Reynolds and Bowie (2004) show that the three most important criteria of a Kant-based ethics system are to "act as though the maxim of your action were to…become a universal law of nature," to "act so that you treat humanity…always as an end and never as a means only" and "act as if your maxims should serve at the same time as universal law for all rational beings." These imperatives therefore should form the basis of any ethics program.
This implies a few things about ethics plans in the broadband business. The first is that employees should be a stakeholder of equal importance to any other, including the shareholders. All rational stakeholders must be given equal treatment in the ethic plan. The second implication is that the company should behave as though its behaviors are to be applied to it. This is of particular relevance to Telstra, which may find that it is a challenge to design an ethical program that prescribes such treatment for the government and for competitors, both of whom are actively battling the company to take market share away from Telstra.
Colle and Werhane (2008) point out that another component of an ethics plan must be a strategy for moral motivation. For example, even when legal protections exist for whistleblowers, there are cultural imperatives that prevent people from coming forward with such information (Allard, 2006). Programs that are strictly compliance-focused, such as may be expected to be found at highly bureaucratic firms, tend to emphasize the formal components but often ignore the informal ones (Colle & Werhane, 2008). Yet it is those informal components, such as corporate culture, that can drive the motivation for ethical behavior. Indeed, when formal extrinsic awards are granted, they are often disproportionate to the amount of damage the whistleblower has saved (Allard, 2006). Therefore, it is critical that any company installing an ethics program should place some focus on intrinsic ethics motivational systems as well.
Ethical culture is related to varying degrees to the different components of an ethics plan. Those components -- the code of ethics, an ethics officer, formal ethics training, a dedicated ethics hotline, disciplinary processes, response policies for investigations...
These programs will help to guide not only the everyday employees' actions but the actions of leadership as well. A properly designed ethics program will also include emphasis on the informal, cultural aspects of ethics. For the two companies, although their plans should likely look similar to one another, there are different operating circumstances that may impact the implementation of these plans.
Optus operates with only minimal government intervention, with the result being that it can pursue a basic ethics program that helps to guide it to fraud-free behavior. The ethics program for Optus, then, is a component of risk management. For Telstra, the ethics program may guide actions in such a manner as to protect key stakeholders such as shareholders and employees from the actions of government. The federal government has worked first to dismantle the company's profitability and now seeks to dismantle the company altogether. Setting aside the ethics of this behavior, it is important for Telstra to understand that its role at present may be to demonstrate ethics to its stakeholders rather than to behave in an ethical manner in the broad sense that a company like Optus is able to.
Datamonitor. (2010). Company profile: Telstra. In possession of the author
Reynolds, S. & Bowie, N. (2004). A Kantian perspective on the characteristics of ethical programs. Business Ethics Quarterly. Vol. 14 (2) 275-292.
Colle, S. & Werhane, P. (2008). Moral motivation across ethical theories: What can we learn for designing corporate ethics programs? Journal of Business Ethics. Vol. 81 (4) 751-764.
Allard, J. (2006). Ethics at work. CA Magazine. Vol. 139 (6) 30-35.
Kaptein, M. (2009). Ethics programs and ethical culture: A next step in unraveling their multi-faceted relationship. Journal of Business Ethics. Vol. 89 (2) 261-281.
Winteford, B. (2010). Optus gets mobile data boost as fixed broadband stalls. It News. Retrieved May 14, 2010 from http://www.itnews.com.au/News/174656,optus-gets-mobile-data-boost-as-fixed-broadband-stalls.aspx…
Kodak and Fujifilm, And Leadership Assessment Kodak and Fujifilm The History and Core Business of Each Company Eastman Kodak, in the words of Hill and Jones (2007, p. 482), "was incorporated in new jersey on October 24, 1901, as a successor to the Eastman Dry Plate Co., the business originally established by George Eastman in September 1880." It is important to note that as the authors further point out, the Dry Plate Company
Managing All Stakeholders in the Context of a Merger Process Review of the Relevant Literature Types of Mergers Identifying All Stakeholders in a Given Business Strategic Market Factors Driving Merger Activity Selection Process for Merger Candidates Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations The Challenge of Managing All Stakeholders in the Context of a Merger Process Mergers and acquisitions became central features of organizational life in the last part of the 20th century, particularly as organizations seek to establish and
Oxford Brookes University BSc (Hons) in Applied Accounting Research and Analysis Project An Analysis of the Business and Financial Performance of StarHub Group from 2008 to 2010 Topic chosen and for the reason For the basis of my Oxford Brookes University degree research and analysis project (RAP) is project, the topic selected was number 8, "The business and financial performance of organisation over the three years period." This selection is due in large part
Those conditions are understood. Both academia and the market are in agreement that the CMO does matter in a number of different situations. Therefore, the question of whether or not a female CMO affects firm performance is very much a valid one. The first research question is: What academic background contributes most to a woman's ascension to CMO or VP of Marketing? This question is basic, and can be answered
Rise and Fall of Nortel Nortel initially engaged in telecommunications and expanded its business to a net gear for them to uphold competitiveness. The affiliation was performing exceptionally in 2000 when it garnered 37% of the stock exchange in Toronto. Nortel progressed through aggressive procurement with analysts purporting that it was sustainable. Norton hailed as an exemplary and successful affiliation in Canada. Accounting irregularities and poor management resulted in Nortel's stock
(Snyder & DeBono quoted in Kjeldal 2003, Introduction section, ¶ 6). The results from the study Kjeldal (2003) conducted with 70 participants in two stages suggest that the word association responses high self-monitors (HSMs) produce reflect selective activation of a personally meaningful, experiential, system. The responses low self-monitors (LSMs) produce, on the other hand, indicate an intellective factual system. 2. Decision Making Process Theories Dr. Bonnie Halpern-Felsher (2009), an Associate Professor at