Personality Test Essays (Examples)

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Personality Theories and Assessments Though

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53496899

Personal interviews -- especially what the respondent actually says in them -- can be extremely useful to humanist practitioners. They also share a reliance on objective tests -- where the respondent attempts, in a guided way, to assess their own behavior and/or personality, with the two remaining branches of personality assessment.

Trait-based and social-learning psychology have vastly different approaches to assessing personality, but there are also some commonalities insofar as how they assess personality. Trait-based theorists believe that people exhibit specific behavioral traits, and that these can be analyzed to determine personality. Tests like the Big Five indicator are trait-based assessors. Social-learning theorists, on the other hand, believe that certain cognitive patterns are set early on, and that behavior (and personality) is determined by these unique cognitive processes working with the sum experience as well as the current environment and interactions. For this reason, social-learning theorists do not see behavior…… [Read More]

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Personality Is the Way That We Engage

Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31094526

Personality is the way that we engage with the world. It is a pattern of responses to how we engage with the world on a behavioral and emotional level. Every person has a different personality and this personality helps to frame that person's interactions with the world. When I took the test, I was INTJ, and that has implications for how I would behave in different situations.

It is important in organizations to understand what personality is, what types of personalities there are, and how these different personalities interact. Organizations are groups of people, and the characteristics of the people in these groups are a determinant of organizational success. We hear about things like "personality conflict" because at times, two different types of response patterns can be incongruent with each other. unning an organization requires an understanding of the different personality patterns and organizing the human resources of the organization…… [Read More]


Human Metrics. (2013). Humanmetrics Jung typology test. Human Retrieved October 15, 2013 from
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Personality Construct Development of a

Words: 923 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92637794

(Humans are often called 'social animals'). However, the test construct acknowledged the fact that no one is perfectly social or asocial but a mix of both characteristics. Extroversion and introversion are not necessarily either/or qualities, which has been one of the critiques of the Myers-Brigg assessment. In future forms of this extroversion inventory, creating a typology of different types of introversion and extroversion would be useful. For example, some people are very extroverted with friends, but are more socially reserved in a work context. Others are very introverted in the sense that they like to be alone, but can still 'get by' in social environments and perform like extroverts. It is also possible to be very confident speaking in public to large groups of people, but to feel more uncomfortable one-on-one, in personal social contexts.

Additionally, positive forms of sociability -- such as compassion -- and negative forms -- such…… [Read More]


DISC assessment. (2010). DISC homepage. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at

Measuring the big five personality factors. (2010). Department of Psychology. University of Oregon. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at 

Myers, Isabel Briggs & Peter B. Myers (1995). Gifts differing. Mountain View, CA: Davies-

Black Publishing.
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Personality Research Myers-Briggs - This

Words: 1500 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92770050

In addition, the information that I find on their site seems to be very vague, especially about what kind of 'success' they have had in being accurate regarding people's personalities. While this is not just a quick, online quiz, it has much more of the feel of that type of 'test' than the Myers-riggs assessment does. If I were to take a personality test, I think I would avoid the Keirsey test, simply because it does not seem to be that legitimate of an instrument for truly determining a person's personality and temperament, and what he or she should then do with his or her life based on personality.


Harrington, R. & Loffredo, D.A. 2001. The relationship between life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the Myers-riggs Type Inventory Dimensions. Journal of Psychology, 135(4): 439-450.

Keirsey Temperament Sorter. n.d.

Lewis, V.G. & orders, D. 1995. Life satisfaction of single middle-aged professional…… [Read More]


Harrington, R. & Loffredo, D.A. 2001. The relationship between life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory Dimensions. Journal of Psychology, 135(4): 439-450.

Keirsey Temperament Sorter. n.d. 

Lewis, V.G. & Borders, D. 1995. Life satisfaction of single middle-aged professional women. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74(1): 94.

Myers-Briggs Personality Test. n.d. Retrieved at
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Personality Theories Including Evolutionary and Dispositional

Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74900828

Dispositional and Evolutionary Theories

What makes some people extraverted and others introverted? Why are some people mellow and calm, while others lose their tempers at the drop of a hat? Personality psychology tries to answer questions like these by performing a twofold role. The first role of personality psychology is to explain how clusters of traits work together to cause behavioral or cognitive effects, and the other role is to simply explain individual differences or classify people according to clusters of traits (American Psychological Association, 2015). There are several schools of personality psychology, including dispositional and evolutionary theories. Dispositional theory is quite common in popular psychology and has been a prevalent mode of thinking in the history of philosophies throughout different societies. According to dispositional theory, people have immutable traits and personality "types." Occasionally a person might act out of character, but generally people have strong, innate personalities that remain…… [Read More]


American Psychological Association (2015). Personality. Retrieved online:

Cherry, K. (n.d.). The Big Five personality dimensions. About Education. Retrieved online: 

"General Strengths and Limitations of Trait Perspectives," (n.d.). Retrieved online:

McAdams, D.P. & Pals, J.L. (2006). A new Big Five. American Psychologist 61(3): 204-217.
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Personality Characteristics

Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51776010


The author of this report is to answer to two different psychology-related questions. The first question asks the author of this report to speak to how certain career people would tend to fit into the five factor model. The second and final question asks the author of this report to take an online personality assessment and share the results. While making broad generalizations about the first of those two questions would be unwise, there are patterns and trends that would make themselves clear and personality tests like the one taken in the second question would be much more precise.

Questions Answered

The five factors of the Five Factor grouping are openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. The president of a corporation would absolutely tend to have extraversion and neuroticism as the main foci. To be specific, they would tend to be secure and confident as well as…… [Read More]


MBTI. (2014, September 28). The Myers & Briggs Foundation. The Myers & Briggs Foundation. Retrieved September 28, 2014, from

Rathus, S.A. (2013). PSYCH (3rd ed.). Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth.
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Personality Assessment ID 69079 Personality

Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40415965

Low emotion level - this is an area that will need improvement considering that a perspective employer may view me as an individual that is not overall enthusiastic in nature, this can also be perceived as a lack on enthusiasm in my work and corporate morale. Low trust level - Work is needed in this area in order to make interactions with others more fulfilling. If everyone is perceived as selfish and potentially dangerous, this will put a strain on cooperation in-group work and in building positive personal and business relationships. Low altruism level - Being viewed as a person that does not like to help others. In a work setting or search for employment, this can be seen as a deterrent to hiring me if the perception of ill will towards helping others exists. Low tenderness level- if I want to pursue a career in Counseling & Psychology, this…… [Read More]

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Personality Assessment Inventory PAI Personality

Words: 1199 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1198736

The two interpersonal scales are Dominance and Warmth. Many of the clinical scales, as well as the aggression scale, also have a number of subscales to provide more nuanced information bout each of the clinical conditions. For example, the Borderline Features scale has four subscales: Affective Instability, Identity Problems, Negative elationships and Self-Harm.

The resulting score profiles can be compared to either normative or clinical populations. aw scores are converted to T-scores using tables provided in the scoring manual. These tables were generated using either normative or clinical samples that were census matched and standardized (Morey, 2007). The manual provides average scores for each of the subscales, for example, the average T score for Borderline Traits is 59, indicating that individuals falling below this number are emotionally stable and do not reflect borderline traits. The individual mean scores for each scale vary and are presented within the testing manual (Morey,…… [Read More]


Blais, M.A., Baity, M.R., & Hopwood, C.J. (2010). Clinical applications of the Personality Assessment Inventory. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group.

Butchner, J.N. (2010). Personality assessment from the nineteenth to the early twenty-first century: Past achievements and contemporary challenges. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 1-20.

Morey, L.C. (2007). The Personality Assessment Inventory: Professional manual 2nd Edition. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Morey, L.C. & Hopwood, C.J. (2007). Casebook for the Personality Assessment Inventory: A Structured Summary Approach. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
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Personality Assessment Instruments Millon Rorschach

Words: 2270 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32945520

This 14-year-old male is currently in the ninth grade. In the demographic portion of the test, he identifies "restless/bored" as the problem that is troubling him the most. A tendency toward avoiding self-disclosure is evident in this adolescent's response style. This nondisclosure may signify characterological evasiveness or an unwillingness to divulge matters of a personal nature, problematic or not. Also possible are broad deficits in introspectiveness and psychological-mindedness, owing to either emotional impoverishment or thought vagueness" (Millon 2005).


As evidenced in the above, sample assessment, the Millon devices are all-encompassing, giving a diagnosis and analysis of a multitude of different factors relating to an individual's state of mental health. A statistical recording of all responses and how they correlate to different mental health conditions is included and incorporated into the assessment. The assessment can make judgments about an adolescent's developmental state, as for example the above 9th grader's lack…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dana, Richard Henry. (2005). Multicultural assessment. New York: Routledge.

Millon, Theodore, Carrie Millon, Roger Davis, & Seth Grossman. (2008). MACI:

Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory. Pearson Assessments. Retrieved 11 Nov 2008 at 

Millon, Theodore, Carrie Millon, Roger Davis, & Seth Grossman. (2008). MCMI-III:
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Personality and Personalistic Leadership An Assessment of

Words: 1144 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46745482

Personality and Personalistic Leadership: An Assessment of Team Management for the 21st Century usiness Team Environment

Contemporary studies on emerging new principles on the nature of the culture of the business environment and team management within organizations led to the development of what is termed as "personalistic leadership." This new term and concept refers to the prevailing use of personal relations and strategies that aim to build stronger social bonds between leader and members, as well as among members of an organization. Personalistic leadership arises from the development of diversity among members of an organization; it is in this change in the business environment that made personal and social relationships important within business organizations (uhler, 2004). In this kind of leadership, it is also vital that leaders/managers must be able to adapt strategies and methods which reflect the flexibility or adaptability of the leader to changes within the business environment…… [Read More]


Antonakis, J. (2003). Why "emotional intelligence" does not predict leadership effectiveness: a comment on Prati, Douglas, Ferris, Ammeter, and Buckley. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 11, no. 4. pp. 355-361.

Buhler, P. February 2004. Managing in the new millenium. Supervision, vol. 65, issue 2. EBSCO ID No. 12121885.

Douglas, M. (2003). Servant-leadership: an emerging supervisory model. Supervision, vol. 64, issue 2. EBSCO ID No. 9036904.

Dulewicz, V. And M. Higgs. 2003. Leadership at the top: the need for emotional intelligence in organizations. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis. pp. 193-210.
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Personality Type as a Predictor

Words: 3103 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8027733

All participants will be clinically diagnosed with an addiction problem to alcohol and/or another controlled substance. Those that are addicted to prescription medicine alone will be excluded from the study as they are suspected to represent a different underlying order. Subjects will be chosen for addiction to alcohol, meth, crack, opiates and other controlled substances, other than prescription drugs. Participants may have single or multiple substances of addiction.

In order to eliminate as many potential confounding variables as possible the subjects will be males between the ages of 25-40. They will be from a number of socioeconomic backgrounds and will not be eliminated for race or other cultural attributes. However, these attributes will be considered in the final analysis to eliminate potential sources of sample bias. Participation in this study will be voluntary and all participants will be asked to sign a consent form. Participants meeting the criteria will be…… [Read More]


Bowden-Jones, O., Iqbal, M., Tyrer, P., Sieverwright, N., Cooper, S., Judd, a., & Weaver, T.

2004). Prevalence of personality disorder in alcohol and drug services and associated comorbidity. Society for the Study of Addiction. 99: 1106-1314.

Bucholz, K., Hesselbrock, V., Heath, a., Kramer, J., & S***t, M. (2000). A latent class analysis of antisocial personality disorder symptom data from a multi-centre family study of alcoholism. Addiction. 95 (4): 553-567.

Craig, R., Verinis, J., & Wexler, S. (1985). Personality Characteristics of Drug Addicts and Alcoholics on the Millon Clinical Multiazial Inventory. Journal of Personality
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Personality Theorist Isabel Briggs Myers

Words: 2424 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75063505

Her wellness did not allow participation in the second that took place in 1977; however Isabel Myers took pleasure in the other 2 extensively, though sometimes she would be dismayed at the different ways that the analysts treated her information. She understood that the intuitive 'kind' or personality indexes will need to alter the MBTI [instrument] as that is in their nature but she hoped that prior to the time when they altered it, they will initially attempt to comprehend exactly what had been done as the foundation of the theory because her reasons for choosing a certain structure were logical and justified. In 1975, publication of the Indicator was presumed by CPP, Inc. For the first time, the MBTI [instrument] was readily available as an instrument prepared for use in assisting individuals (Kirby and Myers, 2000).

In the last months of her life, when she invested much time sleeping…… [Read More]


Bowdon, T.B. (2010). 50 Psychology Classics. Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

Drucker, C.T. (2007). Once Upon a Type: Mythological Dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. ProQuest Publications.

Kirby, L.K. And Myers, K.D. (2000). Introduction to Type. Cpp Publications.

Myers, I.B. (1962). The Myers-Briggs type indicator. Consulting Psychologists Press.
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Personality the Study Discusses the

Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61976971

e. social transitions in historically changing environment.

The next section discusses Sociology. In this section, the researchers discuss the significance of sociology in this study and the world of psychology. It has been stated that the view of sociology is necessary and useful. The finding suggest that personality can in fact be tested using actual life consequences and that it is possible to organize life data by articulating the social meanings of roles according to age linked expectations. The researchers believe that sociological treatment of personality in the life course can shape the analysis and interpretation of data presented.

The last section discusses the question of why history. The answer is that in fact over a life span each individual is exposed to various historical experiences during ones transition through the "age-graded roles." Researchers further conclude that it is extremely important that when making historical generalizations that age be considered…… [Read More]

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Personality Social Psychology

Words: 919 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87885133

Personality Social Psychology

Suzanne Kobasa's Personality and Social Psychology article entitled "Stressful Life Events, Personality, and Health: An Inquiry into Hardiness" builds upon past research to examine individual and group differences regarding responses to stressful life events. The author provides extensive reviews of past literature, pointing out the limitations that led to her conducting the current study. Much literature has shown a correlation between stressful life events and physical illness; namely, that "stressful life events precipitate somatic and psychological disease," (Kobasa 1979, p.1). The current article in particular examines personality as a major mediating factor in the presence of physical illness following a series of stressful life events. Because prior research has shown that "the recent life histories of hospitalized persons contain significantly more frequent and serious stressful events than do histories of matched controls from the general population," Kobasa designed the current research to discover which personality factors were…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kobasa, Suzanne C. (1979). "Stressful Life Events, Personality and Health: An Inquiry into Hardiness." Personality Social Psychology. Vol. 37, No. 1. pp. 1-11.
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Personality and the Jung Test

Words: 1068 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54933451

Personality Type Explained
According to the Jung Typology Test I am an INFP—but really just barely. I am only 3% introvert, 9% intuitive, 3% feeling and 9% perceiving. I am right in the middle on most questions. However, the career choices that fall under the INFP category are actually all choices that I have considered in the past, so the test does seem to work. The recommended career choices for the INFP are:  “Social workers, psychologists, life coaches, addiction rehab counselors, mental and community care staff, children education, teaching, and also creative script writing” (INFP Career Choices, 2018).
The INFP Learning Style also describes me to a “t”—a enjoy learning but usually only when it relates in some way to human behavior. I can study manuals and information that is purely mechanical—such as how to change oil in a car—but I do find it to be tedious and more like…… [Read More]

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Personality Interview One of the

Words: 1413 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61550377

Echo finally died of old age, and the raw emotion from the park rangers and zoologists just brought tears. Similarly, he thinks that now that he is older he can sift through the "B.S. In advertising and media hype," and enjoys such cynical, but rather realistic, portrays of modern society in Mad Men, Weeds, and Breaking Bad.

As far as personality development, Tom believes that children get a pretty good grounding from their parents and early school experiences. Concepts like empathy, morality, situational ethics, and reliability are built when one is young. However, that being said, Tom does not see himself as a rule follower like his parents. Both believed that if something said x in the rules, then x it was. They both also believed that a person should get a job and stay with that job until retirement. Tom has already had two careers, and estimates he will…… [Read More]


"41 Questions -- 1 Personality." (2010). Cited in: 

Capraro, RAM 2002, 'Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability', Educational

And Pyschological Measurement, vol 62, no. 3, pp. 560-302.
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Stuttering the Pros and Cons of Personality

Words: 1549 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17831245


The Pros and Cons of Personality Tests, and Whether they can Detect a Stuttering Character

The issue of whether to implement personality tests is a contentious topic with fervent advocates on both sides. On the one hand, personality tests do provide some basic outline of a person's character and personality; on the other hand, it is difficult to determine exactly how accurate the test is or whether it is even applicable in the practice of a person's life. At the present moment, there continues to exist significant backlash against personality tests, although this tendency is perhaps unfair given the possible virtues of implementing such procedures. It is most likely that personality tests are appropriate in certain contexts; however, even in these situations it is important to avoid placing excessive emphasis of the findings gleaned from a personality test. Another significant question raised by the extant literature on personality tests…… [Read More]


Arthur, Winifred, et al. (2009). Unproctored internet-based tests of cognitive ability and personality: Magnitude of cheating and response distortion. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2, 39-45.

Eggers, K., et al. (2010). Temperament dimensions in stuttering and typically developing children. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 35(4), 355-372.

Fisher, C.D., & Boyle, G.J. (1997). Personality and employee selection: Credibility regained. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 35(2), 26-40.

Salkind, N.J. (2012). Tests and Measurement for People Who (Think They) Hate Tests and Measurement. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
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Workplace Are Job Knowledge Tests Cognitive Ability

Words: 1575 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84569419

workplace are job knowledge tests, cognitive ability tests, and personality tests.

Job Knowledge Tests

Achievement tests or job knowledge tests are composed of questions designed to measure technical or professional expertise in a specific area of knowledge. Therefore job knowledge tests assess the knowledge of the test taker at the point in time of the assessment. Job knowledge tests are most often utilized in conditions that require applicants to possess a specific set or type of information prior to being hired (Dye, eck, & McDaniel, 1993). Job knowledge tests are useful for positions that require some type of specialized skill or technical knowledge. Typically this type of skill or knowledge has been acquired over a long period. Given this, job knowledge tests are not appropriate to use when the applicants will are going to be trained in the areas tested following their selection. The most common format of job knowledge…… [Read More]


American Psychological Association. (2011). Rights and responsibilities of test takers:

guidelines and expectations. In, American Psychological Association (APA). Retrieved November, 29, 2011, from

Anastasi, A. (1967). Psychology, psychologists, and psychological testing. American Psychologist, 22(4), 297-306.

Anastasi, A. & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological testing (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River:
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Psychological Testing Psychological Tests Are an Important

Words: 994 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31249734

Psychological Testing

Psychological tests are an important aspect of clinical psychology. Psychological tests are normally administered by professional psychologists as a way of learning fact on how people function or in predicting their future. The paper will look at the definition of the term test, give a description of the major categories of tests while identifying the major uses and users of these tests. There will also be comparing and contrasting the concepts of validity and reliability and a discussion of how they affect the psychological testing field.

Definition of tests

A test or examination is defined as an assessment aimed at measuring the knowledge, aptitude, skill, physical fitness or classification in other different topics. Tests can be administered orally, by use of a paper, computer or in the confinement of a specific area which requires the person taking the test to physically perform a specific set of skills. Tests…… [Read More]


Renate, R. (2010).The Real Difference between Reliability and Validity. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from

Dority, J. (2011).Five Common Types of Psychological Tests. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from (2009).psychological Testing. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from
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Self reflection based on Personality type on job Application

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41691040

The objective of this paper is to present a reflection on my personality type that will suit my career plan. After taking a survey test at 16 Personality website, the results reveal that I am "THE EXECUTIVE" (ESTJ-A) showing that I am extraverted (54%) than introverted (46%). More assertive (57%) than turbulent (43%). Having the ability to judging (77%) than prospecting (33%). Moreover, I am more observer (84%) than intuitive (16%). I also have more ability to thinking (62%) than 38% (feeling).

My Job Type

An ability to choose a right job depends on the personality type, thus, the result shows that I have the quality of becoming a successful executive manager in my career choice. Executives are top management in an organization using their skills to embrace values of dedication, using a clear guidance and advice to lead their subordinates through the difficult paths. Typically, less than 11% of…… [Read More]

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Psychological Tests Are Pompous Procedures of Intellectual

Words: 684 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53823930

Psychological tests are pompous procedures of intellectual performance. A good number are objective as well as medical; nevertheless, definite projective tests might engross various height of prejudiced elucidation. The main aim of this paper is to clearly bring the meaning of the term test, describe the main classifications of tests and show the main or significant major uses as well as those who use the varied forms of tests, also offered here are the comparisons and contrasts of the concepts of reliability as well as validity of the methods of tests and how they affect the field of psychological testing.

Tests can be defined as verbal, visual or written assessments administered to evaluate the cognitive as well as emotional performance of individuals regardless of their age. The main purpose of these processes is to evaluate a multiplicity of intellectual capabilities as well as characteristics such as attainment as well as…… [Read More]


Gregory, R.J. (2007). Psychological testing: History, principles, and applications (5th ed.). Boston, MA:Pearson.. Retrieved August 26th, 2013
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Are Projective Tests Valid

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58000116

Psychology is an ever evolving science. While some still feel it is a pseudoscience, many researchers have shown the benefits of applied psychology and the effects mental health can have on an individual. However, because problems of the mind are not so easy to measure as they would be in biology, there tends to be a lot of guessing and misinterpretation. Businesses, schools, and the government use personality tests to understand a person and their motives. First developed in the 1920's personality tests have grown in popularity, giving rise to debunking the validity of such tests. Are personality tests like orschach Inkblots, MMPO-2, and brief anxiety scales valid? No, they are not valid. This essay will show why these kinds of tests are not valid and reliable measures of personality and psychopathology through studies revealing accuracy rates from personality test results.

Personality tests first originated in the 1920's and are…… [Read More]


Gacono, C., & Evans, B. (2012). The Handbook of Forensic Rorschach Assessment (p. 32). Routledge.

Graham, J. (2003). Handbook of psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Kaplan, R., & Saccuzzo, D. (2012). Psychological testing (8th ed., p. 18). Cegnage Learning.

LeBreton, J., Scherer, K., & James, L. (2014). Corrections for Criterion Reliability in Validity Generalization: A False Prophet in a Land of Suspended Judgment. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 7(4), 478-500.
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When to Use Projective Tests and What to Do With Them

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23919562

Projective Test

Under certain situations would I administer a projective test to a client. A projective test would be administered to a client when there are questions about the client's personality. The projective test is designed to elicit responses from the client that reveal underlying emotions, thoughts, desires, or tendencies within the person. The questions are open-ended and allow the responses to be analyzed and assessed in terms of content. The content gives clues as to the personality of the individual.

These tests are most effective with adults because by then the personality has been established. They are less effective with children because with children, researchers find that behavioral tests are more effective in revealing whether or not the child has a behavioral disorder by using "behavior rating scales" (Groth-Marnat, 2009, p. 7).

Thus I would use projective test in adult settings wherein it is helpful to gauge the individual's…… [Read More]


Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of Psychological Assessment. NY: John Wiley

and Sons.

Hogan, T. (2003). Psychological Testing: A Practical Introduction. NY: John Wiley

and Sons.
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MBTI Personality Assessment My MBTI Assessment According

Words: 672 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90242879


Personality assessment

My MBTI assessment

According to my MBTI assessment results, I am

moderately expressed introvert moderately expressed intuitive personality slightly expressed thinking personality slightly expressed judging personality

There are many aspects of this personality review that I like and resonate with how I see myself. For example, it is said that INTJ personalities are called 'masterminds' who traditionally assume positions requiring a high degree of responsibility and dedication. They can also be objective when making decisions. However, it is noted that most of my traits are either only moderate or slightly expressed. This suggests that had I taken the test at a different time or even in a different mood, my results may have been slightly different.

The question of freedom of choice regarding major life decisions like careers is a complicated one. On one hand, having certain personality traits would seem to be an advantage for certain…… [Read More]


Chaffee, John. (2009). Thinking critically. 10th edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

INTJ. (2011). Keirsey. Retrieved on November 7, 2011 

MBTI. Human Metrics. Retrieved on November 7, 2011
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An Article on Personality Assessments in Organizations

Words: 1487 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34379917

Integrative Typology of Personality Assessment for Aggression: Implications for Predicting Counterproductive orkplace Behavior," Bing et al. discuss the relevance of personality measures on organizational behavior and psychology. The authors present a typology of personality that may be particularly relevant from a human resources perspective. Self-reports are central to the personality assessments, as are conditions requiring situational and conditional reasoning. The emphasis in this study is on aggression and aggressive tendencies. The authors note the methodological weaknesses in prior research using self-reports, as "individuals possessing negative attributes, such as aggression, may be reluctant to reveal these attributes to others," (Bing et al. 722). In fact, research has shown that persons who tend toward aggression can also cultivate false sense of self with "inflated, positive, and inaccurate self-perceptions," (Bing et al. 722). To correct for the biases inherent in self-reports, the authors propose a new method of personality assessment based on "implicit…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Bing, Mark N. et al. "An Integrative Typology of Personality Assessment for Aggression: Implications for Predicting Counterproductive Workplace Behavior." Journal of Applied Psychology, 2007, Vol 92, No. 3, pp 722-744.
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Tests Are Regularly Used Nowadays to Measure

Words: 1106 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11217555

tests are regularly used nowadays to measure intelligence Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon invented in 1905 what has come to be acknowledged as the first scale. This initial test was aimed at ?identifying children who were mildly or perhaps more seriously retarded? (Mackintosh, 2011, p. 5) by evaluating their performance and delegating specific task sets so as any average child pertaining to a given age group could solve approximately 50% of the test. Thus, based on the number of tasks that a child could solve, the scale ?would classify children's levels of mental functioning. (Urbina, 2011, p. 23). For example, if a six years old was able to solve 50% of the test that had been delegated to this particular age group, his mental age was set at six years old. f he was able to solve above the average expectation, then he would have been attributed a superior mental…… [Read More]

It is acknowledged unanimously that tests would be ?designed so that the mean score is 100 points, and the standard deviation is 15 points. (Shalizi, 2009, para. 2) Older versions of Binet's scale are subject to a standard deviation of 16 (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2013, p. 301). Thus, it is considered that individuals falling under the average value display or are subject to intellectual deficit while those above are intellectually superior. The mean score which is subject to intelligence testing is known as the deviation IQ and was introduced in the 1960 revised version of the Stanford-Binet Scale as ?simply a standard score? ((Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2013, p. 294) ?ascertained by evaluating the standard deviation of mental age for a representative sample at each age level. (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2013, p. 294)

III. Verbal vs. Performance Properties of the Modern Binet and Wechsler Scales

We stated earlier that there are various tests which measure intelligence and we have already spoken of Binet's contributions in this respect. However, there is another name which is often related to significant and effective scales of intelligence testing. David Wechsler proposed his first scale in 1939 for adults and ten years later, for children. It has even been argued that Wechsler developed subtests prior to the Binet-Simon scale (Boake, 2002, p. 383). Wechsler's first scale was designed in 1939 for adults and revised for publishing in 1955, being subject to subsequent revisions (Crawford
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Personality and Leadership A Qualitative and Quantitative

Words: 1865 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79274723

Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative eview," Judge, Bono, Ilies & Gerhardt (2002) focus on the trait theory of leadership. In "Applying a Psychobiological Model of Personality to the Study of Leadership," O'Connor & Jackson (2010) study the relationship between personality and emergent leadership. In "When the omance is Over: Follower Perspectives of Aversive Leadership," Bligh, et al. (2007) explore what the researchers call the "dark side" of leadership. Whereas the Judge et al. (2002) and O'Connor & Jackson (2010) research centers on personality traits and leadership in a straightforward way, focusing on the leader, Bligh et al. (2007) instead take into account follower perspectives on aversive leadership. Although Judge, et al. (2002) and O'Connor & Jackson (2010) are interested in trait theory, O'Connor & Jackson (2010) study alternatives to the Big Five model as well as the Big Five model itself; Judge, et al. (2002) are primarily concerned…… [Read More]


Bligh, M.C., et al. (2007). When the romance is over. Applied Psychology: An International Review 56(4): 528-557.

Bobbio, A., Dierendonck, D.V. & Manganelli, A.M. (2012). Servant leadership in Italy and its relation to organizational variables. Leadership 8(3): 229-243.

Judge, T.A., Bono, J.E., Ilies, R. & Gerhardt, M.W. (2002). Personality and leadership: A qualitative and quantitative review. Journal of Applied Psychology 87(4): 765-780.

McClelland, D.C. & Burnham, DH (2003). Power is the great motivator. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved online:
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Personality Factors

Words: 2031 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15993946

leadership coach begins each public presentation making it very clear that having a leadership position and being a leader are not the same thing. Leadership and management are quite different even though often used synonymously. A "position" is something one is hired into, or appointed -- whether that results in leadership is dependent on the qualities of the individual. Some leaders rise from relative obscurity, and lead from below; some managers never learn to lead (Ventura, 2008).

Almost all the literature reviewed, though, seem to see the leader as being one who can see a situation and assume the right style of leadership for that occasion (e.g. Harry Truman taking over after Franklin Roosevelt's death). Certainly, once there is a leadership role assumed, the dynamics of interpersonal relationships change -- as they should. It is impossible for a leader to be completely fair and unbiased if that leader openly socializes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

John Glenn. (2012, Feburary 19). Retrieved from TimesLeader 

Brown, L., & Posner, B. (2001). Exploring the Relationship Between Learning and Leadership. Leadership and Organizational Development, May (5), 274-80.

Brown, T., Browne, M., Giampetro-Meyer, A., & Kubansek, N. (1998). Do We Really Want More Leaders in Business? Journal of Business Ethics, 17(15), 1727-36.

Carlyle, T., & Tenneyson, G. (Eds.). (2000). A Carlyle Reader. New York: Copley Publications.
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Personality and Effect on Project Management

Words: 838 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73163153

Personalized Project Management

The personality portrayed by 'the Coordinator' traits is such that he pays too much attention to details and criticizes almost every step of a project. He likes gathering sufficient information before making ad decision and are highly critical of the information they receive from people and sources. They are people who strive for orderliness and correctness with pursuit for factual data and logical arguments. Even after getting the data or information, these are people who will test and analyze the data before using it to make any decisions. They are known to fear irrational acts and impulsive decisions hence known as systematic managers (ob P., 2015).

Due to these traits, the best project that such a manager can undertake in the business world is the duty of project monitoring and evaluation for the projects that the organization engages itself in. this is a responsibility that needs one…… [Read More]


Gary R.V. & Elizabeth K.D., (2012). Results First: Using Evidence-Based Models in State Policy making. Review, 35 (3), 550-563.

Rob P., (2015). The Coordinator-Green/Blue.
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Rating of Personality

Words: 792 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87716296

Personality ating

Attitude rating scale

For each question, circle one that best matches your perspective:

The state wide educational assessment will improve the levels of education.

Definitely agree

Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree

The state wide educational assessment and the goals are well understood by all the teachers within the state.

Definitely agree

Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree

The state wide educational assessment meets the dynamic contemporary needs of the students.

Definitely agree

Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree

The state wide educational assessment should be made more regular than it is.

Definitely agree

Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree

The state wide educational assessment enables the teachers to know the weakness of the students.

Definitely agree

Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree

The state wide educational assessment enables the teachers to know their own weaknesses.

i. Definitely agree

ii. Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree

While filing…… [Read More]


Grutter J. & Hammer A.L., (2012). Strong Interest Inventory Profile and Interpretive Report. Retrieved November 4,2014 from 

Thorndike, R.M. & Thorndike-Christ, T.M. (2009). Measurement and evaluation in psychology and education (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Methods of Measuring Personality

Words: 1166 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7797609

Personality Measurements

Personality traits make up the characteristics of the individual. Schmutte and yff (1997) define personality traits as describing, "individual propensities toward stable patterns of behavior and thought, that often are neither inherently good nor inherently bad." Psychologists generally assess five factors of the personality, known as the Big Five personality factors. These five factors include neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness. There are multiple scales designed to measure such factors. This paper will examine four major instruments used to measure personality, specifically, the Big Five personality traits; the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), the Five Factor Personality Inventory developed by Somer, Korkmaz & Tatar in 2002 (Tok, 2011), and the Big Five Inventory (John, Donahue & Kentle, 1991).

Discussion of Topic

When deciding on an instrument to measure personality, a researcher must take into account the scale's validity, reliability and preferred methodology. For this reason,…… [Read More]


Costa, P.T., Jr., & McCrae, R.P. (1992). The revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Goldberg, L.R. (1992). The development of markers for the Big-Five factor structure. Psychological Assessment, 4, 26-42.

Salami, S. (2011). Personality and psychological well-being of adolescents: The moderating role of emotional intelligence. Social Behavior and Personality, 39(6), 785-794.

Schmutte P, Ryff C. (1997). Personality and well-being: Reexamining methods and meanings. Journal Of Personality & Social Psycholody, 73(3), 549-559.
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Application of Personality Theories to Counseling and Therapy

Words: 2507 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86383313

Personality Therapy

Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.

Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic…… [Read More]

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Importance of the Study of Personality

Words: 680 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78192070

Personality: Behavior, Thoughts, Motives, and Emotions That Characterize a Person

Personality: a distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives and emotions that characterizes an individual.

Psychologists use a variety of tests to determine and study a vast number of personality traits among groups of people. They've found that although everyone exhibits five to ten central traits that determine how we react to different people and various situations, not all traits carry the same weight in their importance in someone's life. (Where you might fear speaking in front of a crowd, for example, I may find it invigorating and fun.) We all have secondary traits, too (food preferences, for example, or how we feel about a style of dress), but these aren't as stable as the central traits. Although secondary traits can change as we mature and grow, central traits generally stick with us our entire lives. The central…… [Read More]

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Blog Article on Various Personality and Assessment Theories

Words: 867 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13820986

Personality Theory Blog

Personality Theories and Conducting Assessment

According to the humanistic psychologist's theory of personality, people in their endeavor, try to reach superior levels of mental functioning and personal growth that they also evaluate through objective measures and individual reflections. Even though objective measures are not biased, they do not offer a lot of information. An objective measure of personality is one that uses research to get results. For instance, a pen and paper pre-employment test is very likely an objective measure, other examples of which include: the Second Edition (MMPI-2), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and other major assessments of personality/intelligence (Heffner, 2015). Humanistic psychologists use objective tests to understand better how the patient views his/herself. In these tests, choices that when chosen by the patient will give a clear description of the patient are presented as compared to the unstructured and structured personal interviews…… [Read More]


Boeree, C. G. (2006). Personality Theories. Retrieved from 

Evans, R. (2012, November). Japan and blood types: Does it determine personality? Retrieved from BBC News Magazine: 

Fletcher, R. (2014, August 21). Cross Cultural Personality Research. Retrieved from Randall Fletcher: 

Heffner, C. L. (2015, Novemeber 1). Assessment Theories. In AllPsych (Ed.), Personality Theory: An Introduction. AllPsych. Retrieved from All Psych:
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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Mmpi-Ii the MMPI-II

Words: 983 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55253221

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-II)

The MMPI-II Test is utilized in the assessment of the individual's personality characteristics that affect the individual's personal and social adjustment.

Test Publisher

The MMPI-II is authored by S.R. Hathaway and J.C. McKinely MMPI; J.N. utcher, J.R. Graham, W.G., Dahlstrom, A.M. Tellegren, and . Kaemmer and is published by the Psychological Corporation. (Fischer, 2001)

Cost of the Test

According to Lisa Rochford, Ph.D. The cost of having the MMPI-II administered is $150.00 which includes one to two hours hosting the client at the office with scoring and interpretation costs included. (2012)

Test Users Qualifications and Time To Administer the Test

Cherry (2012) states of the MMPI-II test that The MMPI-2 contains 567 test items and takes approximately 60 to 90 minutes to complete. The MMPI should be administered, scored, and interpreted by a professional, preferably a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist, who has received specific training…… [Read More]


Cherry, Kendra (2012) The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory- MMPI-2: History and Use of the MMPI-2. Psychology. Retrieved from: 

Fischer, Jerry (2001) Portfolio Test Review Form. Retrieved from:

Karp, Cheryl L. And Karp, Leonard (2012) General Information on the MMPI. Retrieved from: 

Kaye, Dr. Jeff (2012) Introduction to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) Retrieved from:
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Psychology Personality There Are Six Approaches for

Words: 1094 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50862091

Psychology Personality

There are six approaches for studying the personality development of a person. Two of the most popular ones are the biological and humanistic approaches. The other four of these approaches include the trait, cognitive, behavioral and psychoanalytic. Each of these approaches are used to describe the system through we acquire our personality and factors that influence this personality development. The use of the approach is determined by the psychotherapist as well as the client, as they can differ from one person to another with respect to their effectiveness. However, it is the responsibility of the therapist to make sure that the approach used by him would be appropriate for the particular client he is dealing with. Even though it is not expected of the therapist to specialize in all the approaches, he should at least have an idea about each one of them. In this paper, we will…… [Read More]


Lawrence, Sawyer (2009). "Biological vs. Humanistic Approach to Personality." University of Phoenix.

Vigil, Jeremy (2002). "Biological v. Humanistic." Psychology 250.
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Unconscious Determinants of Personality

Words: 847 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58322961

Psychological Influences on Personality Development

ecognizing Various Unconscious Behavioral Determinants

Contemporary psychologists understand that myriad influences of variable origin contribute to the development of human personality. Some of those influences are more apparent than others and some operate on the conscious level whereas others operate on a completely unconscious level. Naturally, the latter present more complex potential issues simply because they are not known to the individual. That is especially true with regard to aspects of personality whose roots go back to infancy but that only become manifest in behavior only much later.

Different psychological theorists have provided conflicting explanations for the origin of major issues in human personality development. Freud, for example, regarded virtually all manifestations of psychological pathology as being the result of early trauma, sexual impulses, and the failure to successfully negotiate specific stages of infancy, such as the oral stage, anal stage, and the Oedipal stage.…… [Read More]


Bretherton, I. "The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth

Developmental Psychology, Vol. 28 (1992): 759-775. Accessed Online:


Byng-Hall, J. "Creating a Secure Family Base: Some Implications of Attachment Theory
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Psychological Tests Using the Mental

Words: 1400 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12669172

Purpose: The Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic eading Battery's designation is for assessment and measurement of the important dimensions of phonological oral language abilities and phonological awareness, both in adult and children.

Population: Both adults and children (age of 3-80 years).

Date of Publication: 2004.

Acronym(s): WJ III (DB).

Score Scales: eading Comprehension, Basic eading Skills, Phonics Knowledge, Broad eading, Brief eading, Total eading, eading Fluency, Spelling of Words, Oral Comprehension, eading Vocabulary.

Time: 50-60 minutes.

Administration: Individual.

Author (s): Fredrick, S.A., Nancy, M. & Woodcock, .C.

Publisher: iverside Publishing, Inc.

Comments: Software Scoring and Paper-and-Pencil.

Sub-tests: Passage Comprehension, Word-Letter Identification, Sound Awareness, Spelling of Sounds, Oral Vocabulary, Sound Blending.

elated eview: 1713318.


The Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic eading Battery is for the assessment and measurement of the important dimensions of phonological oral language abilities and phonological awareness, in both adult and children (Brande, 2008). By utilization of software scoring and the…… [Read More]

Risk & Needs Assessment Group. (1986). Substance Abuse Questionnaire (SAQ)-Adult

Probation III. In R.J. Nagle. (Ed.), the ninth mental measurement yearbook (Electronic

version). Retrieved from the Buros University Mental Measurement Yearbook online database.
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Role of Tests and Measurement

Words: 442 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59222118

1). One potential criticism of the MMPI-2 is that although it is only supposed to be scored by a trained professional, the multiple choice "objective" format can lead to cursory diagnosis and analysis.

hile the MMPI-2 is used on many different types of patients, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) "is a series of questions developed to measure the intensity, severity, and depth of depression in patients with psychiatric diagnoses" (BDI, 2009). It is specific to a singular category of diagnosis (depressive illnesses) and is only use on patients with psychological disorders. It consists of 21 questions or items, each with four possible responses on the subjects of depressed mood, pessimism, sense of failure, feelings of dissatisfaction, guilt, desire for self-punishment, self-dislike or self-hared, self-blame, suicidal ideation, frequency of crying, feelings of irritability, social withdrawal, distorted body image, work difficulties, insomnia, fatigue, appetite, weight changes, bodily preoccupation, and sexual desire (BDI,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). (2009). Mind disorders.

Retrieved November 19, 2009 at

Wagner, Kendra Van. (2009). MMPI-2. Retrieved November 19, 2009 at
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Big Five Personality Analysis Cher From the

Words: 906 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52801947

Big Five Personality Analysis

Cher from the film Clueless: Big five personality trait analysis


Openness is an appreciation for new ideas. On one hand, sixteen-year-old Cher is fairly unaware of problems that exist outside of her narrow world of Beverly Hills, and she is very judgmental of so-called 'stoners' at her high school, or people who do not fit in with her in-group. However, she is open enough to embrace a new girl named Tai who comes to the school, even though the girl seems very 'clueless' about how to dress and behave. Cher tries to teach Tai the values of the high school -- Cher's values.

Despite her apparent superficiality, Cher does have a clear sense of personal morality. She is open about the fact that she is a virgin, saying that she is waiting for the right person to enjoy 'first time'. This makes her unusual in…… [Read More]


Clueless. (1994). Directed by Amy Heckerling.
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Managing Teams and Personality Types

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79812140

The qualities tested by the Myes-Biggs ae also those that often cause clashes between employees, such extovesion vs. intovesion, thinking vs. feeling, judging vs. peceiving, and the tendency to expeiencing the wold though sensing vs. intuition. Taking the test helps someone who is quiet and feels fulfilled woking behind a compute undestand why he o she might see the wold diffeently than someone who is a 'people peson.'

It should be stessed that while pesonality types may be elatively constant thoughout an individual's life, all types must still espond to vaious extenal stessos at times: an intovet will still likely shout 'fie' and sping to action when needed in an emegency, despite a pefeence fo being etiing and eflective. An extovet can lock the doo to study a long and detailed epot on which he o she must make a pesentation. But the question is pefeence: an indicato of "you…… [Read More]

reference: an indicator of "your true preference may be the level of stress or enjoyment in a situation. Where your preferences coincide with the demands of the situation, you may find it quite enjoyable. An extrovert may find it frustrating or stressful if required to work in an introvert style, but enjoyable or energizing if required to work in an extrovert style, and vice versa for an introvert" (Working out, 2010, Team Technology, p.2). At time, managers of teams may need to press members out of their comfort zones to accomplish certain goals and objectives and at other times playing to different team members' strengths may be optimal. Regardless, team member's self-awareness and awareness that not everyone is 'like them' in terms of the way they see the world can optimize team productivity by minimizing conflict and maximizing the use of team member's different skills.


Working out your Myers-Briggs type. (2010). Team Technology. Retrieved February 19, 2010 at
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Graphology and Personality Profiling the

Words: 1374 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74666161

Table 2 -- Correlation of Character Traits with Handwriting (Hull and Montgomery)


Shape of riting



Upward Sloping Line



Upward Sloping Line



Firmness of Line



Lateral narrowness of m's and n's



Heavy Handwriting



Heavy bars on t's



Length of bars on t's



Length of bars on t's compensating



Closed as and o's


Now, we jump to 1954, with a study by Lorr, Lepine, and Goldner entitled, "A Factor Analysis of Some Handwriting Characteristics." Initially, the authors are open minded about the subject, citing that one of the difficulties has been the lack of proper measurement regarding graphological characteristics. In addition, since different types of pedagogy exist when teaching writing, it is difficult to compare students without solid factors.

In this study, a group of 200 right-handed graduate psychology students with a…… [Read More]


Bayne, R. And F. O'Neill. (1988). "Handwriting and Personality: A Test of Some Expert

Graphologists' Judgments." Guidance and Assessment Review. 4 (1): 1-3.

Beyerstein, B. (2008). "How Graphology Fools People." Qackwatch. Cited in:
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Projective Tests in Contrast to

Words: 310 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29752289

Further, the subjectivity in scoring and interpretation is a huge issue (Sutherland, 1992). For example, if one believes that a relationship exists between say, a Rorschach feature such as color and a personality trait such as emotional style, then one's prior beliefs can bias judgment (Vyse, 1997). As evidence, psychologists were prone to say a relationship existed between a test response and a psychological condition -- if it accorded with their prior beliefs -- even when none actually existed (Chapman & Chapman, 1971, cited in Vyse, 1997).


Arnheim, R. (1974). Art and visual perception (rev. ed.). erkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Groth-Marnat, G. (1997). Handbook of psychological assessment (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley.

Lilienfeld, S.O. (1999). Projective measures of personality and psychopathology: How well do they work? Skeptical Inquirer, 23(5), 32-39.

Sutherland, S. (1992). Irrationality: Why we don't think straight! New runswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Vyse, S.A.…… [Read More]


Arnheim, R. (1974). Art and visual perception (rev. ed.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Groth-Marnat, G. (1997). Handbook of psychological assessment (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley.

Lilienfeld, S.O. (1999). Projective measures of personality and psychopathology: How well do they work? Skeptical Inquirer, 23(5), 32-39.

Sutherland, S. (1992). Irrationality: Why we don't think straight! New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
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Measurement of Personality by Henry Murray the

Words: 531 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44836870

Measurement of Personality by Henry Murray

The emergence of the psychoanalytic tradition in psychology by Sigmund Freud provided social scientists with profound insights and information regarding the personality and behavior of the individual. In the 20th century, psychoanalysis has been taken into the field of study of personality development, and is quantified through techniques in psychological testing. Henry Murray, one of the proponents and formulators of psychological tests as effective tools for analyzing human behavior, had introduced his own theory of personality, influenced by the works of Freud.

Personality research during Murray's time was quantified because this field of study seeks to rationalize human behavior, thinking, and action, providing more stable ground to formulate generalizations regarding the study of humans and their development. During the 1930s, continuing conflict among nations of the world prompted psychologists to study human personalities in order to gauge and predict actions through behaviors displayed by…… [Read More]


Neill, J. (2003). Personality Traits. University of Canberra Web site. Accessed 13 December 2003. Available at

Santrock, J. (2000). Psychology. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
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Psychology-Personality Adult Attachment and the

Words: 1941 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61528730

This means that for both parent-acquaintance and self-other consensus, it was observed that increased length of acquaintance leads to high stereotype accuracy.

This study on the relationship between length of acquaintance and stereotype accuracy highlighted the importance of length of acquaintance in relationships in order to best assess an individual's personality. Through this study, it was found out that, among other factors, length of acquaintance is indeed a determinant that could determine a person's accurate assessment of an individual's personality. The study conducted demonstrated how length of acquaintanceship is a function of stereotype accuracy.

Part 4- the Role of Mood Regulation

In this study conducted by Eid and Lischetzke, the authors delved into the components that act as mediators of individuals with extrovert personalities. In assessing these mediators, the authors determined pleasant-unpleasant trait mood and mood regulators such as mood repair and mood maintenance as its main factors. Through regression…… [Read More]

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How Are Culture and Personality Related

Words: 3855 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81313720

person is born, the family, neighbor and the culture is the prime aspect through which they interact before they can enter into the outside world. The development of the personality of an individual is the synthesis of traditions, values, thoughts, feelings, and various other factors that is based on the cultural aspects. In this regard, the dissertation is about the ways in which personality and culture have a relationship to each other. The thesis paper has also discussed how culture leaves a profound impact on the development of the personality.

How are Culture and Personality Related?

hat is Culture?

hat is Personality?

Is there a relationship between Culture and Personality?

How is Culture and Personality Related?


orks Cited


Since the world has come to existence, people have divided themselves into smaller groups that have been named as civilizations and societies. These diverse civilizations with different norms, customs, traditions…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bock, P.K. Rethinking Psychological Anthropology. 2nd Edition. USA: Waveland Press, 1999. Print.

LeVine, R.A. Culture and personality: contemporary readings. USA: Transaction Publishers, 1974. Print.

LeVine, R.A. Psychological Anthropology: A Reader on Self in Culture. USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2010. Print.

Triandis, H.C. & Suh, E.M. "Cultural influences on personality." Annual Review of Psychology 53 (2002): 133 -- 160. Print. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135200
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Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test

Words: 1516 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69667816

Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test

It is assessed that at least 20 out of a hundred of adults who visit a physician have had an alcohol issue at one time. Also, in a survey of patients self-proclaimed to an inpatient service, 15 to 30 out of a hundred screened definitely for alcoholism. However, numerous recent studies designate that physicians in numerous health care settings often do not identify and treat alcoholism (Drake, 2013). These answers underline the need for effective and correct events that will allow clinicians to screen for alcoholism. One of these test are used to do this are the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Established in 1971, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) is one of the most accurate and oldest alcohol screening tests accessible, effective in classifying dependent drinkers with up to 98% accuracy.

Purpose for the instrument

It is evident the MAST is considered to be one…… [Read More]


Ball, J.D. (201). Time requirements of psychological testing: A survey of practitioners. Journal of Personality Assessment, 17(6), 34.

Butcher, J.N. (203). Clinical personality assessment. Annual Review of Psychology (12), 385-401.

Clark, H.W. (2012). Residential substance abuse treatment for pregnant and postpartum women and their children:Treatmen. Child Welfare, 45(8), 80.

De-Micheli, D. & . (2012). Screen of drug use in a teenage Brazilian sample using the drug use screening inventory. Addictive Behavior, 25(5), 683-691.
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Avoidant Personality Disorder

Words: 4280 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14227618

Avoidant Personality Disorder

As per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), a certain case of avoidant personality disorder (APD) is featured by the existent sign of social inhibition, feeling of being short of requirement, and hypersensitivity to negative valuation. (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, p.1) Even though personality disorders are not often discovered in persons below age 18, children who come within the condition of APD are recurrently portrayed as being aloof to the core, fearful in arising circumstances, and afraid of dissention and social boycott. The proportion of the signs and the inability is way behind the practice of inhibition that is prevalent in as much as 40% of the populace. Hence it is of great relevance of examining the disorder as it relates to professional counseling.

Exploration of disorder

Bearing a semblance to other personality disorders, the state of Avoidant Personality disorder turns out…… [Read More]


American Psychiatric Association: (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Beck, Aaron T; Freeman, M.D; Arthur, Ed.D. (1990). "Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders." New York: The Guilford Press.

Benjamin, Lorna Smith (1996) "An Interpersonal Theory of Personality Disorders," in Major Theories of Personality Disorder, Clarkin, John F. & Lenzenweger, Mark F (Eds.). New York: The Guilford Press

Craig, Robert J. (1995). "Interpersonal Psychotherapy and MCMI-III -- Based Assessment, Tactical Psychotherapy of the Personality Disorders An MCMI-III -- Based Approach." Boston: Allyn and Bacon.