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Electronic performance monitoring most often brings up concerns of invasion of privacy, however, there are ways that organizations can stem that concern. Clear communication of the monitoring policy, as well as participation in the formation of the monitoring policy should significant impact on the perceived invasion of the privacy, and as such should be taken into consideration by all organizations that have a cyber surveillance policy in place.
Means, Standard Deviations, Zero-Order Correlations, and Scale eliabilities (N = 206)
Variable M. SD 1-2-3 4
1. elevancea 0.49 0.50
2. Participationa 0.50 0.50 -.01
3. Consistencya 0.50 0.50 -.02.00
4. Invasion of Privacy 3.73 1.67 -.49** -.14* -.01 (.96)
Note. Alpha reliabilities for relevant scales are in parentheses.
elevance, participation and consistency refer to the manipulated variables, dummy coded as 0 = lower levels and 1 = higher levels of the respective variables.
05 ** p
Alge, B. (1 Aug 2001). Effects of computer surveillance on perceptions of privacy and procedural justice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86 (4). Retrieved October 25, 2004, from InfoTrac OneFile database.
Goldsborough, R. (Sept 1999). Speak freely on the Net, but think first. RN, 62 (9). Retrieved October 25, 2004, from InfoTrace OneFile database.
Smith, J. (1997). Keeping tabs on the home-office contingent. Management Review, 86 (10). Retrieved October 25, 2004, from Business Source Premier database.
Taras, D.G. & Bennett, J.T. (Spring 2003). E-voice and individual privacy: Emerging issues at the intersection of technology and employment. Journal of Labor Research, 24 (2). Retrieved October 25, 2004, from Business Source Premier database.
Cultural beliefs transmitted by media include such notions as police officers are heroes. In reality, the media works in strengthening and affirming the cultural notions present in a society.
It holds true particularly for the messages about the ethics involved in the crime and justice incidents transmitted by the media. Many people do not experience crime firsthand or the system through which justice is brought. In this case, it is the media that helps to communicate the relevant information and implications of the ethics of a crime and its justification to the general public. Thus, in order to understand the system of ethics in policing the information portrayed by the media needs to be taken into account. Thus, any content conveyed by the media about the system is considered to be right and an accurate sample of reality. Thus this is how the present notions about crime and criminal justice…
Anshel, M.H. (2000). A conceptual model and implications for coping with stressful events in police work. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 27, 375 -- 400.
Ashkanasy, N.M., Hartel, C.E.J., & Daus, C.S. (2002). Advances in organizational behavior: Diversity and emotions. Journal of Management, 28, 307 -- 338.
Barchard, K.A. (2001). Emotional and social intelligence. Personality and intelligence. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of human intelligence (pp. 308 -- 351). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Carmeli, a., & Josman, Z. (2006). The relationship among emotional intelligence, task performance, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Human Performance, 19(4), 403 -- 419.
Ethical Considerations of Children as Organ Donors
Ethical dilemmas are defined as a situation that "…involves the need to choose from among two or more morally acceptable courses of action, when one choice prevents selecting the other; or, the need to choose between equally unacceptable alternatives (Hamric, Spross, and Hanson, 2000 cited in: A Framework for esolving Ethical Dilemmas in Healthcare, 2003) Chasson writes that values and ethics have a relationship that is clear and that the mixture of these two can serve to create complications for the nurse and specifically that moral values "are evaluated in terms of positive or negative effects. If the choice between good or bad results is very clear, no confusion or ethical dilemma will ensue…" (nd, p.13) However, when the choice is not clear the moral choices are fraught with great difficulty. ecent studies have demonstrated that living donors are an increasingly important organ…
Olbrisch, M.E., Levenson, J.L., and Newman, J.D. (2010) Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation. Ethical Legal and Financial Considerations. April 2010, Vol. 15 Issue 2. Online available at: http://journals.lww.com/co-transplantation/Abstract/2010/04000/Children_as_living_organ_donors__current_views_and.19.aspx
Pentz, R.D. et al. (2010) The Ethical Justification for Minor Sibling Bone Marrow Donation: A Case Study. The Oncologist 2008;13:148-151.
Ross, L.F., Thistlethwaite, J.R. (2008) Minors as Living Solid-Organ Donors. Pediatrics Vol. 122, No. 2 August 2008. Online available at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/122/2/454
Sheldon, M. (2004) Guest Editorial: Children as Organ Donors: A Persistent Ethical Issue. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics (2004), 13, 119 -- 122..
Posing as medical professionals does not provide the greatest amount of good, as it led mothers away from the superior practice of breastfeeding, by deception. The primary good this caused was to Nestle and its stakeholders. Giving new mothers samples and providing no or low-cost supplies to health institutions, however, was not ethically wrong. These mothers and institutions received the benefit of free and low-cost supplies. It was then their choice to utilize these supplies.
And, lastly, the inadequate warning labels on the infant formula certainly did not provide the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people. In fact, it could be easily argued that it caused harm to the greatest number of people.
Once again, the only good this act served was directed at the stakeholders of Nestle. By not providing adequate warnings, mothers in developing nations, with less than modern kitchen facilities, thought it was…
Ethical Implications of Nonmaleficence
As a professional counselor, one is in a unique position to influence the mental health and emotional well-being of one's clients. Indeed, the profession places the individual in direct contact with highly vulnerable subjects, creating a great opportunity for the provision of meaningful psychological care. However, this same capacity for influence can be problematic if not checked by a proper degree of ethical control. This is especially well demonstrated through the concept of nonmaleficence, which denotes the ethical responsibility of the counselor to refrain from any influence that might compromise the rights of or cause harm to the subject.
The two scholarly articles considered here help to broaden our understanding of this concept and the expectations which it imposes upon the professional mental health counselor. To this end, the text by Zur (2010) offers a precise understanding of nonmaleficence as a counseling concept. According to Zur,…
Pieterse, A.L.; Evans, S.A.; Risner-Butner, A.; Collins, N.M. & Mason, L.B. (2009). Multicultural Competence and Social Justice Training in Counseling Psycchology and Counselor Education. The Counseling Psychologist, 37(1), 93-115.
Zur, O. (2010). Power in Psychotherapy and Counseling. Zur Institute.
The idea that man is expected to behave based on a certain order relating to 'right' and 'wrong' is abstract by itself. The forces and influences that define right and wrong are subject to disagreement. This gives us the ongoing academic and philosophical debate on the matter of ethics. The intent of the account provided here is to show that ethics may not be limited to hard and fast rules about that which is good and that which is evil, but instead, it is necessary for all individuals to have an understanding of the theories of ethical behavior so that we may make decisions that meet a positive moral standard
Therefore, it is important to establish a knowledge of what marks ethical or unethical behavior. Essentially, our reading leads to the understanding that ethical behavior is usually that which comes from a rational way of understanding the impact…
Ethical Considerations elevant to the Practice of Marriage and Family Therapy
We are living in an extremely difficult and increasingly complex world. Every issue that is raised has several varied points-of-view and dialogues. Similarly, traditional institutions such as religion and marriage are also being questioned by a good number of people. Seeing all this, it can be easily concluded that there are very few absolutes that are out there to guide our lives. If that is the case, it means that we are all left to ourselves to weigh up and assess the circumstances and to make decisions accordingly. This is what we call the ethical position. However, people need to interact and exchange their experiences socially to create new ideas. This social exchange of views helps people to analyze and comprehend the problematic situation and so that fruitful steps can be taken to avoid the difficulties. This…
Brannon, L. (1983). 11: MARRIAGE and FAMILY THERAPY WITH BLACK CLIENTS: METHOD and STRUCTURE. In Black Marriage and Family Therapy, Obudho, C.E. (Ed.) (pp. 169-184). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved January 18, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=28653622
Corey, G., Corey, M.S., & Callanan, P. (2011). Issues and ethics in the helping professions. USA: Cengage Learning Inc. Retrieved January 20, 2012 from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=rYMlUIioLdQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Issues+and+ethics+in+the+helping+professions&hl=en&sa=X&ei=5WwWT-S5KIi3hAfWz6npAg&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Issues%20and%20ethics%20in%20the%20helping%20professions&f=false
Hecker, L.L., & Wetchler, J.L. (2003). An introduction to marriage and family therapy. New York: The Haworth Clinical Practice Press. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=lIbh4S8pe88C&pg=PA495&dq=issues+in+the+practice+of+marriage+and+family+therapy&hl=en&sa=X&ei=VHMWT7KMMMfChAer6KH5Ag&ved=0CEgQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=issues%20in%20the%20practice%20of%20marriage%20and%20family%20therapy&f=false
Inger, I.B., & Inger, J. (1994). Creating an Ethical Position in Family Therapy. London: Karnac Books. Retrieved January 18, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=72412566
Acting in an ethical manner should be indisputable conduct in companies and not just because developing a reputation for trustworthiness and honesty is eventually good for business, but because of the overall effect it can have on society. Businesses are a huge element of American society. They're very influential and drive many decisions (Susca, 2006).
Business ethics is a device that companies use to make sure managers, directors, or executive officers act correctly in a variety of business situations. Ethical decision making is an effort to encourage the company as a whole, rather than letting one person profit from the business decisions that are being made. People who constantly make decisions based on their personal benefit may produce legal liabilities for a company that can lead to bankruptcy. Generating an ethical business atmosphere does not happen suddenly. Companies often need to spend time and money training and promoting business ethics…
A Framework for Thinking Ethically. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/decision/framework.html
Ethical leadership, decision-making, and organizations. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/ethical_management_leadership.htm
Susca, D. (2006). Making ethical business decisions. Retrieved from http://www.cbia.com/cbianews/2006/07/200607cs_makeethicalbizdecisions.htm
Vitez, O. (2011). Decision Making in Business Ethics. Retreived from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/decision-making-business-ethics-446.html
It would therefore be a major breach of ethics for the status of individuals in the study to be leaked.
Another ethical challenge would be keeping the status of individuals from their significant others. Women are often in relationships where the power and economic disparities require them to remain in those relationships for mere survival. Should their status become known by their partner this may threaten the longevity of the union. Additionally, some women are engage in sex work. These women may choose not use condoms or have their partner use them. The knowledge of their status may negatively affect relational and economic opportunities for many women.
Interpreting the results of this study should be limited to women. The study utilizes a sample containing White and African-American women. Thus it would be inappropriate to use the work to make statements about male populations. This limitation is important since the mechanisms…
Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual Property
Business ethics have become an increasingly essential requirement for firms, especially with the ongoing situation of globalization of the world economy. In the long run, corporate-to-corporate ethics of suitable behavior influence the achievement of businesses in a positive way, or have the power to greatly impact the behavior. As a consequence, the downfall of ethical disgrace has appeared both in Europe and in the United States of America. Important lessons can be learned from the corporate ethical downfall that vividly reveals the need and significance of business ethics (Perry-Green, 2013).
According to dictionaries, ethics relate to those issues associated with the common nature of morals, and of the particular moral preferences to be made by an individual. Simply put, ethics are obtained from an individual's moral values. Personal values and beliefs constitute a considerable segment of any debate concerning ethics. Ethics can be altered,…
Brown, K.C. (2014). Legal and Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual Property. Morrisonville: Strayer University.
Elmendorf, D. (2011). Potential Effects of a Ban on Direct to-Consumer Advertising of New Prescription Drugs. Retrieved from prescription drug: http://prescriptiondrugs.procon.org/sourcefiles/cbo_dtc_prescription_drugs_may_2011.pdf
Eroglu, L. (1996). Drug research, ethic rules and regulations. Security period, pp. 1-6.
Federal bureau of Investigations. (2013, April 23). Branch Man Pleads Guilty to Theft of Intellectual Property. Retrieved from FBI.gov: https://www.fbi.gov/neworleans/press-releases/2013/branch-man-pleads-guilty-to-theft-of-intellectual-property
Reynolds and Bowie (2004) show that the three most important criteria of a Kant-based ethics system are to "act as though the maxim of your action were to…become a universal law of nature," to "act so that you treat humanity…always as an end and never as a means only" and "act as if your maxims should serve at the same time as universal law for all rational beings." These imperatives therefore should form the basis of any ethics program.
This implies a few things about ethics plans in the broadband business. The first is that employees should be a stakeholder of equal importance to any other, including the shareholders. All rational stakeholders must be given equal treatment in the ethic plan. The second implication is that the company should behave as though its behaviors are to be applied to it. This is of particular relevance to Telstra, which may find…
Datamonitor. (2010). Company profile: Telstra. In possession of the author
Reynolds, S. & Bowie, N. (2004). A Kantian perspective on the characteristics of ethical programs. Business Ethics Quarterly. Vol. 14 (2) 275-292.
Colle, S. & Werhane, P. (2008). Moral motivation across ethical theories: What can we learn for designing corporate ethics programs? Journal of Business Ethics. Vol. 81 (4) 751-764.
Allard, J. (2006). Ethics at work. CA Magazine. Vol. 139 (6) 30-35.
Medical Procedures and Ethical Considerations
andomized Clinical Trials (CT) is a medical study whereby the participants are randomly assigned to groups or team which are then used to compare different treatments. The members of the groups are then subjected to a chosen treatment hence the group members will have similar treatments though different from members of another group. The same treatment of the members of a group is aimed at having objective results received from all the members of the group. However, the loyalty of the physician to the patients is compromised by using this method on the patients. In as much as it is the choice of the patient to participate in the trials, the random selection into the groups does not give the individual the prior knowledge of the kind of treatment that he will be subjected to. He may give concept, but this is largely uninformed consent…
Grady C., (2016). Clinical Trials. Retrieved March 16, 2016 from http://www.thehastingscenter.org/Publications/BriefingBook/Detail.aspx?id=2164
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, (1979). Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research. Retrieved March 16, 2016 from http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/belmont.html
Ethical Aspects in esearch Studies
The essential aspects of research are the concern and respect that the researchers offer to the participants. esearch is aimed at producing insights that are beneficial to the society. However, the research should be conducted ethically. The ethical concern in research adduces that it should not advance a society at the detriment of others especially the participants in the research. Ethics in research is vital because it guides the working principles of the researcher for the research to conform to the required standards. This is the case especially when research subjects in health or medical research are often human beings. Therefore, it is vital to respect these individuals. The guiding principles in research ethics focus on preserving the rights and dignity of the research participants. In this regard, ethics focus on ensuring consent is obtained, no harm is done, the participant's privacy is respected, and…
Austin, W. (2007). The Ethics of Everyday Practice: Healthcare Environments as Moral Communities. Advances in Nursing Science, Volume 30 - Issue 1 - p 81-88.
Bernadette M.M. & Ellen F.O. (2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing and health care: a guide to best practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Carol J.H. (2013). Professional Issues in Nursing: Challenges and Opportunities. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Corey-L., Patricia M., Anita J., Marlene Z., & Alison M. (1999). Healthcare Reform: Its Effects on Nurses. Journal of Nursing Administration, Volume 29 - Issue 3 - pp 30-37.
Ethical Issues in Nursing
The scenario in this study involves a nurse who has intentionally disregarded the elderly patient's expressed wishes to receive pressure area care. The patient finds the procedure uncomfortable, embarrassing, and painful. The nurse continues to turn the patient in spite of the patient's wishes. This study will answer if the nurse is justified in turning the patient and if so, on what ethical grounds and if not then why not. This case will be discussed in light of the principles of bioethics and at least one ethical issue.
The work of Lakeman (2000) entitled "Nurses as Tools: Instrumentality and Implications for Nursing Ethics" states "Nurses are left in a particularly compromised position when required to administer compulsory treatment. The task of administering the treatment is often left to nurses who are legally required to follow "doctor's orders." There is little room for conscientious objection by…
Browning, J.S. (2007) Ethical Issues in Nursing Practice; Identifications and Comparisons Across Clinical Specialty. Ethical Issues. 12 Jul 2007. Retrieved from: http://stti.confex.com/stti/congrs07/techprogram/paper_32839.htm
Johnstone, M.-J. (1999). Bioethics: a nursing perspective. (3rd ed.). Sydney: Harcourt Saunders.
Jonsen, AR, Siegler, M and Winslade, WJ (1998) Clinical Ethics: A Practical Approach to Ethical Decisions in Clinical Medicine, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1998.
Kurtz, R.J., & Wang, J. (1991). The caring ethic: more than kindness, the core of nursing science. Nursing Forum, 26(1), 4-8.
The business is also becoming one of the leading companies and a well-known case study of the fair trade principles within the market. The business is also creating a noble image within the target market through its efforts of creating awareness for paying the fair price to its coca producers. The image created by the business is significantly affecting its brand image as an ethical brand. The research of Britain (2007) is also evident of the findings presented above.
USA consumer attitudes:
According to Ma (2007) the consumers in United States are also familiar with the fair trade attitudes and principles. The young consumers are highly likely to purchase products that are manufactured by the businesses incorporating fair trade principles. The consumers of young age group prefer to value the contributions of manufacturers towards fair trade principles (Gropel, 2012). The graduates and educated high income group is also tilted towards…
Britain, G 2007, Fair trade and development: seventh report of session 2006-07, Vol. 2: Oral and written evidence (Vol. 356), Stationery Office, United Kingdom.
Clarke, N, Barnett, C, Cloke, P & Malpass, a 2007, the political rationalities of fair-trade consumption in the United Kingdom, Politics & Society, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 583-607.
De Pelsmacker, P, Driesen, L & Rayp, G 2005, Do Consumers Care about Ethics? Willingness to Pay for Fair-Trade Coffe, Journal of consumer affairs, vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 363-385.
DeCarlo, J 2011, Fair trade and how it works, the Rosen Publishing Group.
Ethical Behavior Theory in Organizations
This analytical research report discusses the debatable issue of the much-needed ethical behavior in working milieu. The research paper highlights the fundamental characteristics, a well-drafted research design, a separate section of suggestions; a orks Cited an appendix featuring important data and relevant diagrams pertaining to the organizational behavior theory and the underlying ethical issues. The orks Cited nine sources in MLA format.
ETHICS AND ORGANIZATIONS
Ethics and ethical behavior: a challenge for organizations
UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS
Reasons for unethical behavior in organizations
Prevalent justifications of unethical behavior
Results from Baucus and Near's research model
SOCIAL SYSTEMS AND BEHAVIORS
NEED FOR ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORAL THEORY
hat is organizational behavior?
Purpose of organizational behavior
An overview of organizational behavior and its cardinal components
Basic models of organizational behaviors
PRAGMATIC SUGGESTIONS FOR AMELIORATION
Drucker P. Claremont Graduate Univ., Managing Oneself., Harvard Business
Review, 03-01-1999, pp 65.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Here, Aristotle recognizes the variances which appear
to define our establishment of the means to pursuing happiness, musing that
"the characteristics that are looked for in happiness seem also, all of
them, to belong to what we have defined happiness as being. For some
identify happiness with virtue, some with practical wisdom, others with a
kind of philosophic wisdom, others with these, or one of these, accompanied
by pleasure or not without pleasure; while others include also external
prosperity." (Aristotle, I: 8) Aristotle uses this as a divining rod for
dissecting the various relationships which are perpetuated amongst
individuals. His argument engages in the dialectical process to discern
that which is 'good' apart from that which is 'evil' or 'neutral.' Through
such an engagement, he achieves a satisfactorily defended notion of 'good':
"Aristotle identifies the distinctively human phenomenon of
action arising from reason as the function of the human being:…
Eliot, G. (1872). Middlemarch. Penguin Classics.
McNickle, D. (1936). Surrounded. University of New Mexico Press.
Rachels, James. (1993). The Utilitarian Approach. The Elements of Moral
Philosophy, pg. 91-101. New York: McGraw Hill.
Rachels, James. (1993). Kant and Respect for Persons. The Elements of
Moral Philosophy, pg. 127-138. New York: McGraw Hill.
Ethical Challenge Scenaios in Healthcae Administation
Scenaio 1: You have withdawn an offe at the last minute (due to poo efeences) to an ICU nuse manage candidate who has moved acoss the county to accept the job. The only way you will avoid a lawsuit is if she is hied somewhee else soon. A close colleague calls to ask you fankly why you withdew the offe. What do you say?
This paticula scenaio seems like moe of a legal issue than an ethical question. An ethical dilemma would be about whethe to talk to the fiend o not. It seems that thee ae a few sepaate issues with egad to the oveall scenaio. Fist, of couse is the legality of talking to the fiend at all. Why does she want to know? Did she ecommend the employee? Next, what does an offe of employment mean? Anothe point to expound upon…
references: A survey of recently enacted state legislation. William and Mary Law Review, 39(1). 177-228.
Meier, K.J., & Hicklin, A. (2008). Employee turnover and organizational performance: testing a hypothesis from classical public administration. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 18(4). 573-582.
Robinson, R.K., Jackson, W.T., Franklin, G.M., & Clayton, R.W. (2010). The changing legal environment for employers: Implications for small businesses. Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, 22(1). 91-99.
Yoder, B. (2008). How reasonable Is "Reasonable"? The search for a satisfactory approach to employment handbooks. Duke Law Journal, 57(5). 1517-1529.
Ethical knowledge stems from the external world, what society has bred within us through our assimilation and experience within it. This is often set in place by societal foundations, legal requirements, and moral expectations of a community or culture at large. Ethical knowledge is thus shared by large groups of people from the same community or culture. From a nursing perspective, there is "a unique set of values and a particular culture and practice that affects the ethical decision-making processes" that are often shared by a number of members within the nursing community at large (Chinn & Kramer, 2010, p 93). On the other hand, personal knowledge is unique and often comes from our own internalization of the independent experiences each individual witness throughout his or her life. This is much more internal and variant than ethical knowledge, where each individual has a different knowledge base founded from their own…
Chinn, Peggy L. & Kramer, Maeona, K. (2010). Integrated Theory and Knowledge Development in Nursing. Mosby / Elsevier.
The Tasman Spirit crew and financiers should work to investigate acute health concerns as well as the marine ecosystem surrounding Karachai. The American Club, likely one of two involved parties with the financial resources to affect significant change in the region which actually suffered the effects of the environmental disaster. ather than working against each other with suits and counter suits and the assorted other motions and legal actions underway, it would be most effective and positive for those two companies to work together with environmental awareness and protection agencies to restore the region.
This portion of the analysis is concerned with the specific affected individual parties. While it is important not to allow empathy for a specific group to outweigh the impartiality of an effective analysis it is also important to understand the relevant human components of a situation especially one which has such a…
1. Janjua, N.Z., Kasi, P.M., Nawaz, H. (2006). Acute health effects of the Tasman Spirit oil spill on residents of Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Public Health, 6, 84. 435- 488.
2. Ha, M., Lee, W.J., Lee, S., & Cheong, H.K. (2008). A literature review on health effects of exposure to oil spill. Journal of Preventative Medicine and Public Health 45,5 345-354.
What does the patient have the right to know?
What the patient has the right to know (regarding genetic tests) is: a complicated matter and many people, including experts, have varying opinions. The information patients receive from genetic testing can have significant consequences, especially if it leads a pregnant woman to have an abortion. The ethical principles that arise in situations like this are varied and are often in conflict with each other. The ethical decisions in genetic counseling would be fairly cut and dry if the principle of autonomy was the only one that was considered. However, by doing this a counselor may be ignoring the other ethical concerns like: what is best for society and being fair to other people (regarding who the patient's decisions are affecting).
Who should have decision making power in our society on issues of genetic / medical testing?
Regarding the "Dwarfism…
Biesecker, Barbara. "Future Directions in Genetic Counseling: Practical and Ethical Considerations." Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8.2 (1998). 145-160. Web.
Flackelman, Kathy. "Beyond the genome: the ethics of DNA testing." Science News. 5 Nov. 1994: 66-70. Print.
Flackelman, Kathy. "DNA dilemmas: readers and 'experts' weigh in on biomedical ethics." Science News. 5 Nov. 1994: 64-66. Print.
Ethical Theory & Moral Practice
Debates about theory and practice are ancient. Each generation considers the dynamics that surround issues about the interdependency of theory and praxis to be uniquely challenging. Complexity is a variable closely linked with knowledge. As science has added layer upon layer of knowledge, decision-making dilemmas have been confounded by new and staggering concomitant factors. In concert, theoretical frameworks for social science disciplines have been adapted to accept newly identified moral imperatives and ethical considerations.
This paper offers a discussion about the nexus of epistemology, ethics / morality, and praxis. An examination of the historical development of the paradigm and the assumptions of post-positivism is presented as an introductory foundation for the discussion. Next, is a discussion about ethical theory, followed by an exploration of the increasing division between philosophical frameworks and evolving modern science. Particular note is made of the theory-practice gap in healthcare, which…
Beauchamp, T.L. (2007). Does Ethical Theory Have a Future in Bioethics? The Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics. 32(2): 209-217.
"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links / special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml
Fieser, J. (2009). Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/#H3
Gastmans, C. (1998). Nursing Considered as Moral Practice: A Philosophical-Ethical Interpretation of Nursing. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8(1): 43-69.
George must take time and think about his company, his coworkers, and Med-Train because his decision will have a ripple effect on them all. When applying the golden rule George will think about the stakeholders and make a more informed decision. A selfish decision in this case may not only harm George but also have negative consequences on all the stakeholders involved.
After analyzing the Georges case and considering the dilemma facing him; deciding between loyalty to his company and being honest to all stakeholders involved in the process and the ethical and legal ramifications to consult (albeit from a position of his own company) with his employer's main competitor. The recommendation to George has several facets to help him make the most beneficial ethical and legal decision.
George must schedule a meeting with the human resources director and check into XYZ Incorporated's policy to gauge the rules regarding…
Despite the tremendous capacity of stem cell science, cloning technology, and neuro-implantation to improve human health and minimize suffering from disease and trauma, there has been significant opposition primarily based in religious dogma: specifically, the belief that human life begins at conception. Certainly, there are important ethical considerations, but they are no different in principle from those currently relied upon to regulate all other aspects of modern medicine and health care delivery. Ultimately, it is imperative to develop the full potential of stem cell science, cloning technology, and neuro-implantation in conjunction with a comprehensive set of ethical guidelines to prevent irresponsible or unethical misuses. However, those ethical guidelines may only incorporate secular concepts and definitions and never the religious beliefs of any particular religious tradition.
Gerrig, , Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th…
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th Ed. Dubuque
Iowa: McGraw Hill.
Tong, R. (2007). New Perspectives in Health Care Ethics: An Interdisciplinary and Cultural Approach Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
Ethical Issues Surrounding the Adoption of Electronic Health Records (EHR) by Health Care Organizations and Meaningful Use
The objective of this work in writing is to examine why health care organizations are hesitant to adopt electronic health records (HER) in light of the potential of HER to improve quality, increase access, and reduce costs. This issue will be examined from a legal, financial, and ethical standpoint and in relation to 'meaningful use'.
The use of information technology in the health care field shows a great deal of potential toward improving quality, efficiency, and safety in medical care. (DeRoches, Campbell, and Rao, 2008, paraphrased; Frisse & Holmes, 2007, paraphrased; and Walker, et al., 2005, paraphrased) The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 is reflective of the unprecedented interest of the Federal government in the area of bringing about increases in the use of IT in health care for system…
A New Hospital EMR Adoption assessment Tool (2012) HIMSS Analytics. Retrieved from: http://www.himss.org/content/files/EMR053007.pdf
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Available athttp://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_bills&docid=f:h1enr.pdf. Accessed 5 August2010.
Daniel, J. And Goldstein, MM (2010) Consumer Consent Options for Electronic Health Information Exchange: Policy Considerations and analysis. 23 Mar 2010.
DesRoches CM, Campbell EG, Rao SR, et al. Electronic health records in ambulatory care -- a national survey of physicians. N Engl J. Med 2008; 359:50 -- 60.
Arguments For: In response to those allegations, Bill Mattos, the president of the California Poultry Federation, said that he had invited California Senate representatives to visit poultry farms -- and to see for themselves that allegations of inhumane treatment are not true -- but his offer was declined (Fitzenberger). "To me, it's propaganda disguised as research," Mattos said in response to the report the California state Senate Office of Research produced.
Essayist Bart Gruzalski (Ethics and Animals, p. 253) writes that "the use of animals for food can be justified on utilitarian grounds even if we take into account only the pleasures and pains of the animals involved." Gruzalski quotes pig farmer James Cargile, who buys "several pigs" every year "from a neighboring hog farm"; Cargile raises them "to slaughter for food" but sees no meanness because the pigs "are given lots of room and food, everything a pig…
East Bay Animals Advocates (EBAA). (2005). Foster Farm Facts. Retrieved June 23, 2009,
From http://www.fosterfacts.net .
Fitzenberger, Jennifer M. (2004). California report criticizes animal cruelty at large cattle
And poultry farms. Sacramento Bee, Retrieved June 22, 2009, from http://www.sacbee.com.
Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual Property
Legal and ethical considerations
PharmaCAE intentionally bypassed the Food and Drug Administration when it established CompCAE a compounding pharmacy. This was done in order to avoid FDA scrutinization, which indicates that the company was aware of the side effects that the drug would have on patients. By evading FDA scrutiny and approval, PharmaCAE was able to sell the new formulation on a prescription basis without the need to seek approvals. CompCAE was not supposed to market directly to consumers, but it still conducted direct marketing to consumers and hospitals. Furthermore, the company encouraged doctors to fax them lists of fictitious patient names. This was done to demonstrate that the company was not selling directly to consumers, but rather it was doctors who were prescribing the drug to the patients.
When reports started surfacing indicating that the drug was causing heart attacks, the…
Halbert, T., & Ingulli, E. (2011). Law and ethics in the business environment. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Kim, Y.K., Lee, K., Park, W.G., & Choo, K. (2012). Appropriate intellectual property protection and economic growth in countries at different levels of development. Research policy, 41(2), 358-375.
Liu, W., KNOx, C.A., & Brushwood, D.B. (2013). Discretion of the Food and Drug Administration to enforce compounding rules. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH-SYSTEM PHARMACY, 70(17), 1538-1543.
Peffer, S.L., Bocheko, A., Del Valle, R.E., Osmani, A., Peyton, S., & Roman, E. (2013). Whistle Where You Work? The Ineffectiveness of the Federal Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 and the Promise of the Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 0734371X13508414.
ethical issues that should be addressed by researchers in the field of psychology who use human subjects: the protection of the human participants and the protection and maintenance of the integrity of the research findings (Punch, 2013). This paper will discuss several important ethical considerations regarding the use of statistics in the integrity of research findings.
Perhaps the topic that is addressed most frequently regarding the ethical use of statistics and certainly is a current concern is the overreliance of statistical significance testing (Verdam, Oort, & Sprangers, 2014). The surprising to find that many researchers still believe that significant P. values indicate that the research results will replicate, smaller team P. values indicate a larger magnitudes and results, or that smaller P. values mean that the results are more important (Gorard, 2014; Punch, 2013). None of these are true. In fact, the American Psychological Association [APA] has suggested since the…
Asendorpf, J.B., Conner, M., De Fruyt, F., De Houwer, J., Denissen, J.J., Fiedler, K., ... & Wicherts, J.M. (2013). Recommendations for increasing replicability in psychology. European Journal of Personality, 27(2), 108-119.
Gorard, S. (2014). The widespread abuse of statistics by researchers: What is the problem and what is the ethical way forward?. Psychology of education review., 38(1), 3-10.
Punch, K.F. (2013). Introduction to social research: Quantitative and qualitative approaches.
New York: Sage.
Did he have the right to make such promises knowing that the company may be moving to Mexico? The simple answer is no. It was unethical to make such promises knowing full well that the company may be moving to Mexico. However, it is not always simple. He made the promises knowing that the company MIGHT move to Mexico. The negotiations are still ongoing so at the time the promises were made he had no concrete knowledge that a move would be taking place. Because he had no knowledge of an actual move being planned, and only knew it was being negotiated he was under no legal obligation to not make those promises. Luckily ethical obligations and legal obligations are often two different things. Ethical obligations are not as concrete nor do they require proof beyond the shadow of a doubt. It is without question that the promises this company…
ERWIN, WESLEY J. Supervisor Moral Sensitivity. Counselor Education and Supervision; 12/1/2000;
Kensicki, Peter R. 'Utmost Good Faith' Implies Good Ethics. National Underwriter Property & Casualty-Risk & Benefits Management; 7/31/2000;
Reamer, Frederic G.,the Social Work Ethics Audit: A Risk-Management Strategy.
Social Work; 7/1/2000;
Ethics and Experimentation
Ethics and Medical Experimentation
On Staten Island there was an institution for the mentally disabled which operated from 1947 to 1987, but in the period from 1956 through 1971, children at the institution were used for experiments involving hepatitis. Although the experiments are considered to be successful, the involvement of mentally disabled children has brought many ethical considerations to the forefront. Dr. Saul Krugman, the man who ran the experiment, stated that his team took a number of ethical considerations into question before the experiment began. Firstly, Krugman rationalized the use of children by stating that "It is recognized that infectious hepatitis is a much milder disease in children." (obinson 81) Then, a mild form of the disease was inflicted upon the children under conditions that were the most favorable including special medical personnel and isolation quarters. Krugman specifically stated that only children who's parents consented were…
Rivers, Eunice, et al. "Twenty Years of Follow-up Experience in a Long-Range
Medical Study." Public Health Reports 68.4 (April 1953). Web. 30 Mar. 2013.
Robinson, Walter, Brandon Unruh. "The Hepatitis Experiments and the Willowbrook
Internal eview Board Discussion
The IB (Internal eview Board) is an organization that is known as the IEC ( independent ethic committee) formally designated to review biomedical and behavioral research that involves human beings. The IB conducts a risk analysis to determine whether to allow a research to be conducted. Thus, the IB takes appropriate steps to protect the welfare and rights of humans participating in a research study. (IB, 2014).
The objective of this study is to discuss the type of IB appropriate for my research. The study also provides feedback to my classmate's posts.
Type of IB review Appropriate for my Selected esearch
My research will require the FB (Full Board eview) since the research will require the human subjects. When human subjects are to be used to carry out a research, the research should require a full board review. In the case, a researcher should allow a…
IRB (2014). Guidelines and Information Related to the Certification of Research Projects Connected in Any Manner to the University. IRB.
Ritter, F. et al., (2013). Running Behavioral Studies with Human Participants, Sage Publications Inc.
eligion and health have long been linked, and continue to be so in most cultures around the world. In fact, both mental and physical health problems were once believed to have supernatural or spiritual origins, a belief which persists until this day in spite of empirical evidence showcasing the biological and chemical causes of illnesses (Koenig, 2000). egardless of whether or not religion is a worthwhile social institution, religion, spirituality, and practices like prayer remain central to the lives of most people. eligion can be inextricably linked with personal and cultural identity, and can greatly inform both medical decisions and health practices including lifestyle choices. There is also a notable link between religiosity and a number of health outcomes including morbidity and mortality rates, proven in empirical studies. The literature tends to support a strong connection between prayer and stress relief in particular, as prayer and religion are widely believed…
Bearon, L.B. & Koenig, H.G. (1990). Religious cognitions and use of prayer in health and illness. The Gerontologist 30(2): 249-253.
Davis, L.I. & Owens, C. (2013). The impact of religion on health practices. American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. Retrieved online: http://www.aacp.org/governance/SIGS/hdcc/Documents/Webinar%20Materials/Impact%20of%20Religion%20Webinar.pdf
Koenig, H.G. (2000). Religion and medicine I. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 30(4): 385-398.
Koenig, H., King, D. & Carson, V.B. (2012). Handbook of Religion and Health. Oxford University Press.
Ethical Factors in Clinical Testing
The conduct of the medics during their course of duty is regulated and governed by the established regulations relating to their profession. The basis of all these regulations is mainly to safeguard the rights of the patients. The patients must be accorded the utmost respect and handled in a dignified manner that makes them feel respected. It also covers what sort of equipment to be used in the case of an operation. Besides, regulations in the medical fraternity also cover the conditions of the treatment facilities such as the hospitals. The level of hygiene among other conditions is put into consideration. This paper focuses on the ethical issues that surround the observation of patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea condition in the United States. This is a medical condition where a patient has difficulties breathing during sleep. However, it is unknown to these patients and can…
Brown, D.L. et al., (2011). Ethical Issues in the Conduct of Clinical Trials in Obstructive Sleep Apnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2011 Feb 15;7(1):103-8.
Silverman H. (2007). Ethical Issues During The Conduct Of Clinical Trials. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 200 7 May;4(2):180-4; discussion 184.
Ethical Distribution of Access to Health Care esources
ight to Health Care esources
ole of Nurses
ight to Health Care esources
While the concept of 'right to health' is applicable in many of the socialist countries, most of the modern societies lay emphasis on the concept of 'right to health care." This is the concept that has been evolving over the years with the aim of providing equal health care resources to keep every individual healthy and to promote "quality of life" for their citizens.
However the concerns are about what the governments and the authorities related to health care can do what considerations, especially the ethical ones, which need to be considered while preparing a policy for equitable distribution of health care for the citizens (Flak & Chong, 2008).. These attempts of ethical policy formation help to open access to proper health care for people who had been previously…
Beauchamp, T., & Childress, J. (2001). Principles of biomedical ethics, 5th ed. NY: Oxford University Press.
Best, M. (2006). Ethics in Health Services Management. Quality Management In Health Care, 15(4), 311. doi:10.1097/00019514-200610000-00016
Flak, N., & Chong, E. (2008). Beyond the Bedside: Nurses, a Critical Force in the Macroallocation of Resources. Nursingworld.org. Retrieved 30 August 2015, from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/vol132008/No2May08/ArticlePreviousTopic/MacroallocationofResources.html
Tschudin, V. (2003). Approaches to ethics. Edinburgh: Butterworth-Heinemann.
The role of ethics in healthcare is to mitigate risks and ensure oversight of each strategic process area, ensuring patient treatment quality consistency and transparency. The American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE) Code of Ethics and its self-assessment provide foundational insights into how ethical decisions can be more effectively made and how decision making can align effectively to the ACHE standards. Ethics are the foundation of patient trust and need to be the catalyst of transparency throughout a healthcare provider organization to the practice level and ultimately solidifying patient and healthcare provider collaboration to common goals (Higgins, Gross, Hackett, 2000). In the highest-performing healthcare providers, there is a tight alignment of patient expectations and the need for transparency on the one hand, and the ethics and willingness of a healthcare provider to disclose data and knowledge necessary to keep treatment plans progressing (Frederick, Wasieleski, Weber, 2000). In addition…
Ehlen, K.J., & Sprenger, G. (1998). Ethics and decision making in healthcare. Journal of Healthcare Management, 43(3), 219-21.
Frederick, W.C., Wasieleski, D., & Weber, J. (2000). Values, ethics, and moral reasoning among healthcare professionals: A survey. HEC Forum, 12(2), 124-40.
Higgins, W., Gross, J.W., & Hackett, K.L. (2000). Ethical guidance in the era of managed care: An analysis of the American College of healthcare executives' code of ethics. Journal of Healthcare Management, 45(1), 32-42; discussion 43-5.
Weil, Peter A, PhD., F.A.C.H.E., Kimball, P.A., & Lerner, Wayne M, Dr. P.H., F.A.C.H.E. (2010). The volunteer activities of healthcare Executives/Practioner Application. Journal of Healthcare Management, 55(2), 115-29; discussion 129-31.
Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference
Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…
BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from www.bacp.co.uk/admin/structure/files/pdf/9479_ethical%20framework%20jan2013.pdf
Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley
Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme
Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power
The three basic ethical theories share a number of similarities, because they each attempt to describe and explicate the ethical decisions made by humans as well as the logic (or illogic) that is used to inform any particular behavior. Utilitarianism offers what is perhaps the most sound ethical theory due to the way it chooses for itself the goal of its efforts, but it is hampered by disagreement regarding the precise execution of the theory. A deontological theory of ethics may be useful for formulating general rules regarding proper behavior, and as such is popular is the workplace, but these rules are not universally applicable and in some cases can actually lead to unethical behavior if followed without fail. Finally, while virtues-based ethics purports to offer individuals instruction for the cultivation of ideal behavioral traits, by definition it cannot offer a universal ethical norm, as it is based…
Begley, A.M. (2005). Practising virtue: A challenge to the view that a virtue centred approach to ethics lacks practical content. Nursing Ethics, 12(6), 622-37.
Broad, C. (1930). Five types of ethical theory. New York: Routledge.
Darwall (Ed.). (2003). Virtue ethics. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
DeConinck, J.B., & Lewis, W.F. (1997). The influence of deontological and teleological considerations and ethical climate on sales managers intentions to reward or punish sales force behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(5), 497-506.
Ethical Awareness Inventory esults and Analysis
esults of my Ethical Awareness Inventory described my ethical perspective to be character-based, wherein I evaluate people more on their ethical character than their present actions. Basically, the results determined me as an individual who can see past ethical or unethical actions, and identify an ethical or unethical person based on his/her overall character. Since my ethical perspective is character-based, I value in people the qualities of integrity, honesty, and wisdom. For me, a person with a strong ethical character is one who would be capable of discernment and would not have difficulties knowing what is right and what is wrong. It goes without saying then, that I myself is an individual who has developed an ethical character over time. I consider myself to be an individual with integrity, and I expect other people to develop this integrity as well.
The results are indeed…
Abbott, A. (1983). "Professional Ethics." The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 88, No. 5.
Brown, M. (2006). "Ethical leadership: a review and future directions." The Leadership Quarterly, No. 17.
Ethical Training -- Successes and Failures
Ethical Training: Successes and Failures
Ethics are often thought of as black and white, but that is really not the case. There are many shades of grey, and what is ethical in some instances may not be ethical in others. Additionally, there are concerns when it comes to what one person thinks is ethical vs. what another would find ethical. That is often why there are so many discrepancies and issues to consider when one talks about ethics. It is not just a simple issue where a person can say that something is always ethical or not ethical. Instead, the situation must be considered, as well as the people and the circumstances surrounding everything. In many cases, the issue comes down to ethical training, which does not always work out well. The plan is to train people to act ethically, but training someone to…
Becker, L.C. & Becker, C.B. (2002). Encyclopedia of Ethics (2nd ed.). NY: Routledge.
Singer, P. (2000). Writings on an ethical life. London: Harper Collins Publishers.
In that regard, NatHealth Inc. managers and supervisors are trained to recognize potential ethical conflicts as early as possible, to analyze possible course of action, and to take decisive action by implementing the best possible ethical decisions and corresponding solutions that are the most consistent with organizational ethical values and principles.
In addition, all NatHealth Inc. managers attend a week-long mandatory training retreat every September at which they attend strategic meetings and receive training in several different aspects of their operational responsibilities. Two days are reserved for ethics-specific discussions, policy reviews, and updated training in the full range of ethical issues in the workplace. Subsequent to their return, individual managers conduct an ethics policy review session with their direct reports at which time they provide supplemental ethical instructions to update all employees with respect to any changes in organizational ethics policies and expectations.
While the organization does maintain scrupulous…
Halbert, T., and Ingulli, E. (2007). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati, OH: West.
Locker, K. (2006). Business and Administrative Communication 2nd Edition. Boston,
Describe in detail
Teleological, deontological, and virtue ethics: A comparison
Teleological ethics are also called consequence-based ethics. Teleological ethical systems emphasize the results of ethical decisions, versus the moral principles behind such decisions. Utilitarianism is an excellent example of teleological ethics. The stress in utilitarianism is doing the greatest good for the greatest number of people, versus setting a precedent for all ethical actions. "It denies that moral rightness depends directly on anything other than consequences, such as whether the agent promised in the past to do the act now" (Armstrong 2011). What is good for the greatest number of people one day may not be the case several years from now, or even to morrow.
For example, no one would state that as an abstract moral principle, having to fire competent employees is a 'good thing.' However, bosses are often forced to do so, because of the…
Alexander, Larry & Michael Moore. (2007). Deontological ethics. The Stanford Encyclopedia
of Philosophy. Retrieved: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/
Armstrong, Walter. (2011). Consequentialism. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
From the utilitarian perspective, it can be assumed that the use of spyware will reduce the private use of computers and restore the lost work hours, which is a benefit for the company. Employee relationships with the company will be damaged, however, perhaps irrevocably, and this could also affect productivity. Managing the data from the spyware will also require company resources, which can be seen as a detriment. Deontologically speaking, it is generally considered wrong to spy, but it is also wrong to waste company time when an employee is accepting money in an agreement to work, not take care of private business. The two wrongs do not cancel each other out, but either decision leaves one side wronged, so neither system provides a direct answer to the problem.
A combination of the two approaches is not impossible, and in fact makes a great deal of sense in this scenario.…
Alexander, L. & Moore, M. (2007). "Deontological ethics." Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Accessed 24 January 2010. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/ #DeoThe
Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (2008). "Calculating Consequences: The Utilitarian Approach to Ethics." Markula center for applied ethics. Accessed 24 January 2010.
Mautner, T., ed. (2002). The Penguin dictionary of philosophy. New York: Penguin.
Despite the fact that codes of conduct and belief systems permeate everyone's life on an everyday basis, developing a universally acceptable concept of ethics or moral philosophy remains a seemingly impossible task that has plagued philosophers and the world's great thinkers since the beginning of time. Over time a great number of different philosophical theories have arise. Each one has its strengths and weaknesses and each has enjoyed its own period of popularity but, strangely, due to the fact that some of the world's greatest minds have spent their lives formulating other theories, the theory that seemingly has the greatest degree of validity is one of that has enjoyed the longest history: virtue ethics.
Virtue ethics were developed as a theory by the ancient Greek philosophers. Aristotle and Plato in developing their views toward ethics placed little importance on the rules that people should obey or follow and,…
Ethical Treatment of Prisoners
The treatment of a society's prisoners has been an issue of debate for centuries. The emotions surrounding such treatment are considerable and reaching a consensus on the best and fairest method is often difficult. Torture is considered illegal in most civilized societies and, therefore, in order to maintain an acceptable level of treatment an alternative and more humane approach must be established (Filter, 2000).
There presently exist two leading schools of moral thought: utilitarianism and deontology (Gibbs, 1977). Despite what has been characterized as great differences between the two schools they seem to agree on most substantive issues.
Utilitarianism argues that the right action is the one, out those available, that maximizes one's total happiness. In the prisoner treatment situation this results in considering the emotional pain, physical discomfort, expense, and time involved in housing the prisoner against the advantages garnered by society such as retribution,…
Bentham, J. (1988). Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Buffalo: Prometheus Books.
Filter, J.A. (2000). Prisoner's Rights: The Supreme Court and Evolving Standards of Decency. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.
Gibbs, J. (1977). Social control deterrence and perspectives of social order. Social Forces, 408-423.
Kant, I. (2010). Critique of Practical Reason. Seattle: CreateSpace.
Bans save cash. It is costly to encourage smoking in prisons. Smoke-harmed detainees and staff require costly medical care, for different tobacco impacts. Citizens pay, both by expanded duties, and by expanded insurance rates. The prison authorities must raise the issue with government officials and ask them how much smoking costs citizens. When inmates smoke in jail, more bills, hospital expenses, come to citizens: for the smokers' conditions, and for those of the nonsmokers around, being unconstitutionally pushed to inhale contaminated air (Ducat, 2009).
Approximately 50% of smokers die from tobacco related ailments (World Health Organization, 2007). Available evidence confirms that prisoners die from cancers related to smoking at higher rates than the public. Further, second hand smoking is also threatening lives of non-smokers within the system of prisons. They include workers, visitors, prison officers and other inmates. The ban on smoking in prison will dramatically reduce the…
Ducat, C.R. (2009). Constitutional interpretation. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Hendrick, J. (2010). Law and ethics in nursing and health care. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes.
McWay, D.C., & McWay, D.C. (2010). Legal and ethical aspects of health information management. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning.
World Health Organization (2007). Protection from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke: Policy recommendations. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
The Definition of Ethics
In practically all areas of society ethical subjects are rapidly increasing. Professionals in the health field struggle with ethical questions in relation to abortion, transplants, birth control, informed consent, life-support systems, malpractice suits, patient privacy, human genetics, and high costs of insurance, as well as care on the whole. Ethical matters in relation to nuclear power accidents, oil spills, disposal of industrial waste, defense weaponry, lead and asbestos poisoning, acid rain, as well as ecological balance challenge those in technology, science, and industry. People in the political ground deal with ethical queries in relation to unemployment, homelessness, foreign policy decisions, Social Security, welfare reform, electioneering costs, law enforcement practices, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) activities, racial and gender discrimination, immigration control, drugs, crime, and lobbying actions. The legal profession is blamed of unethical customs like engaging in doubtful plea-bargaining practices, motivating a harmful litigious spirit,…
Arnett R.C. (1992). Dialogic education: Conversation about ideas and between persons. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Berlo D.K. (1960). Dimensions for evaluating the acceptability of message sources. Public Opinion Quarterly, 33, 563-576.
Bauer R.A. (1964). The obstinate audience: The influence process from the point-of-view of social communication. American Psychologist, 19, 319-328.
Converse E.J., Campbell D.T., Miller R.D. And Stokes L. (1960). Nonreactive measures in the social sciences. (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Utilitarian Abortion Considerations:
The utilitarian perspective applied to the abortion issue would focus on whether
permitting or prohibiting elective abortion would contribute more positively the interests of society Mill, 2003 p160). The principal difference between the utilitarian and deontological perspectives is that utilitarianism is wholly unconcerned with the underlying motivation for decisions. Whereas deontological formalism values the state of mind of the individual, utilitarianism focuses on the ultimate consequences of the act, irrespective of motivation Russell, 2002 p 99).
Within the utilitarian ethical perspective, rule utilitarianism would promote the choice associated with the overall benefit to others and to society if it were adhered to religiously in all circumstances, irrespective of isolated cases in which the rule produced a negative result Russell, 2002 p101-2). For example, in a society where relative birth and death rates were such that the continuation of society were in jeopardy, the utilitarian perspective might require…
(Dershowitz, 2002 p112).
Therefore, the contemporary utilitarian approach to morality in human life is to consider other definitions of "goodness" and "benefit" rather than equating morality with the interests of the greatest number. In many respects, that is the perspective exemplified by the modern American justice system (Dershowitz, 2002 p112). Under that view, the moral rightness or wrongness of elective abortion would seek to weigh the manner in which permitting abortions might benefit society and how that decision would affect all of the individuals directly involved in specific situations. If the initial assumption is that society is benefited by the respect for the autonomous rights of individuals to make personal decisions about abortion without interference from the state, utilitarianism would support the freedom to make that decision.
Under the act utilitarianism perspective, therefore, certain types of abortions (such as in cases of rape, incest, or medical necessity for the life of the mother)
Ethical issues are now just as much of a concern as they were thirty years or more ago. (Qian, Gao, Yao & odriguez) Ethics are a clear set of principles dealing with what is considered appropriate behavior in-group and individual counseling. These standards were created not only to protect clients, but also to protect counselors. As a counselor, a fine line can easily be crossed if the counselor and/or the client do not follow and understand basic rules that are in place regarding ethical interactions between clients and counselors. It is evident that no matter what area of counseling one chooses to go into, there are always concerns and issues with ethical boundaries, and what is and is not acceptable. (Justice & Garland) Every Human interaction involves the interpretation of roles and interpersonal boundaries. These roles dictate what behavior is appropriate and inappropriate professionally and personally. In the current essay,…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American School Counselor Association. (2004). Ethical standards for school counselors. Retrieved September 15, 2011, from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=173
Aoyagi, M, & Portenga, S 2010, 'The role of positive ethics and virtues in the context of sport and performance psychology service delivery', Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41, 3, pp. 253-259, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 September 2011.
Bodenhorn, N 2006, 'Exploratory Study of Common and Challenging Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Professional School Counselors', Professional School Counseling, 10, 2, p. 195, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 September 2011.
In any case, patients can set out defined clause in the Power of Attorney telling operators how they might like them to act with respect to deathbed issues (Edge & Krieger, 2008).
Living wills and other development directives depict a patient's inclination with respect to medicine if the patient is confronted with a genuine mishap or disease. These authoritative reports represent the patient when he/she is not ready to represent himself/herself. Unforeseen end-of-life scenarios can happen at any age, so it is imperative for all grown-ups to have progress directives. Durable power of attorney for health care (POA) is an authoritative record that designates a single person to settle on restorative choices for a patient in case he/she is unable to do so (Kerridge, Lowe & Stewart, 2013).
A patient's advance directives incorporate the living will and durable power of attorney for health care. They may be the…
Cohen, M.H. (2010). Beyond complementary medicine: Legal and ethical perspectives on health care and human evolution. Ann Arbor: Univ. Of Michigan Press.
Duquenoy, P., George, C., & Kimppa, K. (2008). Ethical, legal, and social issues in medical informatics. Hershey, PA: Medical Information Science Reference.
Edge, R.S., & Krieger, J.L. (2008). Legal and ethical perspectives in health care: An integrated approach. Albany: Delmar Publishers.
Kerridge, I., Lowe, M., & Stewart, C. (2013). Ethics and law for the health professions. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.
Proclaimed by scientists, the thriving cloning of an adult sheep and the prospect to clone a human being is one of the most striking and latest instances of a scientific innovation turning out to be a major argumentative issue. A variety of critics, physicians and legal specialists, scientists and theologians, talk-radio hosts, as well as editorial column writers, for the period of the preceding few months, have been effectively reacting to the news, a number of them bringing up fears and apprehensions on the ethical and moral side of the subject, of the viewpoint of cloning a human being.
The National ioethics Advisory Commission (NAC), at the appeal of the President, held inquiries, as well as organized a report on the ethical, religious, as well as lawful subjects contiguous to human cloning. The Commission suggested a suspension on attempts to clone human beings, at the same time as…
National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Cloning Human Beings. Report and Recommendations. June 9, 2001.
James Q. Wilson. The Paradox of Cloning. Weekly Standard. May 26, 2001.
Jean Bethke Elshtain. Ewegenics. New Republic. March 31, 2001.
R.C. Lewontin. The Confusion over Cloning. New York Review of Books. October 23, 2001.
The main concern in virtue ethics becomes about a person's moral character. When people choose to develop their moral character, better virtues will be created, and thus there will be more people acting in virtuous ways in all aspects of their lives -- and this includes how they treat all animals.
One example to be considered when thinking about how a person with a strong sense of virtue might behave is to counter it with how a person with a strong sense of duty might behave. From a duty sense, if one were a livestock farmer, he or she might believe that his or her duty lies in what is best for the people because, after all, the job is about raising livestock for slaughter, which will then become food for people. Therefore, the first duty would be to humans and the second duty to animals (Panaman 20008) (which may…
Garner, R. (2005). Animal ethics. Cambridge: Polity.
Gruen, L. (2011). Ethics and animals: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;
Hursthouse, R. (2000). Ethics, humans and other animals: An introduction with readings. New York: Routledge.
Te profiled organization is Yout LifeLine America, ttp://www.youtlifelineamerica.com. Te organization is a not-for-profit 501 c3 tax-exempt status and domiciled in O'Fallon Missouri, United States. Yout LifeLine America (YLA) operates in multiple cities trougout America providing services targeted to te adolescent. Specifically, YLA coordinate efforts to influence yout via suc mediums as te arts, entertainment, sports and celebrities, to teac ways to be productive and encourage a mindset of sustained development.
YLA is a small business employing below ten employees. Te Founder & CEO is Roland Williams, Director of Development & Programs is Cedric Cobb, Katryn Vasconcellos is Event Guru, and Angela Castelli is Vice President of Operations. According to Angela Castelli, YLA as a very targeted approac to assisting te yout population.
"Tis organization as identified te gaps tat exist in our yout's culture today, educates and empowers tem to develop te skills tat allow tem to reac…
Dismal Ethics. Economist; 1/8/2011, Vol. 398 Issue 8715, p76-76, 1p, 1 Color Photograph
Thomson, G.S. 2010, "Taxonomy of Business Ethics Theories," SSRN Working Paper Series,, pp. n/a.
Ethical Lens Inventory
There is probably nobody who goes through life without, at some point, being faced with an ethical dilemma. These are situations where either projected outcome might be equally undesirable, or where there are no clear rules to indicate the appropriate course of action. In these situations, it is helpful to first determine one's own ethical values and viewpoints. These can then be used to come to a decision that is least detrimental to one's own sense of fairness and justice. The ethical lens inventory is one tool that can be used to determine the specific nature of one's own sense of ethical fairness and justice (Ethics Game, 2009).
The ethical lens inventory includes four ethical lenses that might be used to determine one's own sense of values and ethics (Ethics Game, 2007). The most important element to recognize here is that ethics is not uniform, static, or…
Ethics Game (2009). Ethical Lens Inventory. Retrieved from: http://www.ethicsgame.com/Exec/GGEG/Products/EthicalLensInventoryEdSlick.pdf
Ethics Game (2007). Introduction to Four Ethical Lenses. Retrieved from: http://bahrec.shrm.org
Various objections to capital punishment hinge on religious beliefs. On the other hand, the American justice system does not recognize religious principles.
Capital punishment also raises numerous ethical issues pertaining to the likelihood of errors in its administration. Lethal injection, for example, causes excruciating pain and a slow death from prolonged suffocation instead of instantaneous death if it is performed incorrectly. If suffering of this nature were considered torture when inflicted purposely, what incidence of error would be enough to prohibit lethal injection altogether on ethical grounds? Finally, does the prospect of erroneous conviction or disproportionate application to the poor or to racial minorities undermine all the other ethical justifications for capital punishment?
osenstand, N. (2008). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics. New York:…
Rosenstand, N. (2008). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics. New York: McGraw-Hill
Ethical and Legal obligations in financial reporting is extremely important in today's world, fraught as it is with corporate frauds and accounting scams and scandals of every other sort. One Company, the Thornburg Investment Company, has taken a firm stand on financial reporting within its company, wherein all concerned officials are expected to report accurately, any actual, as well as suspected violations and breaches in the laws and rules and regulations of the company, to the appropriate personnel, immediately. (Code of Business Conduct and Ethics) Another Company, the 'Trinity Capital Corporation' stresses the importance of adhering to the rules and regulations created by the Company so that the company's loyalty to its numerous shareholders may be apparent. Where financial reporting is concerned, all the employees of the firm are expected to comply with the generally accepted rules laid down by the accounting principles of the United States of America, so…
"Accounting Concepts, underlying assumptions, principles, and conventions" Retrieved From
http://www.quickmba.com/accounting/fin/concepts / Accessed on 20 June, 2005
"Business Conduct and Ethics Policy" Retrieved From
http://www.lanb.com/tcc/bcecharter.asp Accessed on 19 June, 2005
Ethical behavior of a person or a corporation greatly affects the stakeholders with which that person is involved. Often, people and companies take serious consideration when it comes to those stakeholders, and they work to take good care of the people who are involved with them (Keller, 2002). There have been cases, though, where ethical behavior has been ignored in the name of profit. Eventually, most companies and people who ignore their ethics are caught and punished, but not before they end up harming the financial and emotional lives of many of their stakeholders. Plato once said that the nature and the origin of justice was that men who were capable of doing wrong to other people would often do so. He also said that men who did not have enough strength to keep themselves from being harmed by others would not do harm to other people.
In other words,…
Anderson, A.A. (1999). Downsizing and the Meaning of Work. Babson College Business Ethics Program.
Keller, K.W. (2002). What does a business owe the community? The Signal.
This is when insurance companies will charge more for premiums based upon someone coming from a particular ethnic group. In the past, many of these practices were utilized to give some kind of advantage to people who were from non-indigenous backgrounds. This focus is taking a similar approach, by showing how someone is a higher risk because of their ethnicity. These views are not considering the lifestyle choices they are engaging in such as: physical activities, their diet, if the person is a smoker or drinks alcohol. (Bombak 2012)
Instead, they will use this category to automatically rate indigenous people higher largely based upon this variable. From an ethical perspective, one could argue that insurance companies are discriminating against this segment of the population without taking into consideration other factors. This makes it difficult for this demographic to locate and obtain affordable life insurance because of these views. When this…
2012 Indigenous Report, 2012, Productivity Commission. Available from: [30 April 2013].
Genetic Discrimination, 2012, NHMRC. Available from:
Ethical Argument: Smoking in the Workplace
In 1994, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) defined second- hand tobacco smoke as a potential workplace hazard, estimating that as many as 14,000 workers die each year from the effects of exposure to passive tobacco smoke. The National Cancer
Institute endorsed much higher estimates, according to which as many as 65,000 Americans die each year from heart disease and lung cancer caused by inhaling secondhand smoke (Washington Post, 2004). Since then, many states have instituted legislation prohibiting smoking in the workplace and the FAA has imposed an outright smoking ban on commercial aircraft, which many smokers view as an infringement of their rights.
While anti-smoking legislation certainly does affect the rights of smokers, it is justified on the basis of comparing the relative imposition on smokers to the rights of non-smokers to a healthy work environment. Certainly, smokers have the same…
Washington Post; "Who's Protecting Workers' Health." August 27, 2004; p. A20. (Washingtonpostonline.com) Accessed August 27, 2004, at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37210-2004Aug26.html
Can both sides be right? Hardly, and when the initiative is analyzed with a critical eye, one sees that it looks like the initiative is a tactic for large corporations to appear to be following the letter of the law, but saving money by making Clean Air Act and EPA required equipment to reduce certain emissions by delaying capital expenditures and pushing out previous goals, thus saving millions if not billions of technological investment dollars. Likely these companies lobbied the Bush Administration, citing the need to reinvest in their businesses to become more competitive and thus, unable to divert funds into pollution control.
From the simplest ethnical standard, for instance utilitarianism, the initiative on its own might be ethical if not for the fact that it significantly alters previous legislation, and lessens the impact of EPS regulations on big-business. Certainly, stakeholders in those offending companies would benefit; stockholders, employees, management;…
President Announces Clear Skies and Global Climate Change Initiatives. (2002, February 14). Retrieved Nocember 2010, from the White House: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/02/20020214-5.html
Utilitarianism Resources. (2007, March). Retrieved November 2010, from Utilitarianism.com: http://www.utilitarianism.com/
Adams, J. (2003, Winter). Illogical Extremes. Retrieved November 2010, from NRDC-on Earth: http://www.nrdc.org/onearth/04win/view.asp
Bluhm and Heineman. (2006). Ethics and Public Policy. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
With regard to the issue of environment, the company has faced the ire of EPA and lot of other legal authorities for its failure to confirm to emission standards within the permissible limits. The company has not been able to contain emission levels on a year to year basis. With regard to the issue of employment, the employees of the company have occupational hazards being faced by its employees and the company has several litigations being filed against them for the misuse of the services of its employees. It could be stated that Multinational Corporations like Doe un has been unethical in its activities which need to be brought under scrutiny and control.
Table showing metals mined by Doe un
Dollars in thousands)
Table showing Net Sales of Products and Services
Dollars in thousands)
Primary lead metal sales
Cheryl Whittenauer. U.S.: Doe Run ordered to clean up tailings site. 2 October, 2006. http://www.warprofiteers.com/article.php?id=14196
DeVous, Philip. Utopian solutions vs. real corporate social responsibility. http://ff.org/centers/csspp/library/co2weekly/20051222_news/20051222_04.html
Doe Run Resources Corp: Annual Report 10-K. http://sec.edgar-online.com/2005/03/23/0001047469-05-007373/Section2.asp
Final Award allowing Compensation. The Labor and Industrial relations Commission. http://www.dolir.mo.gov/lirc/wcdecisions/wcdec01%5CLorenA.htm