Two Concept Maps Of Two Different Diseases Chapter

Length: 4 pages Sources: 4 Subject: Health - Nursing Type: Chapter Paper: #81769465 Related Topics: Pharmacology, Ultrasound, Heart Disease, Prostate Cancer
Excerpt from Chapter :

¶ … Map of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Breast Cancer

Lifestyle

Eating Better

Cutting down on alcohol

Giving up Tobacco

Exercising

Controlling Stress

Medications/Surgical

Medications approved to treat breast cancer:

Abitrexate

Abraxane

Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine

Afinitor et al. (National Cancer Institute, 2016).

Concept Map of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer

ETIOLOGY

Primary

The etiology of breast cancer remains mainly unidentified. Risk factors linked with breast cancer can be clustered into three comprehensive contributing factors: i. family history (hereditary) factors, ii. hormonal reproductive factors

environmental factors (DeBruin and Josephy, 2002).

Secondary

Polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes may influence risk of breast cancer from environmental chemicals, dietary agents, and endogenous steroids (DeBruin and Josephy, 2002).

BREAST CANCER

DIAGNOSIS

History/Physical

Lump or contour change

Skin tethering

Nipple inversion

Dilated veins

Ulceration

Paget disease

Edema or peau d'orange (Medscape, 2015)

Diagnostic/Lab Tests

Chest x-ray (CXR) Complete blood count (CBC)

Basic metabolic panel (BMP)

Lactate Urine analysis (UA)

Urine culture (UC)

Blood cultures x2 sites (Rischer, 2013)

PATHOGENESIS

Primary

When estrogen goes into the

...

Consequently, owing to estrogen's proliferative features, its cellular stimulus can have adverse outcomes in patients conveying large amounts of these receptors intracellularly (Yager and Davidson, 2006).

Secondary

Contrivance of carcinogenesis continues to be mostly unidentified, but overexpression is linked with speedy tumour growth, reduced survival, increased risk of relapse subsequent to surgery, and poor reaction to conventional chemotherapeutic agents (Yager and Davidson, 2006).

CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

Signs

Refutation, or inward turning of the nipple

Amplification of one breast dimpling of the breast surface

An prevailing lump that gets bigger

An "orange peel" texture to the skin

Vaginal discomfort

Unpremeditated weight loss enlarged lymph nodes in the armpit

Perceptible veins on the breast (Krans and Cafasso, 2015)

Symptoms

Thickening of the breast tissue

Nipple discharge

Redness or scaling of the nipple

A nipple that retracts or turns inward

Unexplained redness, swelling, skin irritation, itchiness, or rash on the breast (Krans and Cafasso, 2015).

References

Rischer, K. (2013). Unfolding Clinical Reasoning Case Study: Breast Cancer Content/Concept Map. Retrieved 3 February, 2016 from: http://www.keithrn.com/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Breast-Cancer-Content-Concepts-Map-for-Case-Study1.pdf

National Cancer Institute. (2016). Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer. Retrieved 3 February, 2016 from: http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/drugs/breast

DeBruin, L. S., & Josephy, P. D. (2002). Perspectives on the chemical etiology of breast cancer. Environmental health perspectives,…

Sources Used in Documents:

References

Lepor, H. (2005). Pathophysiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the aging male population. Reviews in urology, 7(Suppl 4), S3.

Roehrborn, C. G. (2008). Pathology of benign prostatic hyperplasia. International journal of impotence research, 20, S11-S18.

Dhingra, N., & Bhagwat, D. (2011). Benign prostatic hyperplasia: An overview of existing treatment. Indian journal of pharmacology, 43(1), 6.


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