The Nika riots, based on antipathy between Blue and Green racing teams resulted in 30,000 deaths ("The Nika Riot," 1997). In the 1980s fans were so violent that some English teams were banned from European competition. In high-stakes European soccer matches local governments regularly warn that violence could cause forfeiture of the game. Still, there remain a number of violent events from fans resulting in property damage, physical injury, and even death. Some see a similarity between modern fan violence and Gladiatorial attitudes (Nosotro, 2000). Thus, society is changing, and with it the tolerance to subject an increasingly global audience to unnecessary violence (Kerr, 2005).
Off-Field Violence -- Off-Field violence may occur prior to, or after, a sporting event, but is directly tied to that event. It may occur in a bar, parking lot, or any public gathering spot. What tends to characterize this for sociologists is that it, too, may be tied in with fervent nationalism, alcohol consumption, or simply letting the idea of a fan's preference get out of control. Many social theorists believe that this type of behavior is a learned response, almost a crowd mentality, and can certainly be stopped if enough people become intolerant of it (Coakley, 203, 202-16).
Conclusions- The conundrum in the modern world focuses on the interrelationship between what is expected of players from fans and management, and their own particular temperaments. It is also not unheard of for fans to explode in violence while players remain calm and sportsmanlike. Certainly, the advent of technology has changed the way that violence is perceived. With television coverage, close ups, instant reply, and multiple camera angles it is almost impossible for a coach or player to have any semblance of privacy during a game. The sociological view of the public, however, seems to be moving towards a growing dissatisfaction with sports violence (with some exceptions). Changes in rules, enhancement of equipment, and even the changes in athlete's physical make-up seem to be part of a fluid evolution towards enhancing fairness and competitive, team spirit. The media are able to find and portray more violent incidents, but most scholars believe there appears to be a continual and aggressive view against violence within sports. Among some managers, there remains a level of ambivalence, though, and ...
Ashby, L. (2004). With Amusement for All: A History of American Popular Culture Since
1830. Nashville, TN: University Press of Kentucky.
Ateyo, D. (1979). Blood and Guts. New York: Paddington Press.
Berger A., (2002). "Mediatribes -- Making Sense of Popular Culture in America," ETC: A
Review of General Semantics. 59(2002): 131-42.
Boxill, J., ed. (2002). Sports Ethics: An Anthology. New York: Wiley.
Coakley, J. (2006). Sports in Society: Issues and Controversies. New York: McGraw.
Davies, R. (2006). Sports in American Life: A History. Wiley-Blackwell.
Gorn, E. (2004). A Brief History of American Sports. University of Illinois Press.
Johnson, C. (March 6, 2008). "Was Baseball Racial Integration Leader? Or Basketball?"
The Black Fives Blog. Cited in: http://blackfivesblog.com/?p=430
Kerry, J.H. (2005). Rethinking Aggression and Violence in Sport. New York:
Kyle, D. (2007). Sport in the Ancient World. New York: Wiley.
Nelson, M. (2008). Encyclopedia of Sports in America: A History from Foot Races to Extreme Sports. Greenwood Press.
Nosotro, R. (2000). "Violence in Sports: Today's Gladiator Attitude." Hyper History.
Cited in: http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/comp/cw32violentsports.htm
Rader, B. (2008). American Sports: From the Age of Folk Games to the Age of Televised
Sports, 6th ed. Prentice Hall.
Riess, Steven A. (1995). Sport in Industrial America, 1850-1920.Harlan Davidson.
____. (1996). Major Problems in American Sport History. Wadsworth Publishing.
Taylor, J.A. (2007). "On Field Violence," Sports Agent Blog. "The Nika Riot," (1997).
University of Chicago. Cited in:
Wiggins, D. (1994). Sport in America: From Wicked Amusement to National Obsession.
The decade of the 20s has been called "The Golden Age of Sports." Superb athletes appeared in almost every major sport and became media stars and legends, influencing advertising, popular culture, and the way Americans viewed themselves. America wanted to play -- and the boom in income and perceived prosperity prior to the Depression was characterized by people moving to the cities and finding evenings and weekends free to enjoy sporting events. Some names from this era that remain part of the mystique of American Sports: Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Knute Rocknet, Helen Wils, Bill Tilden, Bobby Jones, Jack Dempsey, and Tommy Hitchcock. For more information, see: Marshall, J. "The Golden Age of Sports: A Roaring Replay of the 1920's." Sporting History. Cited in: http://www.sportplanet.com/sbb/apfas/20R.HTM; "Movies, Music and Sports of the 1920's." The Great Gatsby World. Cited in: http://www.albany.edu/faculty/jjpowers/risp361/projects/F_Viau_Jim/moviesmusicsports.htm/
For example, European Football (soccer) is the most popular sport in the world, but enjoys only a newfound interest in the United States. The most popular team sports in the United States are American Football, Basketball, Baseball, and Ice Hockey; and only Ice Hockey is a major sporting event outside of the United States. That is not to environment that it does in…
Thus, society is changing, and with it the tolerance to subject an increasingly global audience to unnecessary violence (Kerr, 2005).
Social Justice One of the biggest issues that all social workers will face is a host of ethical challenges. This is because their jobs require continuously becoming involved in situations where there will be conflicts between values and regulations. To deal with these challenges requires that everyone is conducting a self-analysis. This will be accomplished by taking a community values tour, examining our own values and the code of conduct for
Another important theorist and historian was Eric Hobsbawm, who was well-known and respected for his work on the history of British labor movement. These and other theorists, particularly those who dealt with the history of the labor movement in the country, provided the groundwork and the historical insight that was to lead to the later more widespread acceptance of multiculturalism and social history In Britain therefore the Marxist historians and
While war is often a major factor in changing the nature of property ownership, much as major depressions, such as that of 1920 to 1940, another factor can be large increases in competition, such as that in industrial production that has risen in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan since the Vietnam War (Capitalism pp). All such developments "put stresses on the ability of individuals to finance and mange their operations (Capitalism
Social History in Perspective: Family and Household in Medieval England, by Peter Fleming. Specifically, it will examine several questions regarding the book and its author. Peter Fleming's book deals mainly with the laws surrounding medieval families, and how they affected so many parts of family life. Less attention to the law, and more attention to the actual activities of the family might have made it a more interesting read. FAMILY
In his theory of evolution, Darwin argued that evolution occurred because of natural selection, wherein the determining principle is, "survival of the fittest." That is, in a given population and a given environment, certain individuals have certain characteristics that would make survive and thrive. As thriving happens, adaptation occurs, wherein the individual ensures that s/he is able to cope with the changes, state, and dynamics of his/her environment. This
Social Sciences in Education The development and specialization of the various fields in the social sciences started with the establishment of sociology as an academic discipline in the 19th century. The architects of this early discipline include Max Weber, Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx. Over time, the social sciences have broadened to include other disciplines looking at human life through in a variety of contexts, including anthropology, economics, political science,