Smoking is a central factor in many pathological conditions. Nearly all smokers have at least some idea of the risks associated with the practice yet chose to smoke anyway. The adverse effects of tobacco use on cardiopulmonary function are well established and recognized; less evident, but equally important, is its impact on all aspects of physical therapist practice, including integumentary, musculoskeletal, and neuromuscular health (Pignataro, Ohtake, & Dino, 2012). Smoking can affect patients all the way from prenatal exposure through all phases of adulthood and thus cessation efforts stand a high likelihood of improving health outcomes.
Furthermore, it is less acknowledged the cigarette smoking affects both the innate and adoptive immune arms. Cigarette smoke was shown to augment the production of numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 GM-CSF and to decrease the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10; tobacco smoke via multiple mechanisms leads to elevated IgE concentrations and to the subsequent development of atopic diseases and asthma and cigarette smoke has also been shown activate in many ways macrophage and dendritic cell activity (Arnson, Shoenfield, & Amital, 2010).
There are now a plethora of different options to help smokers quit. There are both physical and mental aspects involved with smoking cessation. Nicotine is one of the most addictive drugs on the planet as the effects...
A smoker is likely to experience terrible withdrawal symptoms from cessation such as headaches, fatigue, shaking and extreme irritability as they phase out nicotine intake in their daily schedule. The elimination of nicotine can be a terrible experience for the patient and cause major disruption in one's life.
Exercise is routinely recommended as an aid to smoking cessation by specialist clinics and many self-help materials. One study conducted fifteen trials that have compared an exercise program plus a smoking cessation program, or an exercise program alone, to a cessation program alone or a cessation program plus a health education program, among smokers who were motivated to quit. Since these studies used different types of exercise programs, and varied in the duration of follow up, the results were not combined. In one study with a difference in quit rates of borderline significance, the exercise component more than doubled the likelihood of not smoking after 12 months (Ussher, Taylor, & Faulkner, 2012). Furthermore, using exercise to assist in cessation can also have other benefits such as combating weight gain that is generally associated with smoking cessation.
Smoking Cessation Studies of six diverse communities in Chicago, poor women under welfare reform and Medicaid recipients as well as a focus group of seniors concerning smoking cessation showed that 1) populations do vary in their smoking behavior and ability to stop smoking and 2) programs must be developed to target specific demographics. Although prior studies showed that poorer individuals have worse health, comparatively less research has been conducted specifically on a
Smoking Cessation -- Outline Addictive Behavior Smoking vs. illegal drugs Desire to return to smoking The business of smoking cessation Dangers and the Surgeon General's warning Smoking Cessation Programs Pills Patches Nicotine Gum "Cold Turkey' Hypnosis Support Groups Smoking Education Tobacco Companies Parents Smoking Cessation Smoking cigarettes has been found to be even more addictive than using many illegal drugs. Because of this, those that choose to quit smoking often struggle with it, and many of them return to smoking, even after quitting for a long period
Smoking Cessation Interventions Psychosocial and Pharmacological Interventions on Smoking Of the many causes of death in the world, coronary heart disease (CHD) remains one of the top global killers with an estimated 7.2 million people dying each year (Howell, 2011). The United States comprises a great majority of this mortality rate, which is approximately 450, 000 deaths in the United States alone (Capewell, et.al, 2010). Fortunately, since the 1970s CHD mortality rates
Smoking Cessation Health Belief Model According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2012) smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. It is estimated that there are more than 43 million adults who currently smoke in the United States. Of these 53% are men and 47% are women. Tobacco use is responsible for causing many diseases and reducing the health of smokers in general. The adverse effects of smoking
The competition is tough all the way around, and companies are tight financially in making ends meet for all employees that are trying to help others survive around the globe (Peto, Darby, Deo, Silcocks, Whitley, & Doll, 2000). Public health priorities are an issue that could arise at any given time in trying to get adults to stop smoking. For example, if an emergency occurs with someone who has received
When you see a sharp decline, this is an indication that the chances have increased that the person will have a heart attack. To determine effect of EPC's on heart disease in smokers, researchers would survey 15 different smokers. The results were that EPC's were lower in heavy smokers and increased if someone was a light smoker. When a person quit smoking, the underlying levels of EPC's would dramatically