Students With ADHD Essay

Excerpt from Essay :

ADHD (what it is this disease) and what are the symptoms and result of this disease. The paper also discusses the affects of ADHD on patients. In this paper the treatment of ADHD is also discussed and explained.

All the details relating to this condition and its symptoms and treatments are explained and supported by the use of literature review.

ADHD in Children

ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome) is a chronic condition that affects the children and continues till their adulthood in many cases. This disease results in the combination of a number of problems such as difficulty in focusing on something and paying attention, 'hyperactivity and impulsive behavior'. (Mayo Clinic, 2013)

In the children, the children suffering from ADHD also experience lack of confidence and self-esteem, trouble in relationships and bad performance in school. The disease is usually preceded by behavioral and learning problems and lack of attention in children. This condition has particularly received a lot of attention in the last decade because of increased diagnosis in children. (Mayo Clinic, 2013)

Symptoms of the ADHD include:

Symptoms showing inattention and lack of attention:

Failure to focus on things and pay close attention, difficulty in maintaining constant attention on one task or even playing, (APS, 2013)

Easily distracted from a given task, (APS, 2013)

Problems in managing and organizing tasks, stuff, etc., (APS, 2013)

Difficulty in following or understanding instructions / guidelines, (APS, 2013)

Avoiding the tasks and chores that require mental efforts and thinking (also dislike and get irritated if pushed to do something that is difficult), (APS, 2013) and Do not listen when spoken to (because of lack of attention and slow senses etc.). (APS, 2013)

Symptoms showing hyperactivity

Fidgeting with hands and feet, restlessness, constantly move in the seats, etc., (APS, 2013)

Not able to sit constantly during class or lectures and leaving the seat often, (APS, 2013)

Excessively running and climbing, (APS, 2013)

Difficulty in playing one game and constantly moves about, (APS, 2013)

Giving answers without hearing the complete questions, speaking long sentences and at fast speed, (APS, 2013) and Usually interrupting others to speak their minds. (APS, 2013)

ADHD is usually diagnosed by the pediatrician along with a psychologist who uses different methods to identify the extent of the disease. The methods include rating on the basis of different tests, questionnaires and observation of a child's behavior at home and at school. These specialists also measure the extent of the disease and its effect on learning and understanding abilities of children. Further, psychologists also recommend and advise methods to improve this condition. (APS, 2013)

The disease is usually treated using psychological methods including training of teachers, educators and parents to deal with and educate the suffering children, training and counseling of the affected child, and medication also helps in curing this condition. (APS, 2013)

Key terms: ADHD, lack of attention, symptoms, hyperactivity, diagnosed, treated, psychological methods, medication

The key terms mentioned above has been explained in the introduction preceding phase. Where ADHD is a chronic disease characterized by either lack of attention or hyperactivity. The preceding pages also discuss the symptoms (pertaining to both lack of attention and hyperactivity), the diagnosis and the treatment methods of ADHD.

Literature Review

Symptoms and Effects of ADHD

ADHD is a chronic situation that is characterized by the combination of many psychological conditions in the children including lack of attention, concentration, inability to focus, etc. Kaplan in his article quoted the following information 'research over the past 2 decades has demonstrated that ADHD occurs frequently and causes considerable suffering in patients and their families. ADHD begins in early childhood and persists through adolescence and into adulthood in 70% of those affected. Two large epidemiological studies in the U.S. have placed its prevalence at 8.7% in children and 4.4% in adult.' (Kaplan, 2012)

In the Pediatrics journal it was explained that 4.4 million children in the United States have been diagnosed with ADHD. (Scheffler et al., 2013)

Wall et al., in their research, considered the responses and stimuli of patients of ADHD and compared those with non-patients. They identified that in order to efficiently perform any task the essential requirement are to attend 'to target stimuli and not be distracted by irrelevant signals is an efficient way to perform a task. It also helps to be aware of mistakes so that one can correct them and maintain efficiency.' (Wall et al., 2009)

Wall et al., concluded in their research that 'children suffering from ADHD typically have difficulties with maintaining the focus of attention, are often distracted by unimportant stimuli, have problems with inhibiting premature responses and are claimed to monitor their performance for errors less well than those without ADHD. Thus it is not surprising that these children perform poorly on tasks requiring effort and control both in the laboratory and at school.' (Wall et al., 2009)

Wall et Al. In their research 'examined the ability of adolescents with ADHD, their healthy siblings and healthy controls to suppress proponent response tendencies and identified that performance did not show major differences between groups, although No-go errors were numerically increased for the patients. Processing of the target was reduced in the ADHD group especially at frontal electrode positions and response on error trials was not significantly different between groups.' (Wall et al., 2009)

Frazier et al., in their research on ADHD identified that one of the most crucial and 'prominent feature associated with ADHD' is poor performance at school. And children suffering from ADHD are at a 'risk of facing numerous academic complications' including bad results and failing grades. Their research also presented the fact that all the researchers conducted on ADHD conclude that 'not all individuals associated with ADHD experience academic deficits'. (Frazier et al., 2007)

These studies, conducted to identify the effect on academic aspects of the children suffering from ADHD, were based on results identified through tests, parent teacher interviews and observing children and their behavior at school and home. (Frazier et al., 2007)

Frazier and his colleagues in their research also discussed that ADHD symptoms (in the form of academic in capabilities) identified in children continue beyond childhood and are also witnessed when the children reach adulthood and if not properly treated this leads to the continuation of these conditions even in adulthood. (Frazier et al., 2007)

According to their research academic complications usually arise mostly in the reading ability, followed by mathematical capabilities and then in spellings. That is ADHD makes the children weak in the compartments of reading, mathematics and spellings most then other academic aspects. (Frazier et al., 2007)

Another research conducted by McConaughy and colleagues highlighted that 'parent and teacher ratings showed significantly lower academic performance and lower social functioning for children with ADHD compared to other referred children without ADHD and controls.' (McConaughy et al., 2011)

McConaughy et al., conducted their research by comparing the results of children suffering from ADHD with those not suffering from the condition in tests (maths, reading, writing, spellings etc.) to establish an association between ADHD and academic complications.

They reported that the students and children with ADHD show lower academic achievement. They also identified that the most affected academic aspect was reading, then mathematics, followed by spellings. (McConaughy et al., 2011)

Further the study also concluded significantly lower scores on tests of reading, mathematics, and written language for children with ADHD vs. controls, but mixed results for children with ADHD vs. referred children without ADHD. (McConaughy et al., 2011)

The research conducted by McConaughy et al., also highlighted and discussed the fact that the children suffering from ADHD face a lot of social complications as well and face problems in building and maintaining social relationships. Studies on social factors were based on 'a variety of measures, including positive and negative peer ratings, parent and teacher ratings of children's social competence and social skills, number and quality of peer friendships, and measures of children's self-control and problem-solving skills.' (McConaughy et al., 2011)

The research and studies gathered evidences resulting in the conclusion that children with ADHD are more rejected by their peers than children without ADHD. This research also explains that the extent of the rejection varies with the extent and sub-types of ADHD and with the increase in aggressive behavior of the child suffering from ADHD the rate of rejection from peers and friends increase. (McConaughy et al., 2011)

As far as the sub-types of ADHD and aggressive attitude of the sufferers is considered, McConaughy et al., explained in their paper that 'children with ADHD-Combined type tended to be more aggressive and less popular, whereas children with ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive type tended to be more passive and more neglected by peers.' (McConaughy et al., 2011)

The paper also concluded that 'children with ADHD are more likely than children without ADHD to be victims of bullying and to bully others, have difficulty making or keeping friends, and show lower levels of social competence and social knowledge.' (McConaughy et al., 2011)

The research paper also compared…

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