Williams 1999 Discusses the Overall 'Literature Review' chapter

Excerpt from 'Literature Review' chapter :

At which point, it becomes ineffective at: understanding the overall challenges and how to identify someone who is most suited for a particular career field. A good example of this occurred with the Air Traffic and Test Selection batteries. What happened was this standardized test was given to air traffic controllers on a regular basis, to determine their overall levels of competence in the industry and for requalification. However, some of the most experienced air traffic controllers were scoring poorly on the exam. Given the fact that these individuals had worked the career field so long, meant that it was difficult to claim that these people were not qualified (especially when you consider how this group was consistently performing poorly). As a result, researchers conducted a study and they found that the way the different questions are weighted, will play a major role in determining the score of the individual. This is significant, because it means that any kind of attempts to use the test to determine the best candidates was inaccurate. At which point, researchers found that if the different questions were reweighted taking into account: cultural factors, experience and other information provided; the best results in determining who is most qualified.

The information from this source is useful, because it is confirming how specific factors could affect the performance of an individual on various aptitude exams. Therefore, this can help to confirm how numerous factors must be taken into account, when using these score to decide who would be the best naval aviator. Where, the cultural background and experience of individual could cause their scores to show different results, than the reality of the situation.

The article that was written by Campbell (2010), discusses the effects of using different tests, to determine who would be most suited to be a naval aviator. Where, they took their analysis one step further by looking at specific factors that will determine how successful someone is in the field (mirroring combat conditions). This meant that individuals would face similar kinds of emotional conditions that they would experience including: anxiety and extrovertism. At which point, researchers would compare the direct impact that these effects had on the underlying test scores (by having candidates take these batteries after these situations). The results were that test scores would drop by 25%, because of the increased amounts of pressure that candidates were facing. This is important, because it shows how testing for aptitude is one way to determine how successful someone would be as a naval aviator. Yet, beyond this basic information, there needs to be some kind of way of seeing; the total impact that the stresses of combat will have upon: their decision making and the ability to adapt / overcome. Once this takes place, it will provide a more realistic assessment as to if someone would make a good pilot (by mirroring the same kinds of stress that they will face as a part of their job). At which point, the overall selection process can be more accurate in determining who is most suited to work in this particular MOS.

The information from this source is useful, because it is providing specific instances when test scores could be filled with inaccuracies. As a result, military officials need to incorporate these elements into the testing process. This would provide clearer information about: how the culture and background of the individual will help them to deal with the various challenges they are facing on the job. Therefore, the information from this source can be used with previous sources to provide specific factors; that could help to improve the accuracy of the different testing batteries that are being utilized.

When you step and analyze the information that was examined, it is clear that the testing batteries, the Navy is using in their selection process for aviators, is providing them with a basic standard. As they will determine who has: the intellect, judgment and personality necessary for success in this career field. This is important, because this gives the military a foundation for testing and selection. Yet, when you look at the research further, there are a number of different problems with using this approach. The most notable include: the inappropriate weighting of the questions, not looking at specific factors that could affect the score (culture) and analyzing how someone will perform after they experience similar emotional challenges in combat. These different factors are important, because they are showing how these tests can have inaccuracies (when deciding who is most suited for this field). As a result, it is imperative for these different elements to be taken into consideration along with the underlying score. Once this takes place, it will provide the greatest, insights as to who would make the best pilot. At which point, the selection process can become more efficient and refined.


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Campbell, J. (2010). Meta Analysis. International Journal of Aviation Psychology 20 (1), 92 -- 109.

Carretta, T. (2010). Predictive Validity. Military Psychology 22 (4), 450 -- 464.

Cascio, W. (1998). Applied Psychology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Simon and Schuster.

Damos, D. (2006). Review of Aviator Selection. United States Army Research Institute. Arlington, VA: U.S. Army.

Dattel, a. (2010). The Impact…

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