United States Military's Efforts To Essay

Length: 7 pages Sources: 3 Subject: Military Type: Essay Paper: #61315156 Related Topics: President Of The United States, Women In Combat, United States History, Us
Excerpt from Essay :

Integrating women into the military, like with African-American men, would also contribute to more cohesive fighting units again serving to promote a united, strong U.S. military organization.

Anti-female bias in the military

The struggle for equality in the military for women parallels that of African-American men in many other ways. As a direct result of the need for additional "manpower," women's push for better treatment in the military, and a desire for a larger, stronger military, in 1948, the Women's Armed Services Integration Act was enacted. This act made it possible for women to become permanent members in the military.

Once again, as with African-American men, that act alone was not enough to ensure integration thus leading to a multitude of policies designed to accomplish that end. Almost immediately following this act, in 1949, it was changed to eliminate women with dependent children. This was not changed until the 1970's. Now, like men, women may serve in the military even if they have dependent children. The struggle for women in the military continues as is evidenced by the fact that as recently as 1984, it was recommended by the Defense Department Advisory Committee on Women in the Services that "the Office of the Secretary of Defense reiterate, through the publication of a formal policy statement to commanders and field personnel at all levels, the requirement that women be fully utilized in their assigned operational units" (Defense Technical Information Center, 2012).

Striving towards gender equality

Unlike the Executive order mandating racial integration executed by Truman on behalf of the African-American man, women's rights in the military were actually championed in Congress by Senator Margaret Close Smith. She was the impetus to the Women's Armed Services Integration Act of 1948 (Borlik, 1998). Without her hard work and dedication it is unlikely that this act would have passed Congress and it is even less clear if Harry S. Truman would have bypassed Congress with an Executive Order mandating equality for women in the United States military, especially given the views on women during the 1940's. Clearly, it was not until the 1970's that women were allowed to serve if they had dependent children though this posed no problem for men of any color.

However, like African-American men, women have had the support of many. As noted above, Senator Margaret Close Smith successfully fought for women's rights within the military. Along with the senator, there was the pressure born to writing, in these United States of America, women are still not guaranteed equal rights in the military or anywhere else according to the Constitution. This is because the Equal Rights amendment guaranteeing women the same rights that all men have (regardless of color) has never been added as an amendment.

Additionally, women in combat is still a fierce debate. There are many arguments against women in combat and they tend toward the "protective" stance once relegated to African-American men. For example, one hears of the lack of physical ability, the possibility of rape, the possibility of pregnancy, the innate "differences" of women, and the basic need of women to nurture, which is in direct opposition to the required killing skills of a soldier. This is akin to stating that African-American men were not intelligent enough to fulfill the necessary obligations of a fully commissioned soldier. Further, it is not likely that an event such as Tailhook will come to light regarding African-American men though it came as no surprise when it happened to women in the military. Harassment and assault of women in the military was an accepted fact and has yet to be completely eradicated despite the many policies prohibiting this type of treatment, thus making it impossible for women to benefit from the same equality attained by African-American men in the United States Military.


With regard to African-Americans, it can be argued that the military has done a better job at integration than some civilian institutions; however, there remains a great deal to accomplish the same on behalf of women. The struggles of the African-American man and women to gain equal status in the military have been supported and thwarted at every turn. Yet, the military has managed to successfully managed to integrate African-American men whereas, there is still a decidedly unequal position for women within the military, thus making that transformation incomplete. With this in mind, it would behoove the American soldier to remember that the reason he or she is fighting is precisely so that all people have the right to fight beside them regardless of skin color and gender and only their individual actions can transform the military into a completely integrated fighting machine.


Borlik, A. (1998, June). DOD Marks 50th Year of Military Women's Integration

Retrieved January 12, 2012, from U.S. Department of Defense…

Sources Used in Documents:


Borlik, A. (1998, June). DOD Marks 50th Year of Military Women's Integration

Retrieved January 12, 2012, from U.S. Department of Defense website:


Blumenson, M. (1972). Eisenhower

Cite this Document:

"United States Military's Efforts To" (2012, January 13) Retrieved June 25, 2021, from

"United States Military's Efforts To" 13 January 2012. Web.25 June. 2021. <

"United States Military's Efforts To", 13 January 2012, Accessed.25 June. 2021,

Related Documents
US Military Performance Against British in War of 1812
Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Topic: War Paper #: 26690370

United States Military Performance Against the British in the War of 1812 In June 1812, the U.S. declared a war against the British and their North American allies. The war, according to Smith, was motivated by America's quest to take control of Britain's North American territories, Britain's punitive trade policy, Britain's support for Native Americans, and the forced enrolment of American sailors into the British navy. As a young nation, the

United States Military and Environmental Law
Words: 6165 Length: 23 Pages Topic: Transportation - Environmental Issues Paper #: 54567760

U.S. MILITARY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW Military & Environmental Law Environmental Analysis and Impact of the United States Military Military activity affects the environment in direct and indirect ways. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of military training and readiness activities and the impact of armed conflict and war on the environment. Most environmental impact that results from armed conflict and war occurs in foreign and not domestic environments. However,

Business the United States Military
Words: 1802 Length: 7 Pages Topic: Military Paper #: 61587112

The USMC has established an immediate, direct, and clear relationship between recruiting and socialization." (Baker & Jennings, 2000, p. 369) by "socialization," the United States Marine Corps (USMC) means the precise functioning of each individual Marine in relation to the entire corps. Every marine, like every soldier in the regular army, and every sailor in the Navy, is destined for a specific purpose. While military personnel may possess wide training

Immigrants and the US Military
Words: 4601 Length: 14 Pages Topic: Immigration Paper #: 38645844

Immigrants Should be Allowed in the US Military and Granted Citizenship One of the major issues that have faced the U.S. Department of Defense is on permitting illegal immigrants to serve in the U.S. military. This issue has become relatively controversial in the recent past because of immigration issues and the need to enhance homeland security. In this regard, there are questions on whether illegal immigrants should be allowed to serve

United States Investing Too Much
Words: 1551 Length: 4 Pages Topic: Military Paper #: 79707916

The Myth of Homeland Security. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2003. Thornton, Rod. Asymmetric Warfare: Threat and Response in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge [u.a.]: Polity, 2007 Ranum, Marcus. The Myth of Homeland Security. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2003. Thornton, Rod. Asymmetric Warfare: Threat and Response in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge [u.a.]: Polity, 2007 Thornton, Rod. Asymmetric Warfare: Threat and Response in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge [u.a.]: Polity, 2007 Thornton, Rod. Asymmetric Warfare: Threat and

Military Efforts to Transform the
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Topic: Military Paper #: 25012852

Despite the high operational tempo though of the U.S. military, it is still an organization that undergoes constant transformation in not only to meet the various missions thereof but in keeping with the changing times. The changes that the American defense forces are contained in policy changes that originate with the National Command Authority and executed by the Joint Chiefs of Staff down the chain of command. Of late,