, P. And Smith, J. (1991). Voluntary Action Research, the Voluntary Centre,


Miller, L.G. (1990). "Determinants of turnover among volunteers," in Human Relations,

23(1): pp. 2-11.

Pearce, P. (1993). "Fundamentals of tourist motivation," in Pearce, D.G. And Butler,

R.W. (Eds). Tourism Research. Routledge, London.

Ryan, C. And Bates, C. (1995). "A rose by any other name: the motivations of those opening their gardens for a festival" in Festival Management and Event Tourism, 3(2): pp. 59-71.

Smith, B. (1991). "The impact of a mega-events on host region awareness: a longitudinal…

Sources Used in Documents:


Assael, H. And Keon, J. (1982). "Nonsampling vs. sampling errors in survey research," in Journal of Marketing, 46(2): pp. 114-123.

Cattell, R. (1973). "Personality and mood by questionnaire," in American Psychology

Association Journal, 73(1): pp. 532.

Clarke, a. And Jack, B. (1998). "The purpose and use of questionnaires in research," in Professional Nurse, 14(3): pp. 176-179.

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