Treatment for Constipation Htn Seizure Research Paper

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Constipation, Hypertension, Seizure


This is the infrequent or difficult bowel evacuation (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2012). While there are no strict standard for bowel elimination, it is generally believed that fewer than thrice a week constitutes constipation. Stools are usually hard and dry. Other common symptoms associated constipation include excessive straining during bowel evacuation, a sense of rectal blockage, a sense of incomplete evacuation and the need to perform manual measures to evacuate the bowels. Constipation may be the consequence of insufficient fluid intake or dehydration, inadequate fiber in the diet, foregoing elimination, irritable bowel syndrome, lack of physical activity, illness, abuse of laxatives and certain medical conditions. Those more likely to develop constipation are older adults, those who are sedentary, confined in bed, dehydrated, on low-fiber diet, on certain medications and undergoing chemotherapy. It is more common in women and children. Causes for alarm include fewer than thrice a week of bowel movements, intense abdominal pain, blood in the stool, thin stools, diarrhea and unexplained weight loss (Mayo Clinic Staff).

Treatments and Prevention

Constipation can be corrected with a high-fiber diet, adequate fluid intake, laxatives, regular exercise and taking time to evacuate (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2012). If these do not work, a physician may prescribe medications, manual procedures or surgery. Alternative treatments are massage, acupuncture and homeopathic remedies. Changing to a high-fiber diet, increased fluid intake, adequate nutrition, a more physically active lifestyle, and setting a regular time for bowel movement can prevent constipation. In many cases, medical treatment is unnecessary as they are temporary (Mayo Clinic Staff).


Blood pressure is considered high when the reading is 140/90 or more (Makoff, 2012). An increase in either systolic or diastolic pressure raises the risk of developing heart or cardiac disease, renal disease, hardening of the arteries, eye damage, and stroke. These are called end-organ damage because of long-duration of high blood pressure. Recently, those aged 50 and older with a high systolic reading face a great risk of hypertension. One out of 3 adults in the U.S., about 73 million, faces this risk. The two types of hypertension are essential or primary and secondary. The essential or primary type accounts for 95% of all cases. Several factors are associated with it, such as excessive salt intake, advancing age, race, obesity, hereditary predisposition, and renal failure. The secondary type is caused by specific disorders in the kidney, adrenal glands or aortic artery. Hypertension is described as "the silent killer" because it does not produce symptoms for years until damage on an end-organ occurs. Those with uncomplicated hypertension may experience symptoms, such as headache, dizziness, shortness…

Sources Used in Documents:


Makoff, D. (2012). High blood pressure. MedicineNet: Retrieved on March 7, 2012 from

Mayo Clinic Staff (2012). Constipation. Mayo Clinic: Mayo Foundation for Medical

Education and Research. Retrieved on March 7, 2012 from

PubMed Health (2011). Seizures. ADAM Medical Encyclopedia: ADAM, Inc. Retrieved

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