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Personality Tests EVISED
In taking the Myers-Briggs personality test, my results indicated ENFJ, or Extraverted Intuitive Feeling Judging. One interpretation calls this type "The Teacher" for shorthand (presumably because Extraversion is required for a teacher or professor to willingly stand in front of a classroom and "perform," while the Judging component helps with grading papers). Another weblink offered to show me a list of famous people with the ENFJ type: after scanning the various names (some of whom I identified with, some of whom I didn't) I began to consider what these tests were actually measuring, if anything. I was reading a list of "famous ENFJ personalities" but I wondered if they had lists of famous Introverts. With the possible exception of certain creative artists or eccentrics -- e.g., Marcel Proust, Greta Garbo, Nikola Tesla -- there are not many professions which offer wide fame to those who lack Extraversion…
Guastello, S.J., Guastello, D.D., and Craft, L.L. (1989). Assessment of the Barnum effect in computer-based test interpretations. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 123, 477-484.
Huffman, Karen. (2008). Psychology in Action. Ninth Edition. Hoboken: Wiley.
"Idealist ™ Portrait of the Teacher (ENFJ)." Web. Accessed 1 March 2011 at: http://keirsey.com/4temps/teacher.asp
"Personality Test Based on Jung -- Meyers-Briggs Terminology." Web. Accessed 1 March at: http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes3.asp
Personality Test Analysis
My scores on the "Big Five" model personality test are Openness: 96%; Conscientiousness: 86%; Extraversion: 27%; Agreeableness: 69% and Neuroticism: 37%. (John, 2009) On the Jung Typology test, my type is INFJ: Introverted: 89%; Intuitive: 75%; Feeling: 25%; Judging: 44%. (Humanmetrics) This was very similar to the Keirsey Temperament Test, which also classifies me as an INFJ, also known as the "Counselor." (Butt, 2010)
According to the analyses that accompany the Keirsey and Jung tests online, I am highly introverted, preferring the company of a few close friends to a group of people; I am a champion of the downtrodden with a humanitarian streak, and also possess a knack for languages. I have very clear perception and, for better or worse, readily grasp other people's underlying motives. My thinking is directed inward, which can be perceived by others as being cold and distant; at times I may…
BSM Consulting. (2010). INFJ Personal Growth. Retrieved 12 16, 2010, from personalitypage.com: http://www.personalitypage.com/html/INFJ_per.html
Butt, J. a. (2010, Aug 8). INFJ Profile. Retrieved 12 16, 2010, from typelogic.com: http://typelogic.com/infj.html
Humanmetrics. (2008). Jung Career Indicator. Retrieved 12 16, 2010, from humanmetrics.com: http://www.humanmetrics.com/vocation/JCI.asp?EI=-89&SN=-75&TF=-25&JP=44
Humanmetrics. (n.d.). Personality test based on Jung - Myers-Briggs typology. (Humanmetrics, Producer) Retrieved 12 16, 2010, from www.humanmetrics.com: http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes3.asp
Personality Test esults: The Administrator
The world is filled with millions of very different people. In fact, no two people are ever truly alike. This means that in the contemporary work environment, there are people who may share your views and work habits, but also those who may be staunchly against them, presenting their own very different philosophies on work and on life. After taking a personality test, I found that I am an ESTJ, an aggressive and detail-oriented personality type that is the exact opposite of the INFP, who are more laid back and flexible. Still, I will undoubtedly encounter those personalities that are opposing to mine, and it is important to understand how I can bridge the gaps between us in order to effectively and efficiently get projects completed within the contemporary engineering industry.
After taking the personality type test, I found that I was an ESTJ personality…
BSM Consulting. (2012). Portrait of an ESTJ: The guardian. Personality Page. Web. http://www.personalitypage.com/html/ESTJ.html
personality tests are assessment tools that require the individual to choose answers from a restricted set of response options as well as validity scales that are intended to determine the truthfulness of the answers of participants. In other words the tests offer options for answering that are intended to be unpredictable to the individual answering the questions, i.e. there are no right or wrong answers and the answer options do not usually offer indications to the participant that indicate the purpose of the question (Arendasy, Sommer, Herle, Schutzhofer, & Inwanschitz, 2011, pgs. 210-218). OPTs tests are utilized frequently in mapping personality, an objective set of traits that can help determine the manner in which the individual might respond to a given scenario in a real life setting. One example of an objective personality test would be the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), which is often also used in psychological or…
Arendasy, M., Sommer, M., Herle, M., Schutzhofer, B., & Inwanschitz, D. (2011). Modeling effects of faking on an objective personality test. Journal Of Individual Differences, 32(4), 210-218. doi:10.1027/1614-0001/a000053
Khorramdel, L., & Frebort, M. (2011). Context effects on test performance: What about test order?. European Journal Of Psychological Assessment, 27(2), 103-110. doi:10.1027/1015-5759/a000050
e. those analogues that are not selected).
The inability of the MBTI to measure either the positive or negative associations beyond the mere selection of one trait over the other are its most serious limitations in the context of making them inappropriate for certain types of applications. To illustrate by example, a forced-choice test that requires the subject to select from the choice between "extravert" and "introvert" cannot distinguish between an individual who is more extraverted than introverted but only by a small margin and an individual who is tremendously extraverted.
Misuse for Employee Selection and Narrow Categorization of Coworkers
The most typical misuse of the MBTI is in connection with the initial employee candidate selection process. Typical example of undesirable consequences attributable to misuse of the MBTI include excluding qualified prospective employees and the establishment of rigid negative perceptions about coworkers, such as in the context of information revealed…
Coe, C.K. "The MBTI: potential uses and misuses in personnel administration. (Myers-
Briggs Type Indicator)." Public Personnel Management. International Personnel
Management Association. 1992. Retrieved October 22, 2009 from HighBeam
Personality testing has been used by a number of organizations for varying purposes, and most notably for the recruitment or promotion of personnel. It has also been used to determine, in part, which type of job would be most suitable for a person who must make career choices. The assumption behind such testing is that these provide an accurate portrait of the person being tested, and that the results demonstrate the greatest likelihood of a match between the personality and the purpose of the test. However, recent criticism has suggested that this assumed accuracy is in fact incorrect for a variety of reasons, but generally based upon the fact that tests are administered under artificial conditions. Instead, these critics suggest that a much better test for varying personality is the types of things and tastes people surround themselves with; even passwords are said to be more revealing about a personality…
Allen, C. (2003). The Sound of Personality.
Andrews, L. (2002). Passwords reveal your personality.
Gardner, E. & Dixit, J. (2008). What your stuff reveals about you.
Harris, M. (2004). The cult of personality: Rethinking the use of personality tests for hiring.
Tests provide numeric information, which means that individuals can be more easily compared on the same criteria. In interviews, different questions are asked of different candidates, and the answers often forgotten. Tests provide comparable profiles. Data-based records allow ones development to be traced over time. Tests give specific results regarding temperament and ability. They are comprehensive and cover all basic dimensions of personality ability. Disadvantages include ability of the test taker to fake it on the test i.e. painting themselves in a favorable light. Tests are often unreliable when dealing with situations i.e. boredom, anxiety etc. In addition, tests are invalid, they do not measure what they say they are measuring, and these scores do not predict behavior over time. For many tests, this is indeed the Achilles heel and they are lamentably short of robust proof of their validity. It is supremely important that tests have predictive and construct…
Furnham, a. (1999). Personality at Work: The Role of Individual Differences in the Workplace. London: Routledge.
SF-36 demo gave mostly mid-range scores in the 40-60%ile. This was most likely because most of my answers to the questions consisted of "some of the time" or "not sure," as I felt that my subjective experience of my overall health and mental state is possibly not as accurate as a true objective view of what my activity and overall life is like. Thus, the test did not provide me with as much useful information as I would have liked, as I felt it was too subjective in spite of the variables used by Dr. Ware to ensure a quality algorithmic reading of my responses to the 36 question test (Ware, n.d.). My perception of those variables is really what determines the scoring and I doubt my own perception is always the most accurate one; for example, regarding bodily pain or physicality or functioning and general health, I do not…
Duck, J. (2006). Making the connection: Improving virtual team performance through behavioral assessment profiling and behavioral cues. Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning, 33, 358-9
Ware, J. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.sf-36.org/tools/sf36.shtml
Main tenets of theory
Id, Ego, Superego; sexual energy as the basis or motive of human action
Applicable in child psychology, less so in adult psychology
Archetypes: anima/animus, shadow, self
Psychic energy, not sexual energy, is the basis of human action; the collective unconscious
Psychology descends into pseudo-philosophy
Survival and security are guiding forces of life
Individual psychology; the organism acts as a whole, there is no division
Time and amount of data needed about patient's background family in order to treat
Psychoanalytic social theory -- people battle anxiety by moving toward, against or away from others
Neurotics rely typically on one of these methods primarily; provided extensive analysis of neurotic behavior
Applications do not typically apply to the normal personality
Match the example with the appropriate defense mechanism.
ABC/123 Version X
Week 4 Review…
However, there are several questions posed by the specific description generated by the online personality test. Are the results cross-cultural? For example, would someone who was not from an individualistic, change-focused, and esteem-oriented culture like America agree with the results? Is the Barnum effect more pronounced amongst certain types of people and are some individuals more apt to disagree with the results?
In contrast to the theory of the Barnum test, the Jung Typology posits that there are real differences between persons who are introverted and extroverted, for example, that can be measured on a personality test. Even Jung allows, however, that most individuals are not pure introverts or extroverts, but rather manifest one tendency to a slightly greater or lesser degree. The Barnum inventory, acknowledging this, specifically states that the test-taker is both extroverted and introverted at different times in his or her life. One of the sources of…
The Barnum effect. Retrieved September 29, 2011 at http://psych.fullerton.edu/mbirnbaum/psych101/barnum_demo.htm .
Barnum effect feedback: Personality inventory. Retrieved September 29, 2011 at http://psych.fullerton.edu/mbirnbaum/psych101/LittleBig5B.htm .
Whitbourne, Susan. (2010). When it comes to personality tests, a dose of skepticism is a good thing. Psychology Today. Retrieved September 29, 2011 at http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/fulfillment-any-age/201008/when-it-comes-personality-tests-dose-skepticism-is-good-thing
instrument available when it comes to personality testing. The second question is why that methodology is the best. Third and finally is the question of if and how personality tests can be skewed by the person taking the test. egarding the first question, the author of this report reviewed the literature over the last three calendar years (with 2015 being the most recent of those three) and it would seem that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) would be a good indicator of personality when it comes to dysfunctional and abnormal psychologies. ecent work by Maples et al. noted that the third section of the DSM manual is related to a "pathological trait model." There are more than two hundred (two-hundred twenty to be precise) items in the DSM personality inventory. There are a bevy of both internal and external outcomes. A reduced version of the item…
Collier, J., & Dunn, S.W. (2014). Candidates as Brands: Examining College Students'
Perceptions of Political Candidate's Brand Identities Using Traditional and Projective Qualitative Techniques. Florida Communication Journal, 42(1), 33-43.
Maples, J.L., Carter, N.T., Few, L.R., Crego, C., Gore, W.L., Samuel, D.B., & ...
Miller, J.D. (2015). Testing Whether the DSM-5 Personality Disorder Trait Model
The Jungian personality inventories are to some degree 'Westernized' one could argue, in the sense that they were originally developed by the psychoanalyst Carl Jung, around Western archetypes of personality. The MMPI also makes use of such tests in its more extensive survey, but more flexible use of the Jung system has yielded less dogmatic career recommendation and personality type instruments. After answering a series of questions, the tester receives a certain personality 'typing,' based upon whether he or she is primarily extroverted or introverted, sensing or intuitive, thinking or feeling, judging or perceiving. The tester can use this typology as a guide, not a diagnosis set in stone, on his or her path to achieve clearer self-understanding.
Jungian psychological typology. (2009). Personality tests. etrieved October 20, 2009 at http://www.mypersonality.info/personality-types/
Jungian psychological typology. (2009). Personality tests. Retrieved October 20, 2009 at http://www.mypersonality.info/personality-types/
Personal interviews -- especially what the respondent actually says in them -- can be extremely useful to humanist practitioners. They also share a reliance on objective tests -- where the respondent attempts, in a guided way, to assess their own behavior and/or personality, with the two remaining branches of personality assessment.
Trait-based and social-learning psychology have vastly different approaches to assessing personality, but there are also some commonalities insofar as how they assess personality. Trait-based theorists believe that people exhibit specific behavioral traits, and that these can be analyzed to determine personality. Tests like the Big Five indicator are trait-based assessors. Social-learning theorists, on the other hand, believe that certain cognitive patterns are set early on, and that behavior (and personality) is determined by these unique cognitive processes working with the sum experience as well as the current environment and interactions. For this reason, social-learning theorists do not see behavior…
Personality is the way that we engage with the world. It is a pattern of responses to how we engage with the world on a behavioral and emotional level. Every person has a different personality and this personality helps to frame that person's interactions with the world. When I took the test, I was INTJ, and that has implications for how I would behave in different situations.
It is important in organizations to understand what personality is, what types of personalities there are, and how these different personalities interact. Organizations are groups of people, and the characteristics of the people in these groups are a determinant of organizational success. We hear about things like "personality conflict" because at times, two different types of response patterns can be incongruent with each other. unning an organization requires an understanding of the different personality patterns and organizing the human resources of the organization…
Human Metrics. (2013). Humanmetrics Jung typology test. Human Metrics.com. Retrieved October 15, 2013 from http://www.humanmetrics.com/CGI-WIN/JTYPES1.HTM
(Humans are often called 'social animals'). However, the test construct acknowledged the fact that no one is perfectly social or asocial but a mix of both characteristics. Extroversion and introversion are not necessarily either/or qualities, which has been one of the critiques of the Myers-Brigg assessment. In future forms of this extroversion inventory, creating a typology of different types of introversion and extroversion would be useful. For example, some people are very extroverted with friends, but are more socially reserved in a work context. Others are very introverted in the sense that they like to be alone, but can still 'get by' in social environments and perform like extroverts. It is also possible to be very confident speaking in public to large groups of people, but to feel more uncomfortable one-on-one, in personal social contexts.
Additionally, positive forms of sociability -- such as compassion -- and negative forms -- such…
DISC assessment. (2010). DISC homepage. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at http://www.churchangeldisc.com/definitionofdisc.html
Measuring the big five personality factors. (2010). Department of Psychology. University of Oregon. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at http://www.uoregon.edu/~sanjay/bigfive.html#where
Myers, Isabel Briggs & Peter B. Myers (1995). Gifts differing. Mountain View, CA: Davies-
In addition, the information that I find on their site seems to be very vague, especially about what kind of 'success' they have had in being accurate regarding people's personalities. While this is not just a quick, online quiz, it has much more of the feel of that type of 'test' than the Myers-riggs assessment does. If I were to take a personality test, I think I would avoid the Keirsey test, simply because it does not seem to be that legitimate of an instrument for truly determining a person's personality and temperament, and what he or she should then do with his or her life based on personality.
Harrington, R. & Loffredo, D.A. 2001. The relationship between life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the Myers-riggs Type Inventory Dimensions. Journal of Psychology, 135(4): 439-450.
Keirsey Temperament Sorter. n.d. http://keirsey.com/faq.aspx
Lewis, V.G. & orders, D. 1995. Life satisfaction of single middle-aged professional…
Harrington, R. & Loffredo, D.A. 2001. The relationship between life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory Dimensions. Journal of Psychology, 135(4): 439-450.
Keirsey Temperament Sorter. n.d. http://keirsey.com/faq.aspx
Lewis, V.G. & Borders, D. 1995. Life satisfaction of single middle-aged professional women. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74(1): 94.
Myers-Briggs Personality Test. n.d. Retrieved at http://www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality-type/mbti-basics/reliability-and-validity.asp
Dispositional and Evolutionary Theories
What makes some people extraverted and others introverted? Why are some people mellow and calm, while others lose their tempers at the drop of a hat? Personality psychology tries to answer questions like these by performing a twofold role. The first role of personality psychology is to explain how clusters of traits work together to cause behavioral or cognitive effects, and the other role is to simply explain individual differences or classify people according to clusters of traits (American Psychological Association, 2015). There are several schools of personality psychology, including dispositional and evolutionary theories. Dispositional theory is quite common in popular psychology and has been a prevalent mode of thinking in the history of philosophies throughout different societies. According to dispositional theory, people have immutable traits and personality "types." Occasionally a person might act out of character, but generally people have strong, innate personalities that remain…
American Psychological Association (2015). Personality. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/topics/personality/
Cherry, K. (n.d.). The Big Five personality dimensions. About Education. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/personalitydevelopment/a/bigfive.htm
"General Strengths and Limitations of Trait Perspectives," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/personality-16/trait-perspectives-on-personality-79/general-strengths-and-limitations-of-trait-perspectives-312-12847/
McAdams, D.P. & Pals, J.L. (2006). A new Big Five. American Psychologist 61(3): 204-217.
The author of this report is to answer to two different psychology-related questions. The first question asks the author of this report to speak to how certain career people would tend to fit into the five factor model. The second and final question asks the author of this report to take an online personality assessment and share the results. While making broad generalizations about the first of those two questions would be unwise, there are patterns and trends that would make themselves clear and personality tests like the one taken in the second question would be much more precise.
The five factors of the Five Factor grouping are openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. The president of a corporation would absolutely tend to have extraversion and neuroticism as the main foci. To be specific, they would tend to be secure and confident as well as…
MBTI. (2014, September 28). The Myers & Briggs Foundation. The Myers & Briggs Foundation. Retrieved September 28, 2014, from http://www.myersbriggs.org/
Rathus, S.A. (2013). PSYCH (3rd ed.). Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth.
Personality and Personalistic Leadership: An Assessment of Team Management for the 21st Century usiness Team Environment
Contemporary studies on emerging new principles on the nature of the culture of the business environment and team management within organizations led to the development of what is termed as "personalistic leadership." This new term and concept refers to the prevailing use of personal relations and strategies that aim to build stronger social bonds between leader and members, as well as among members of an organization. Personalistic leadership arises from the development of diversity among members of an organization; it is in this change in the business environment that made personal and social relationships important within business organizations (uhler, 2004). In this kind of leadership, it is also vital that leaders/managers must be able to adapt strategies and methods which reflect the flexibility or adaptability of the leader to changes within the business environment…
Antonakis, J. (2003). Why "emotional intelligence" does not predict leadership effectiveness: a comment on Prati, Douglas, Ferris, Ammeter, and Buckley. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 11, no. 4. pp. 355-361.
Buhler, P. February 2004. Managing in the new millenium. Supervision, vol. 65, issue 2. EBSCO ID No. 12121885.
Douglas, M. (2003). Servant-leadership: an emerging supervisory model. Supervision, vol. 64, issue 2. EBSCO ID No. 9036904.
Dulewicz, V. And M. Higgs. 2003. Leadership at the top: the need for emotional intelligence in organizations. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis. pp. 193-210.
Her wellness did not allow participation in the second that took place in 1977; however Isabel Myers took pleasure in the other 2 extensively, though sometimes she would be dismayed at the different ways that the analysts treated her information. She understood that the intuitive 'kind' or personality indexes will need to alter the MBTI [instrument] as that is in their nature but she hoped that prior to the time when they altered it, they will initially attempt to comprehend exactly what had been done as the foundation of the theory because her reasons for choosing a certain structure were logical and justified. In 1975, publication of the Indicator was presumed by CPP, Inc. For the first time, the MBTI [instrument] was readily available as an instrument prepared for use in assisting individuals (Kirby and Myers, 2000).
In the last months of her life, when she invested much time sleeping…
Bowdon, T.B. (2010). 50 Psychology Classics. Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
Drucker, C.T. (2007). Once Upon a Type: Mythological Dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. ProQuest Publications.
Kirby, L.K. And Myers, K.D. (2000). Introduction to Type. Cpp Publications.
Myers, I.B. (1962). The Myers-Briggs type indicator. Consulting Psychologists Press.
e. social transitions in historically changing environment.
The next section discusses Sociology. In this section, the researchers discuss the significance of sociology in this study and the world of psychology. It has been stated that the view of sociology is necessary and useful. The finding suggest that personality can in fact be tested using actual life consequences and that it is possible to organize life data by articulating the social meanings of roles according to age linked expectations. The researchers believe that sociological treatment of personality in the life course can shape the analysis and interpretation of data presented.
The last section discusses the question of why history. The answer is that in fact over a life span each individual is exposed to various historical experiences during ones transition through the "age-graded roles." Researchers further conclude that it is extremely important that when making historical generalizations that age be considered…
Personality Social Psychology
Suzanne Kobasa's Personality and Social Psychology article entitled "Stressful Life Events, Personality, and Health: An Inquiry into Hardiness" builds upon past research to examine individual and group differences regarding responses to stressful life events. The author provides extensive reviews of past literature, pointing out the limitations that led to her conducting the current study. Much literature has shown a correlation between stressful life events and physical illness; namely, that "stressful life events precipitate somatic and psychological disease," (Kobasa 1979, p.1). The current article in particular examines personality as a major mediating factor in the presence of physical illness following a series of stressful life events. Because prior research has shown that "the recent life histories of hospitalized persons contain significantly more frequent and serious stressful events than do histories of matched controls from the general population," Kobasa designed the current research to discover which personality factors were…
Kobasa, Suzanne C. (1979). "Stressful Life Events, Personality and Health: An Inquiry into Hardiness." Personality Social Psychology. Vol. 37, No. 1. pp. 1-11.
Personality Type Explained
According to the Jung Typology Test I am an INFP—but really just barely. I am only 3% introvert, 9% intuitive, 3% feeling and 9% perceiving. I am right in the middle on most questions. However, the career choices that fall under the INFP category are actually all choices that I have considered in the past, so the test does seem to work. The recommended career choices for the INFP are: “Social workers, psychologists, life coaches, addiction rehab counselors, mental and community care staff, children education, teaching, and also creative script writing” (INFP Career Choices, 2018).
The INFP Learning Style also describes me to a “t”—a enjoy learning but usually only when it relates in some way to human behavior. I can study manuals and information that is purely mechanical—such as how to change oil in a car—but I do find it to be tedious and more like…
Echo finally died of old age, and the raw emotion from the park rangers and zoologists just brought tears. Similarly, he thinks that now that he is older he can sift through the "B.S. In advertising and media hype," and enjoys such cynical, but rather realistic, portrays of modern society in Mad Men, Weeds, and Breaking Bad.
As far as personality development, Tom believes that children get a pretty good grounding from their parents and early school experiences. Concepts like empathy, morality, situational ethics, and reliability are built when one is young. However, that being said, Tom does not see himself as a rule follower like his parents. Both believed that if something said x in the rules, then x it was. They both also believed that a person should get a job and stay with that job until retirement. Tom has already had two careers, and estimates he will…
"41 Questions -- 1 Personality." (2010). 41q.com Cited in:
Capraro, RAM 2002, 'Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability', Educational
And Pyschological Measurement, vol 62, no. 3, pp. 560-302.
The Pros and Cons of Personality Tests, and Whether they can Detect a Stuttering Character
The issue of whether to implement personality tests is a contentious topic with fervent advocates on both sides. On the one hand, personality tests do provide some basic outline of a person's character and personality; on the other hand, it is difficult to determine exactly how accurate the test is or whether it is even applicable in the practice of a person's life. At the present moment, there continues to exist significant backlash against personality tests, although this tendency is perhaps unfair given the possible virtues of implementing such procedures. It is most likely that personality tests are appropriate in certain contexts; however, even in these situations it is important to avoid placing excessive emphasis of the findings gleaned from a personality test. Another significant question raised by the extant literature on personality tests…
Arthur, Winifred, et al. (2009). Unproctored internet-based tests of cognitive ability and personality: Magnitude of cheating and response distortion. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2, 39-45.
Eggers, K., et al. (2010). Temperament dimensions in stuttering and typically developing children. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 35(4), 355-372.
Fisher, C.D., & Boyle, G.J. (1997). Personality and employee selection: Credibility regained. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 35(2), 26-40.
Salkind, N.J. (2012). Tests and Measurement for People Who (Think They) Hate Tests and Measurement. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Psychological tests are an important aspect of clinical psychology. Psychological tests are normally administered by professional psychologists as a way of learning fact on how people function or in predicting their future. The paper will look at the definition of the term test, give a description of the major categories of tests while identifying the major uses and users of these tests. There will also be comparing and contrasting the concepts of validity and reliability and a discussion of how they affect the psychological testing field.
Definition of tests
A test or examination is defined as an assessment aimed at measuring the knowledge, aptitude, skill, physical fitness or classification in other different topics. Tests can be administered orally, by use of a paper, computer or in the confinement of a specific area which requires the person taking the test to physically perform a specific set of skills. Tests…
Renate, R. (2010).The Real Difference between Reliability and Validity. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8481668_real-difference-between-reliability-validity.html
Dority, J. (2011).Five Common Types of Psychological Tests. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/101417-five-common-types-psychological-tests/
Edu.com. (2009).psychological Testing. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://users.ipfw.edu/abbott/120/PsychTesting.html
Psychological tests are pompous procedures of intellectual performance. A good number are objective as well as medical; nevertheless, definite projective tests might engross various height of prejudiced elucidation. The main aim of this paper is to clearly bring the meaning of the term test, describe the main classifications of tests and show the main or significant major uses as well as those who use the varied forms of tests, also offered here are the comparisons and contrasts of the concepts of reliability as well as validity of the methods of tests and how they affect the field of psychological testing.
Tests can be defined as verbal, visual or written assessments administered to evaluate the cognitive as well as emotional performance of individuals regardless of their age. The main purpose of these processes is to evaluate a multiplicity of intellectual capabilities as well as characteristics such as attainment as well as…
Gregory, R.J. (2007). Psychological testing: History, principles, and applications (5th ed.). Boston, MA:Pearson.. Retrieved August 26th, 2013 http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0137017510.pdf
Psychology is an ever evolving science. While some still feel it is a pseudoscience, many researchers have shown the benefits of applied psychology and the effects mental health can have on an individual. However, because problems of the mind are not so easy to measure as they would be in biology, there tends to be a lot of guessing and misinterpretation. Businesses, schools, and the government use personality tests to understand a person and their motives. First developed in the 1920's personality tests have grown in popularity, giving rise to debunking the validity of such tests. Are personality tests like orschach Inkblots, MMPO-2, and brief anxiety scales valid? No, they are not valid. This essay will show why these kinds of tests are not valid and reliable measures of personality and psychopathology through studies revealing accuracy rates from personality test results.
Personality tests first originated in the 1920's and are…
Gacono, C., & Evans, B. (2012). The Handbook of Forensic Rorschach Assessment (p. 32). Routledge.
Graham, J. (2003). Handbook of psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Kaplan, R., & Saccuzzo, D. (2012). Psychological testing (8th ed., p. 18). Cegnage Learning.
LeBreton, J., Scherer, K., & James, L. (2014). Corrections for Criterion Reliability in Validity Generalization: A False Prophet in a Land of Suspended Judgment. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 7(4), 478-500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iops.12184
Under certain situations would I administer a projective test to a client. A projective test would be administered to a client when there are questions about the client's personality. The projective test is designed to elicit responses from the client that reveal underlying emotions, thoughts, desires, or tendencies within the person. The questions are open-ended and allow the responses to be analyzed and assessed in terms of content. The content gives clues as to the personality of the individual.
These tests are most effective with adults because by then the personality has been established. They are less effective with children because with children, researchers find that behavioral tests are more effective in revealing whether or not the child has a behavioral disorder by using "behavior rating scales" (Groth-Marnat, 2009, p. 7).
Thus I would use projective test in adult settings wherein it is helpful to gauge the individual's…
Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of Psychological Assessment. NY: John Wiley
Hogan, T. (2003). Psychological Testing: A Practical Introduction. NY: John Wiley
tests are regularly used nowadays to measure intelligence Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon invented in 1905 what has come to be acknowledged as the first scale. This initial test was aimed at ?identifying children who were mildly or perhaps more seriously retarded? (Mackintosh, 2011, p. 5) by evaluating their performance and delegating specific task sets so as any average child pertaining to a given age group could solve approximately 50% of the test. Thus, based on the number of tasks that a child could solve, the scale ?would classify children's levels of mental functioning. (Urbina, 2011, p. 23). For example, if a six years old was able to solve 50% of the test that had been delegated to this particular age group, his mental age was set at six years old. f he was able to solve above the average expectation, then he would have been attributed a superior mental…
It is acknowledged unanimously that tests would be ?designed so that the mean score is 100 points, and the standard deviation is 15 points. (Shalizi, 2009, para. 2) Older versions of Binet's scale are subject to a standard deviation of 16 (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2013, p. 301). Thus, it is considered that individuals falling under the average value display or are subject to intellectual deficit while those above are intellectually superior. The mean score which is subject to intelligence testing is known as the deviation IQ and was introduced in the 1960 revised version of the Stanford-Binet Scale as ?simply a standard score? ((Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2013, p. 294) ?ascertained by evaluating the standard deviation of mental age for a representative sample at each age level. (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2013, p. 294)
III. Verbal vs. Performance Properties of the Modern Binet and Wechsler Scales
We stated earlier that there are various tests which measure intelligence and we have already spoken of Binet's contributions in this respect. However, there is another name which is often related to significant and effective scales of intelligence testing. David Wechsler proposed his first scale in 1939 for adults and ten years later, for children. It has even been argued that Wechsler developed subtests prior to the Binet-Simon scale (Boake, 2002, p. 383). Wechsler's first scale was designed in 1939 for adults and revised for publishing in 1955, being subject to subsequent revisions (Crawford
Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative eview," Judge, Bono, Ilies & Gerhardt (2002) focus on the trait theory of leadership. In "Applying a Psychobiological Model of Personality to the Study of Leadership," O'Connor & Jackson (2010) study the relationship between personality and emergent leadership. In "When the omance is Over: Follower Perspectives of Aversive Leadership," Bligh, et al. (2007) explore what the researchers call the "dark side" of leadership. Whereas the Judge et al. (2002) and O'Connor & Jackson (2010) research centers on personality traits and leadership in a straightforward way, focusing on the leader, Bligh et al. (2007) instead take into account follower perspectives on aversive leadership. Although Judge, et al. (2002) and O'Connor & Jackson (2010) are interested in trait theory, O'Connor & Jackson (2010) study alternatives to the Big Five model as well as the Big Five model itself; Judge, et al. (2002) are primarily concerned…
Bligh, M.C., et al. (2007). When the romance is over. Applied Psychology: An International Review 56(4): 528-557.
Bobbio, A., Dierendonck, D.V. & Manganelli, A.M. (2012). Servant leadership in Italy and its relation to organizational variables. Leadership 8(3): 229-243.
Judge, T.A., Bono, J.E., Ilies, R. & Gerhardt, M.W. (2002). Personality and leadership: A qualitative and quantitative review. Journal of Applied Psychology 87(4): 765-780.
McClelland, D.C. & Burnham, DH (2003). Power is the great motivator. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved online: https://hbr.org/2003/01/power-is-the-great-motivator
leadership coach begins each public presentation making it very clear that having a leadership position and being a leader are not the same thing. Leadership and management are quite different even though often used synonymously. A "position" is something one is hired into, or appointed -- whether that results in leadership is dependent on the qualities of the individual. Some leaders rise from relative obscurity, and lead from below; some managers never learn to lead (Ventura, 2008).
Almost all the literature reviewed, though, seem to see the leader as being one who can see a situation and assume the right style of leadership for that occasion (e.g. Harry Truman taking over after Franklin Roosevelt's death). Certainly, once there is a leadership role assumed, the dynamics of interpersonal relationships change -- as they should. It is impossible for a leader to be completely fair and unbiased if that leader openly socializes…
John Glenn. (2012, Feburary 19). Retrieved from TimesLeader Online.com: http://www.timesleaderonline.com/page/content.detail/id/536833/John-Glenn.html?nav=5005
Brown, L., & Posner, B. (2001). Exploring the Relationship Between Learning and Leadership. Leadership and Organizational Development, May (5), 274-80.
Brown, T., Browne, M., Giampetro-Meyer, A., & Kubansek, N. (1998). Do We Really Want More Leaders in Business? Journal of Business Ethics, 17(15), 1727-36.
Carlyle, T., & Tenneyson, G. (Eds.). (2000). A Carlyle Reader. New York: Copley Publications.
Personalized Project Management
The personality portrayed by 'the Coordinator' traits is such that he pays too much attention to details and criticizes almost every step of a project. He likes gathering sufficient information before making ad decision and are highly critical of the information they receive from people and sources. They are people who strive for orderliness and correctness with pursuit for factual data and logical arguments. Even after getting the data or information, these are people who will test and analyze the data before using it to make any decisions. They are known to fear irrational acts and impulsive decisions hence known as systematic managers (ob P., 2015).
Due to these traits, the best project that such a manager can undertake in the business world is the duty of project monitoring and evaluation for the projects that the organization engages itself in. this is a responsibility that needs one…
Gary R.V. & Elizabeth K.D., (2012). Results First: Using Evidence-Based Models in State Policy making. Review, 35 (3), 550-563.
Rob P., (2015). The Coordinator-Green/Blue. http://www.robpurfieldinsights.com/eight-types/the-coordinator-greenblue/
Attitude rating scale
For each question, circle one that best matches your perspective:
The state wide educational assessment will improve the levels of education.
Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
The state wide educational assessment and the goals are well understood by all the teachers within the state.
Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
The state wide educational assessment meets the dynamic contemporary needs of the students.
Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
The state wide educational assessment should be made more regular than it is.
Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
The state wide educational assessment enables the teachers to know the weakness of the students.
Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
The state wide educational assessment enables the teachers to know their own weaknesses.
i. Definitely agree
ii. Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
Grutter J. & Hammer A.L., (2012). Strong Interest Inventory Profile and Interpretive Report. Retrieved November 4,2014 from https://www.cpp.com/Pdfs/smp284104.pdf
Thorndike, R.M. & Thorndike-Christ, T.M. (2009). Measurement and evaluation in psychology and education (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Personality traits make up the characteristics of the individual. Schmutte and yff (1997) define personality traits as describing, "individual propensities toward stable patterns of behavior and thought, that often are neither inherently good nor inherently bad." Psychologists generally assess five factors of the personality, known as the Big Five personality factors. These five factors include neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness. There are multiple scales designed to measure such factors. This paper will examine four major instruments used to measure personality, specifically, the Big Five personality traits; the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), the Five Factor Personality Inventory developed by Somer, Korkmaz & Tatar in 2002 (Tok, 2011), and the Big Five Inventory (John, Donahue & Kentle, 1991).
Discussion of Topic
When deciding on an instrument to measure personality, a researcher must take into account the scale's validity, reliability and preferred methodology. For this reason,…
Costa, P.T., Jr., & McCrae, R.P. (1992). The revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Goldberg, L.R. (1992). The development of markers for the Big-Five factor structure. Psychological Assessment, 4, 26-42.
Salami, S. (2011). Personality and psychological well-being of adolescents: The moderating role of emotional intelligence. Social Behavior and Personality, 39(6), 785-794.
Schmutte P, Ryff C. (1997). Personality and well-being: Reexamining methods and meanings. Journal Of Personality & Social Psycholody, 73(3), 549-559.
Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.
Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic…
Personality: Behavior, Thoughts, Motives, and Emotions That Characterize a Person
Personality: a distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives and emotions that characterizes an individual.
Psychologists use a variety of tests to determine and study a vast number of personality traits among groups of people. They've found that although everyone exhibits five to ten central traits that determine how we react to different people and various situations, not all traits carry the same weight in their importance in someone's life. (Where you might fear speaking in front of a crowd, for example, I may find it invigorating and fun.) We all have secondary traits, too (food preferences, for example, or how we feel about a style of dress), but these aren't as stable as the central traits. Although secondary traits can change as we mature and grow, central traits generally stick with us our entire lives. The central…
Personality Theory Blog
Personality Theories and Conducting Assessment
According to the humanistic psychologist's theory of personality, people in their endeavor, try to reach superior levels of mental functioning and personal growth that they also evaluate through objective measures and individual reflections. Even though objective measures are not biased, they do not offer a lot of information. An objective measure of personality is one that uses research to get results. For instance, a pen and paper pre-employment test is very likely an objective measure, other examples of which include: the Second Edition (MMPI-2), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and other major assessments of personality/intelligence (Heffner, 2015). Humanistic psychologists use objective tests to understand better how the patient views his/herself. In these tests, choices that when chosen by the patient will give a clear description of the patient are presented as compared to the unstructured and structured personal interviews…
Boeree, C. G. (2006). Personality Theories. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/persintro.html
Evans, R. (2012, November). Japan and blood types: Does it determine personality? Retrieved from BBC News Magazine: http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-20170787
Fletcher, R. (2014, August 21). Cross Cultural Personality Research. Retrieved from Randall Fletcher: https://randallnf.wordpress.com/2014/08/21/cross-cultural-personality-research/
Heffner, C. L. (2015, Novemeber 1). Assessment Theories. In AllPsych (Ed.), Personality Theory: An Introduction. AllPsych. Retrieved from All Psych: http://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/assessment_theories/#.VjZkw1TnUV4
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-II)
The MMPI-II Test is utilized in the assessment of the individual's personality characteristics that affect the individual's personal and social adjustment.
The MMPI-II is authored by S.R. Hathaway and J.C. McKinely MMPI; J.N. utcher, J.R. Graham, W.G., Dahlstrom, A.M. Tellegren, and . Kaemmer and is published by the Psychological Corporation. (Fischer, 2001)
Cost of the Test
According to Lisa Rochford, Ph.D. The cost of having the MMPI-II administered is $150.00 which includes one to two hours hosting the client at the office with scoring and interpretation costs included. (2012)
Test Users Qualifications and Time To Administer the Test
Cherry (2012) states of the MMPI-II test that The MMPI-2 contains 567 test items and takes approximately 60 to 90 minutes to complete. The MMPI should be administered, scored, and interpreted by a professional, preferably a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist, who has received specific training…
Cherry, Kendra (2012) The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory- MMPI-2: History and Use of the MMPI-2. Psychology. Retrieved from: http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologicaltesting/a/mmpi.htm
Fischer, Jerry (2001) Portfolio Test Review Form. Retrieved from: www.educ.uidaho.edu/jfischer/TestReviewshandout.doc
Karp, Cheryl L. And Karp, Leonard (2012) General Information on the MMPI. Retrieved from: http://deltabravo.net/custody/mmpi-info.php
Kaye, Dr. Jeff (2012) Introduction to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) Retrieved from: http://www.drjeffkaye.com/mmpi.htm
There are six approaches for studying the personality development of a person. Two of the most popular ones are the biological and humanistic approaches. The other four of these approaches include the trait, cognitive, behavioral and psychoanalytic. Each of these approaches are used to describe the system through we acquire our personality and factors that influence this personality development. The use of the approach is determined by the psychotherapist as well as the client, as they can differ from one person to another with respect to their effectiveness. However, it is the responsibility of the therapist to make sure that the approach used by him would be appropriate for the particular client he is dealing with. Even though it is not expected of the therapist to specialize in all the approaches, he should at least have an idea about each one of them. In this paper, we will…
Lawrence, Sawyer (2009). "Biological vs. Humanistic Approach to Personality." University of Phoenix.
Vigil, Jeremy (2002). "Biological v. Humanistic." Psychology 250.
Psychological Influences on Personality Development
ecognizing Various Unconscious Behavioral Determinants
Contemporary psychologists understand that myriad influences of variable origin contribute to the development of human personality. Some of those influences are more apparent than others and some operate on the conscious level whereas others operate on a completely unconscious level. Naturally, the latter present more complex potential issues simply because they are not known to the individual. That is especially true with regard to aspects of personality whose roots go back to infancy but that only become manifest in behavior only much later.
Different psychological theorists have provided conflicting explanations for the origin of major issues in human personality development. Freud, for example, regarded virtually all manifestations of psychological pathology as being the result of early trauma, sexual impulses, and the failure to successfully negotiate specific stages of infancy, such as the oral stage, anal stage, and the Oedipal stage.…
Bretherton, I. "The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth
Developmental Psychology, Vol. 28 (1992): 759-775. Accessed Online:
Byng-Hall, J. "Creating a Secure Family Base: Some Implications of Attachment Theory
Purpose: The Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic eading Battery's designation is for assessment and measurement of the important dimensions of phonological oral language abilities and phonological awareness, both in adult and children.
Population: Both adults and children (age of 3-80 years).
Date of Publication: 2004.
Acronym(s): WJ III (DB).
Score Scales: eading Comprehension, Basic eading Skills, Phonics Knowledge, Broad eading, Brief eading, Total eading, eading Fluency, Spelling of Words, Oral Comprehension, eading Vocabulary.
Time: 50-60 minutes.
Author (s): Fredrick, S.A., Nancy, M. & Woodcock, .C.
Publisher: iverside Publishing, Inc.
Comments: Software Scoring and Paper-and-Pencil.
Sub-tests: Passage Comprehension, Word-Letter Identification, Sound Awareness, Spelling of Sounds, Oral Vocabulary, Sound Blending.
elated eview: 1713318.
The Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic eading Battery is for the assessment and measurement of the important dimensions of phonological oral language abilities and phonological awareness, in both adult and children (Brande, 2008). By utilization of software scoring and the…
Risk & Needs Assessment Group. (1986). Substance Abuse Questionnaire (SAQ)-Adult
Probation III. In R.J. Nagle. (Ed.), the ninth mental measurement yearbook (Electronic
version). Retrieved from the Buros University Mental Measurement Yearbook online database.
1). One potential criticism of the MMPI-2 is that although it is only supposed to be scored by a trained professional, the multiple choice "objective" format can lead to cursory diagnosis and analysis.
hile the MMPI-2 is used on many different types of patients, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) "is a series of questions developed to measure the intensity, severity, and depth of depression in patients with psychiatric diagnoses" (BDI, 2009). It is specific to a singular category of diagnosis (depressive illnesses) and is only use on patients with psychological disorders. It consists of 21 questions or items, each with four possible responses on the subjects of depressed mood, pessimism, sense of failure, feelings of dissatisfaction, guilt, desire for self-punishment, self-dislike or self-hared, self-blame, suicidal ideation, frequency of crying, feelings of irritability, social withdrawal, distorted body image, work difficulties, insomnia, fatigue, appetite, weight changes, bodily preoccupation, and sexual desire (BDI,…
The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). (2009). Mind disorders.
Retrieved November 19, 2009 at http://www.minddisorders.com/a-Br/Beck-Depression-Inventory.html
Wagner, Kendra Van. (2009). MMPI-2. About.com. Retrieved November 19, 2009 at http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologicaltesting/a/mmpi.htm
Big Five Personality Analysis
Cher from the film Clueless: Big five personality trait analysis
Openness is an appreciation for new ideas. On one hand, sixteen-year-old Cher is fairly unaware of problems that exist outside of her narrow world of Beverly Hills, and she is very judgmental of so-called 'stoners' at her high school, or people who do not fit in with her in-group. However, she is open enough to embrace a new girl named Tai who comes to the school, even though the girl seems very 'clueless' about how to dress and behave. Cher tries to teach Tai the values of the high school -- Cher's values.
Despite her apparent superficiality, Cher does have a clear sense of personal morality. She is open about the fact that she is a virgin, saying that she is waiting for the right person to enjoy 'first time'. This makes her unusual in…
Clueless. (1994). Directed by Amy Heckerling.
Table 2 -- Correlation of Character Traits with Handwriting (Hull and Montgomery)
Shape of riting
Upward Sloping Line
Upward Sloping Line
Firmness of Line
Lateral narrowness of m's and n's
Heavy bars on t's
Length of bars on t's
Length of bars on t's compensating
Closed as and o's
Now, we jump to 1954, with a study by Lorr, Lepine, and Goldner entitled, "A Factor Analysis of Some Handwriting Characteristics." Initially, the authors are open minded about the subject, citing that one of the difficulties has been the lack of proper measurement regarding graphological characteristics. In addition, since different types of pedagogy exist when teaching writing, it is difficult to compare students without solid factors.
In this study, a group of 200 right-handed graduate psychology students with a…
Bayne, R. And F. O'Neill. (1988). "Handwriting and Personality: A Test of Some Expert
Graphologists' Judgments." Guidance and Assessment Review. 4 (1): 1-3.
Beyerstein, B. (2008). "How Graphology Fools People." Qackwatch. Cited in:
Further, the subjectivity in scoring and interpretation is a huge issue (Sutherland, 1992). For example, if one believes that a relationship exists between say, a Rorschach feature such as color and a personality trait such as emotional style, then one's prior beliefs can bias judgment (Vyse, 1997). As evidence, psychologists were prone to say a relationship existed between a test response and a psychological condition -- if it accorded with their prior beliefs -- even when none actually existed (Chapman & Chapman, 1971, cited in Vyse, 1997).
Arnheim, R. (1974). Art and visual perception (rev. ed.). erkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Groth-Marnat, G. (1997). Handbook of psychological assessment (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Lilienfeld, S.O. (1999). Projective measures of personality and psychopathology: How well do they work? Skeptical Inquirer, 23(5), 32-39.
Sutherland, S. (1992). Irrationality: Why we don't think straight! New runswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Arnheim, R. (1974). Art and visual perception (rev. ed.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Groth-Marnat, G. (1997). Handbook of psychological assessment (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Lilienfeld, S.O. (1999). Projective measures of personality and psychopathology: How well do they work? Skeptical Inquirer, 23(5), 32-39.
Sutherland, S. (1992). Irrationality: Why we don't think straight! New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Measurement of Personality by Henry Murray
The emergence of the psychoanalytic tradition in psychology by Sigmund Freud provided social scientists with profound insights and information regarding the personality and behavior of the individual. In the 20th century, psychoanalysis has been taken into the field of study of personality development, and is quantified through techniques in psychological testing. Henry Murray, one of the proponents and formulators of psychological tests as effective tools for analyzing human behavior, had introduced his own theory of personality, influenced by the works of Freud.
Personality research during Murray's time was quantified because this field of study seeks to rationalize human behavior, thinking, and action, providing more stable ground to formulate generalizations regarding the study of humans and their development. During the 1930s, continuing conflict among nations of the world prompted psychologists to study human personalities in order to gauge and predict actions through behaviors displayed by…
Neill, J. (2003). Personality Traits. University of Canberra Web site. Accessed 13 December 2003. Available at http://www.wilderdom.com/personality/L6-2PersonalityTraits.html.
Santrock, J. (2000). Psychology. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
This means that for both parent-acquaintance and self-other consensus, it was observed that increased length of acquaintance leads to high stereotype accuracy.
This study on the relationship between length of acquaintance and stereotype accuracy highlighted the importance of length of acquaintance in relationships in order to best assess an individual's personality. Through this study, it was found out that, among other factors, length of acquaintance is indeed a determinant that could determine a person's accurate assessment of an individual's personality. The study conducted demonstrated how length of acquaintanceship is a function of stereotype accuracy.
Part 4- the Role of Mood Regulation
In this study conducted by Eid and Lischetzke, the authors delved into the components that act as mediators of individuals with extrovert personalities. In assessing these mediators, the authors determined pleasant-unpleasant trait mood and mood regulators such as mood repair and mood maintenance as its main factors. Through regression…
person is born, the family, neighbor and the culture is the prime aspect through which they interact before they can enter into the outside world. The development of the personality of an individual is the synthesis of traditions, values, thoughts, feelings, and various other factors that is based on the cultural aspects. In this regard, the dissertation is about the ways in which personality and culture have a relationship to each other. The thesis paper has also discussed how culture leaves a profound impact on the development of the personality.
How are Culture and Personality Related?
hat is Culture?
hat is Personality?
Is there a relationship between Culture and Personality?
How is Culture and Personality Related?
Since the world has come to existence, people have divided themselves into smaller groups that have been named as civilizations and societies. These diverse civilizations with different norms, customs, traditions…
Bock, P.K. Rethinking Psychological Anthropology. 2nd Edition. USA: Waveland Press, 1999. Print.
LeVine, R.A. Culture and personality: contemporary readings. USA: Transaction Publishers, 1974. Print.
LeVine, R.A. Psychological Anthropology: A Reader on Self in Culture. USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2010. Print.
Triandis, H.C. & Suh, E.M. "Cultural influences on personality." Annual Review of Psychology 53 (2002): 133 -- 160. Print. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135200
Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test
It is assessed that at least 20 out of a hundred of adults who visit a physician have had an alcohol issue at one time. Also, in a survey of patients self-proclaimed to an inpatient service, 15 to 30 out of a hundred screened definitely for alcoholism. However, numerous recent studies designate that physicians in numerous health care settings often do not identify and treat alcoholism (Drake, 2013). These answers underline the need for effective and correct events that will allow clinicians to screen for alcoholism. One of these test are used to do this are the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Established in 1971, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) is one of the most accurate and oldest alcohol screening tests accessible, effective in classifying dependent drinkers with up to 98% accuracy.
Purpose for the instrument
It is evident the MAST is considered to be one…
Ball, J.D. (201). Time requirements of psychological testing: A survey of practitioners. Journal of Personality Assessment, 17(6), 34.
Butcher, J.N. (203). Clinical personality assessment. Annual Review of Psychology (12), 385-401.
Clark, H.W. (2012). Residential substance abuse treatment for pregnant and postpartum women and their children:Treatmen. Child Welfare, 45(8), 80.
De-Micheli, D. & . (2012). Screen of drug use in a teenage Brazilian sample using the drug use screening inventory. Addictive Behavior, 25(5), 683-691.
Avoidant Personality Disorder
As per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), a certain case of avoidant personality disorder (APD) is featured by the existent sign of social inhibition, feeling of being short of requirement, and hypersensitivity to negative valuation. (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, p.1) Even though personality disorders are not often discovered in persons below age 18, children who come within the condition of APD are recurrently portrayed as being aloof to the core, fearful in arising circumstances, and afraid of dissention and social boycott. The proportion of the signs and the inability is way behind the practice of inhibition that is prevalent in as much as 40% of the populace. Hence it is of great relevance of examining the disorder as it relates to professional counseling.
Exploration of disorder
Bearing a semblance to other personality disorders, the state of Avoidant Personality disorder turns out…
American Psychiatric Association: (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Beck, Aaron T; Freeman, M.D; Arthur, Ed.D. (1990). "Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders." New York: The Guilford Press.
Benjamin, Lorna Smith (1996) "An Interpersonal Theory of Personality Disorders," in Major Theories of Personality Disorder, Clarkin, John F. & Lenzenweger, Mark F (Eds.). New York: The Guilford Press
Craig, Robert J. (1995). "Interpersonal Psychotherapy and MCMI-III -- Based Assessment, Tactical Psychotherapy of the Personality Disorders An MCMI-III -- Based Approach." Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
It is used to determine how dependable a candidate is, as well as how organized that individual is. A sample interview question that would competently assess the one's conscientiousness and emotional stability is: can you provide an outline a five-year plan for your professional and financial goals, which would include your acceptance to this position? The way that people choose to organize what it is that they are trying to achieve, and how they would go about doing so, would indicate their conscientiousness.
A good question to gauge a candidate's agreeableness is: how do you perceive the values of autonomy compare to those of teamwork? This is a trick question, because trust and collaboration is essential to both of these concepts, which candidates should reveal with their answers.
A good question to assess a candidate's level of neuroticism, which can encompass self-conscious, anxious behavior at one end and a sophisticated…
Carl Roger's Theory Of Personality Development
In Rogerian therapy the therapist enters into the client's "phenomenological world" and in mirroring this world the therapist does not disagree nor point out contradictions, nor delve into the unconscious (http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html).Therapy focuses on immediate conscious experience, a process of freeing a person by removing obstacles thus allowing normal growth and development to take place and thereby the client becomes independent and self-directed (http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html).The therapist must be "congruent, have unconditional positive regard for the client as well as show empathic understanding...and to be completely genuine," by communicating back to the client an understanding of feelings and personal meanings as they are experienced (http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html).The core tendency is to actualize one's inherent potentialities, although this potential exists in all living organisms, humans possess the additional form of self-actualization (http://oldsci.eiu.edu/psychology/Spencer/Rogers.html).According to Rogers, "of basic importance is the fact that one's inherent potentialities are genetically determined, while the self-concept…
Carlozzi, Alfred F.; Bull, Kay S. Ells. " Empathy as related to creativity, dogmatism, and expressiveness." The Journal of Psychology. July 01, 1995
Pescitelli, Dagmar. "Rogerian Therapy." http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html .(accessed 12-04-2003).
Rowan, John. "The Person-Centered Approach." Association for Humanistic
The findings of the research suggest that it is possible to make accurate judgments of individuals from an assessment of their personal space.
An impediment in the research is that the authors fail to provide an adequate assessment of stereotypes that influence the meaning of cues. The authors establish that stereotypes can be problematic. They however only look at gender-based stereotypes. It is apparent that ethnic, sexual orientation and religious stereotypes were ignored. Stereotypes are an intervening variable that can potentially pollute the process of inferring personality from the environment by the observer.
I find the article to be highly informative and very interesting. It addresses a concern that is often considered general information, in a scientific manner. It therefore takes phenomenon that is in the public domain and applies academic rigor to its explication. This act is insightful and consistent with the highest traditions of research. I also wondered…
His overactive super-ego demands rigid acceptance of social conformity, including a set of standards that are applicable to him being a role model to others. He might ask himself the question, " that if he, as a conservative role model, cannot control his physical urges what then would a less "public" and conservative individual do if he or she were exposed to such materials? His response with regard to reaction formation might tell him that despite ample scientific evidence that arousal from erotic imagery is normal and even healthy and that the majority of people who view such material still remain within the confines of acceptable adult morality, that the average lesser individual might react to erotic material by committing adultery, raping or acting sexually aggressive toward someone, turn deviant (i.e. gay), or the worst case scenario inappropriately touch a child. All of these fears are aspects of reaction formation,…
Landon Carter's Character through
Erik Erikson's stages of development
Erik Erikson was an American developmental psychologist who was born in Germany and went to postulate eight stages of psychological development. He developed a model that talked about the eight stages every human passes through as he grows. These stages depict and analyze a person's life from when they are baby till they die. It mentions how in every stage a person is presented with problems and challenges. Every stage depicts a crisis which has to be resolved or else it will create problems in the next stage. Thus, for a person to attain a positive personality they need to attain positive goals of that stage and progress smoothly to the next one. (osenthal, Gurney, & Moore 2)
A Walk to emember is a popular romantic drama movie released in 2002. With the setting in North Carolina, the movie revolves around…
A Walk to Remember. Dir. Adam Shankman. Perf. Mandy Moore, Shane West, Peter Coyote. Warner Bros. Pictures, 2002. DVD.
Beaumont, Sherry L., & Zukanovic, Ray. "Identity Development in Men and Its Relation to Psychosocial Distress and Self-Worth." Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science. January (2005) Web.
Elkind, D. "Erik Erikson's Eight Ages of Man." New York Times. New York Times, 5 April 1970. Web. 15 November 2012.
Gross, Francis L. Introducing Erik Erikson: An invitation to his thinking. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. 1987.Print
In the 1950's in Kansas City married couples ages 40 through 90 were put through a series of psychological tests to gain insight into the optimal idea of aging (USC, 2010). The Kansas City study lent to the idea of the disengagement theory which states that optimally aging adults gradually withdraw from society and social obligations as they age. Cumming and Henry, whom devised the disengagement theory, argued that the theory sufficiently explained why the elderly reduce their workload, social interactions, amount of new activities, and seem to have increased wisdom (USC, 2010). One suggested reasoning for adults' disengagement in life is because of the departure from society that takes place with death. In order to reduce emotional pain, many adults attempt to sever ties with friends and loved ones beforehand (USC, 2010). The other possibility is that lessening social obligations and commitments essentially frees elderly people as they…
The Psychology of Aging. (2009) University of Southern California. .
F. De Fruyt, R.R. McCrae, Z. Szirmak, & J. Nagy (2004). The Five-factor Personality
Inventory as a measure of the Five-factor Model: Belgian, American, and Hungarian comparisons with the NEO-PI-R. NCBI Vol. 11 (3), 207-15.
Belsky, J. (1999). The Psychology of Aging: Theory, Research, and Interventions. Grove,
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
The TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) has long been used to assist psychoanalysts elicit fantasy material from their patients (Morgan & Murray, 1935). According to Belleck and Murray (1973), the TAT was designed to bring forth interpretations by subject of social situations. Stories and pictures reveal some of the dominant drives, emotions, sentiments, conflicts, and complexes of a personality. The original cards used in the test were drawn or painted in color (Morge, 1995), but over time and much use, they became more and more achromatic. This achromatic appearances of the cards has caused many to speculate about their validity, especially, in patients suffering from depression. The question being asked by some researchers was, "would the achromatic appearance of the cards cause a depressed story whether or not the subject was depressed?
The Thematic Apperception Test is an untimed, individually administered psychological test used for personality assessment.…
Schizoid Personality Disorder Chart
SPD or Schizoid Personality Disorder is a Cluster A personality, which is a group consisting of peculiar and odd personality disorders. SPD is categorized by a prevalent social detachment pattern and a restricted amount of emotions. Due to this, the people affected by SPD are isolated socially and do not seek for relationships that get them close to a person.
Individuals suffering from SPD are mostly reserved and they organize their life so they can avoid social contact. A lot of individuals with SPD do not marry and even live with their parents their whole life. Some other commonly found characteristics of SPD are:
They seek solitary activities and jobs
They do not seek and enjoy relationships with a close bonding
They do not take pleasure in a lot of activities (group)
They do not have any close relatives
They find it difficult to relate…
Thomas, V., Melchert, T.P. & Banken, J.A. (1999). Substance dependence and personality disorders: comorbidity and treatment outcome in an inpatient population. J Stud Alcohol, 60:271-277.
WebMd, (2014). Schizoid Personality Disorder. Retrieved 11 June 2016 from http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/mental-health-schizoid-personality-disorder?page=3
Mayo Clinic. (2013, July 27). Schizoid personality disorder. Retrieved 11 June 2016 from Mayo Clinic: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/schizoid-personality-disorder/basics/complications/con-20029184
AAPT Level IV Cert / Written Test
Anxiety is fear that interferes with normal, daily functioning (Akiskal & enazzi, 2006). There are several different categories, including generalized anxiety, panic disorder, and phobias. While these all present themselves in different ways, they are similar in the problems they can cause in daily life. Theories of anxiety and the psychopathology related to feeling anxious include issues with biological, cognitive, and learning perspectives. The biological perspective addresses the receptors in the brain and how the chemicals there work with one another. Cognitive theories deal more with the way people perceive issues, such as feeling as though they do not have control over something. The learning perspective focuses on how people actually learn to be anxious about something, and the changes they learn to make in their lives in order to lower the levels of anxiety they feel (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2004; Kato,…
Akiskal, H.S., & Benazzi, F. (2006). The DSM-IV and ICD-10 categories of recurrent major depressive and bipolar II disorders: Evidence that they lie on a dimensional spectrum. Journal of Affective Disorders, 92(1): 45 -- 54.
Alonso, J., Angermeyer, M.C., Bernert, S., Bruffaerts, R., Brugha, T.S., Bryson, H., Girolamo, G., Graaf, R., et al. (2004). Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: Results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 109(420): 21 -- 7.
Berrios, G.E. (1999). Classifications in psychiatry: A conceptual history. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 33(2): 145 -- 60.
Clarke, G.N., Hawkins, W., Murphy, M. & Sheeber, L. (1993). School-based primary prevention of depressive symptomatology in adolescents: Findings from two studies. Journal of Adolescent Research, 8(2): 183 -- 204.