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The Jungian personality inventories are to some degree 'Westernized' one could argue, in the sense that they were originally developed by the psychoanalyst Carl Jung, around Western archetypes of personality. The MMPI also makes use of such tests in its more extensive survey, but more flexible use of the Jung system has yielded less dogmatic career recommendation and personality type instruments. After answering a series of questions, the tester receives a certain personality 'typing,' based upon whether he or she is primarily extroverted or introverted, sensing or intuitive, thinking or feeling, judging or perceiving. The tester can use this typology as a guide, not a diagnosis set in stone, on his or her path to achieve clearer self-understanding.
Jungian psychological typology. (2009). Personality tests. etrieved October 20, 2009 at http://www.mypersonality.info/personality-types/
Jungian psychological typology. (2009). Personality tests. Retrieved October 20, 2009 at http://www.mypersonality.info/personality-types/
Personal interviews -- especially what the respondent actually says in them -- can be extremely useful to humanist practitioners. They also share a reliance on objective tests -- where the respondent attempts, in a guided way, to assess their own behavior and/or personality, with the two remaining branches of personality assessment.
Trait-based and social-learning psychology have vastly different approaches to assessing personality, but there are also some commonalities insofar as how they assess personality. Trait-based theorists believe that people exhibit specific behavioral traits, and that these can be analyzed to determine personality. Tests like the Big Five indicator are trait-based assessors. Social-learning theorists, on the other hand, believe that certain cognitive patterns are set early on, and that behavior (and personality) is determined by these unique cognitive processes working with the sum experience as well as the current environment and interactions. For this reason, social-learning theorists do not see behavior…
Personality is the way that we engage with the world. It is a pattern of responses to how we engage with the world on a behavioral and emotional level. Every person has a different personality and this personality helps to frame that person's interactions with the world. When I took the test, I was INTJ, and that has implications for how I would behave in different situations.
It is important in organizations to understand what personality is, what types of personalities there are, and how these different personalities interact. Organizations are groups of people, and the characteristics of the people in these groups are a determinant of organizational success. We hear about things like "personality conflict" because at times, two different types of response patterns can be incongruent with each other. unning an organization requires an understanding of the different personality patterns and organizing the human resources of the organization…
Human Metrics. (2013). Humanmetrics Jung typology test. Human Metrics.com. Retrieved October 15, 2013 from http://www.humanmetrics.com/CGI-WIN/JTYPES1.HTM
(Humans are often called 'social animals'). However, the test construct acknowledged the fact that no one is perfectly social or asocial but a mix of both characteristics. Extroversion and introversion are not necessarily either/or qualities, which has been one of the critiques of the Myers-Brigg assessment. In future forms of this extroversion inventory, creating a typology of different types of introversion and extroversion would be useful. For example, some people are very extroverted with friends, but are more socially reserved in a work context. Others are very introverted in the sense that they like to be alone, but can still 'get by' in social environments and perform like extroverts. It is also possible to be very confident speaking in public to large groups of people, but to feel more uncomfortable one-on-one, in personal social contexts.
Additionally, positive forms of sociability -- such as compassion -- and negative forms -- such…
DISC assessment. (2010). DISC homepage. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at http://www.churchangeldisc.com/definitionofdisc.html
Measuring the big five personality factors. (2010). Department of Psychology. University of Oregon. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at http://www.uoregon.edu/~sanjay/bigfive.html#where
Myers, Isabel Briggs & Peter B. Myers (1995). Gifts differing. Mountain View, CA: Davies-
In addition, the information that I find on their site seems to be very vague, especially about what kind of 'success' they have had in being accurate regarding people's personalities. While this is not just a quick, online quiz, it has much more of the feel of that type of 'test' than the Myers-riggs assessment does. If I were to take a personality test, I think I would avoid the Keirsey test, simply because it does not seem to be that legitimate of an instrument for truly determining a person's personality and temperament, and what he or she should then do with his or her life based on personality.
Harrington, R. & Loffredo, D.A. 2001. The relationship between life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the Myers-riggs Type Inventory Dimensions. Journal of Psychology, 135(4): 439-450.
Keirsey Temperament Sorter. n.d. http://keirsey.com/faq.aspx
Lewis, V.G. & orders, D. 1995. Life satisfaction of single middle-aged professional…
Harrington, R. & Loffredo, D.A. 2001. The relationship between life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory Dimensions. Journal of Psychology, 135(4): 439-450.
Keirsey Temperament Sorter. n.d. http://keirsey.com/faq.aspx
Lewis, V.G. & Borders, D. 1995. Life satisfaction of single middle-aged professional women. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74(1): 94.
Myers-Briggs Personality Test. n.d. Retrieved at http://www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality-type/mbti-basics/reliability-and-validity.asp
Dispositional and Evolutionary Theories
What makes some people extraverted and others introverted? Why are some people mellow and calm, while others lose their tempers at the drop of a hat? Personality psychology tries to answer questions like these by performing a twofold role. The first role of personality psychology is to explain how clusters of traits work together to cause behavioral or cognitive effects, and the other role is to simply explain individual differences or classify people according to clusters of traits (American Psychological Association, 2015). There are several schools of personality psychology, including dispositional and evolutionary theories. Dispositional theory is quite common in popular psychology and has been a prevalent mode of thinking in the history of philosophies throughout different societies. According to dispositional theory, people have immutable traits and personality "types." Occasionally a person might act out of character, but generally people have strong, innate personalities that remain…
American Psychological Association (2015). Personality. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/topics/personality/
Cherry, K. (n.d.). The Big Five personality dimensions. About Education. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/personalitydevelopment/a/bigfive.htm
"General Strengths and Limitations of Trait Perspectives," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/personality-16/trait-perspectives-on-personality-79/general-strengths-and-limitations-of-trait-perspectives-312-12847/
McAdams, D.P. & Pals, J.L. (2006). A new Big Five. American Psychologist 61(3): 204-217.
The author of this report is to answer to two different psychology-related questions. The first question asks the author of this report to speak to how certain career people would tend to fit into the five factor model. The second and final question asks the author of this report to take an online personality assessment and share the results. While making broad generalizations about the first of those two questions would be unwise, there are patterns and trends that would make themselves clear and personality tests like the one taken in the second question would be much more precise.
The five factors of the Five Factor grouping are openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. The president of a corporation would absolutely tend to have extraversion and neuroticism as the main foci. To be specific, they would tend to be secure and confident as well as…
MBTI. (2014, September 28). The Myers & Briggs Foundation. The Myers & Briggs Foundation. Retrieved September 28, 2014, from http://www.myersbriggs.org/
Rathus, S.A. (2013). PSYCH (3rd ed.). Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth.
Low emotion level - this is an area that will need improvement considering that a perspective employer may view me as an individual that is not overall enthusiastic in nature, this can also be perceived as a lack on enthusiasm in my work and corporate morale. Low trust level - Work is needed in this area in order to make interactions with others more fulfilling. If everyone is perceived as selfish and potentially dangerous, this will put a strain on cooperation in-group work and in building positive personal and business relationships. Low altruism level - Being viewed as a person that does not like to help others. In a work setting or search for employment, this can be seen as a deterrent to hiring me if the perception of ill will towards helping others exists. Low tenderness level- if I want to pursue a career in Counseling & Psychology, this…
The two interpersonal scales are Dominance and Warmth. Many of the clinical scales, as well as the aggression scale, also have a number of subscales to provide more nuanced information bout each of the clinical conditions. For example, the Borderline Features scale has four subscales: Affective Instability, Identity Problems, Negative elationships and Self-Harm.
The resulting score profiles can be compared to either normative or clinical populations. aw scores are converted to T-scores using tables provided in the scoring manual. These tables were generated using either normative or clinical samples that were census matched and standardized (Morey, 2007). The manual provides average scores for each of the subscales, for example, the average T score for Borderline Traits is 59, indicating that individuals falling below this number are emotionally stable and do not reflect borderline traits. The individual mean scores for each scale vary and are presented within the testing manual (Morey,…
Blais, M.A., Baity, M.R., & Hopwood, C.J. (2010). Clinical applications of the Personality Assessment Inventory. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group.
Butchner, J.N. (2010). Personality assessment from the nineteenth to the early twenty-first century: Past achievements and contemporary challenges. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 1-20.
Morey, L.C. (2007). The Personality Assessment Inventory: Professional manual 2nd Edition. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Morey, L.C. & Hopwood, C.J. (2007). Casebook for the Personality Assessment Inventory: A Structured Summary Approach. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
This 14-year-old male is currently in the ninth grade. In the demographic portion of the test, he identifies "restless/bored" as the problem that is troubling him the most. A tendency toward avoiding self-disclosure is evident in this adolescent's response style. This nondisclosure may signify characterological evasiveness or an unwillingness to divulge matters of a personal nature, problematic or not. Also possible are broad deficits in introspectiveness and psychological-mindedness, owing to either emotional impoverishment or thought vagueness" (Millon 2005).
As evidenced in the above, sample assessment, the Millon devices are all-encompassing, giving a diagnosis and analysis of a multitude of different factors relating to an individual's state of mental health. A statistical recording of all responses and how they correlate to different mental health conditions is included and incorporated into the assessment. The assessment can make judgments about an adolescent's developmental state, as for example the above 9th grader's lack…
Dana, Richard Henry. (2005). Multicultural assessment. New York: Routledge.
Millon, Theodore, Carrie Millon, Roger Davis, & Seth Grossman. (2008). MACI:
Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory. Pearson Assessments. Retrieved 11 Nov 2008 at http://www.pearsonassessments.com/tests/maci.htm
Millon, Theodore, Carrie Millon, Roger Davis, & Seth Grossman. (2008). MCMI-III:
Personality and Personalistic Leadership: An Assessment of Team Management for the 21st Century usiness Team Environment
Contemporary studies on emerging new principles on the nature of the culture of the business environment and team management within organizations led to the development of what is termed as "personalistic leadership." This new term and concept refers to the prevailing use of personal relations and strategies that aim to build stronger social bonds between leader and members, as well as among members of an organization. Personalistic leadership arises from the development of diversity among members of an organization; it is in this change in the business environment that made personal and social relationships important within business organizations (uhler, 2004). In this kind of leadership, it is also vital that leaders/managers must be able to adapt strategies and methods which reflect the flexibility or adaptability of the leader to changes within the business environment…
Antonakis, J. (2003). Why "emotional intelligence" does not predict leadership effectiveness: a comment on Prati, Douglas, Ferris, Ammeter, and Buckley. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 11, no. 4. pp. 355-361.
Buhler, P. February 2004. Managing in the new millenium. Supervision, vol. 65, issue 2. EBSCO ID No. 12121885.
Douglas, M. (2003). Servant-leadership: an emerging supervisory model. Supervision, vol. 64, issue 2. EBSCO ID No. 9036904.
Dulewicz, V. And M. Higgs. 2003. Leadership at the top: the need for emotional intelligence in organizations. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis. pp. 193-210.
Her wellness did not allow participation in the second that took place in 1977; however Isabel Myers took pleasure in the other 2 extensively, though sometimes she would be dismayed at the different ways that the analysts treated her information. She understood that the intuitive 'kind' or personality indexes will need to alter the MBTI [instrument] as that is in their nature but she hoped that prior to the time when they altered it, they will initially attempt to comprehend exactly what had been done as the foundation of the theory because her reasons for choosing a certain structure were logical and justified. In 1975, publication of the Indicator was presumed by CPP, Inc. For the first time, the MBTI [instrument] was readily available as an instrument prepared for use in assisting individuals (Kirby and Myers, 2000).
In the last months of her life, when she invested much time sleeping…
Bowdon, T.B. (2010). 50 Psychology Classics. Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
Drucker, C.T. (2007). Once Upon a Type: Mythological Dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. ProQuest Publications.
Kirby, L.K. And Myers, K.D. (2000). Introduction to Type. Cpp Publications.
Myers, I.B. (1962). The Myers-Briggs type indicator. Consulting Psychologists Press.
e. social transitions in historically changing environment.
The next section discusses Sociology. In this section, the researchers discuss the significance of sociology in this study and the world of psychology. It has been stated that the view of sociology is necessary and useful. The finding suggest that personality can in fact be tested using actual life consequences and that it is possible to organize life data by articulating the social meanings of roles according to age linked expectations. The researchers believe that sociological treatment of personality in the life course can shape the analysis and interpretation of data presented.
The last section discusses the question of why history. The answer is that in fact over a life span each individual is exposed to various historical experiences during ones transition through the "age-graded roles." Researchers further conclude that it is extremely important that when making historical generalizations that age be considered…
Personality Social Psychology
Suzanne Kobasa's Personality and Social Psychology article entitled "Stressful Life Events, Personality, and Health: An Inquiry into Hardiness" builds upon past research to examine individual and group differences regarding responses to stressful life events. The author provides extensive reviews of past literature, pointing out the limitations that led to her conducting the current study. Much literature has shown a correlation between stressful life events and physical illness; namely, that "stressful life events precipitate somatic and psychological disease," (Kobasa 1979, p.1). The current article in particular examines personality as a major mediating factor in the presence of physical illness following a series of stressful life events. Because prior research has shown that "the recent life histories of hospitalized persons contain significantly more frequent and serious stressful events than do histories of matched controls from the general population," Kobasa designed the current research to discover which personality factors were…
Kobasa, Suzanne C. (1979). "Stressful Life Events, Personality and Health: An Inquiry into Hardiness." Personality Social Psychology. Vol. 37, No. 1. pp. 1-11.
Personality Type Explained
According to the Jung Typology Test I am an INFP—but really just barely. I am only 3% introvert, 9% intuitive, 3% feeling and 9% perceiving. I am right in the middle on most questions. However, the career choices that fall under the INFP category are actually all choices that I have considered in the past, so the test does seem to work. The recommended career choices for the INFP are: “Social workers, psychologists, life coaches, addiction rehab counselors, mental and community care staff, children education, teaching, and also creative script writing” (INFP Career Choices, 2018).
The INFP Learning Style also describes me to a “t”—a enjoy learning but usually only when it relates in some way to human behavior. I can study manuals and information that is purely mechanical—such as how to change oil in a car—but I do find it to be tedious and more like…
Echo finally died of old age, and the raw emotion from the park rangers and zoologists just brought tears. Similarly, he thinks that now that he is older he can sift through the "B.S. In advertising and media hype," and enjoys such cynical, but rather realistic, portrays of modern society in Mad Men, Weeds, and Breaking Bad.
As far as personality development, Tom believes that children get a pretty good grounding from their parents and early school experiences. Concepts like empathy, morality, situational ethics, and reliability are built when one is young. However, that being said, Tom does not see himself as a rule follower like his parents. Both believed that if something said x in the rules, then x it was. They both also believed that a person should get a job and stay with that job until retirement. Tom has already had two careers, and estimates he will…
"41 Questions -- 1 Personality." (2010). 41q.com Cited in:
Capraro, RAM 2002, 'Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability', Educational
And Pyschological Measurement, vol 62, no. 3, pp. 560-302.
The Pros and Cons of Personality Tests, and Whether they can Detect a Stuttering Character
The issue of whether to implement personality tests is a contentious topic with fervent advocates on both sides. On the one hand, personality tests do provide some basic outline of a person's character and personality; on the other hand, it is difficult to determine exactly how accurate the test is or whether it is even applicable in the practice of a person's life. At the present moment, there continues to exist significant backlash against personality tests, although this tendency is perhaps unfair given the possible virtues of implementing such procedures. It is most likely that personality tests are appropriate in certain contexts; however, even in these situations it is important to avoid placing excessive emphasis of the findings gleaned from a personality test. Another significant question raised by the extant literature on personality tests…
Arthur, Winifred, et al. (2009). Unproctored internet-based tests of cognitive ability and personality: Magnitude of cheating and response distortion. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2, 39-45.
Eggers, K., et al. (2010). Temperament dimensions in stuttering and typically developing children. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 35(4), 355-372.
Fisher, C.D., & Boyle, G.J. (1997). Personality and employee selection: Credibility regained. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 35(2), 26-40.
Salkind, N.J. (2012). Tests and Measurement for People Who (Think They) Hate Tests and Measurement. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Psychological tests are an important aspect of clinical psychology. Psychological tests are normally administered by professional psychologists as a way of learning fact on how people function or in predicting their future. The paper will look at the definition of the term test, give a description of the major categories of tests while identifying the major uses and users of these tests. There will also be comparing and contrasting the concepts of validity and reliability and a discussion of how they affect the psychological testing field.
Definition of tests
A test or examination is defined as an assessment aimed at measuring the knowledge, aptitude, skill, physical fitness or classification in other different topics. Tests can be administered orally, by use of a paper, computer or in the confinement of a specific area which requires the person taking the test to physically perform a specific set of skills. Tests…
Renate, R. (2010).The Real Difference between Reliability and Validity. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8481668_real-difference-between-reliability-validity.html
Dority, J. (2011).Five Common Types of Psychological Tests. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/101417-five-common-types-psychological-tests/
Edu.com. (2009).psychological Testing. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://users.ipfw.edu/abbott/120/PsychTesting.html
Psychological tests are pompous procedures of intellectual performance. A good number are objective as well as medical; nevertheless, definite projective tests might engross various height of prejudiced elucidation. The main aim of this paper is to clearly bring the meaning of the term test, describe the main classifications of tests and show the main or significant major uses as well as those who use the varied forms of tests, also offered here are the comparisons and contrasts of the concepts of reliability as well as validity of the methods of tests and how they affect the field of psychological testing.
Tests can be defined as verbal, visual or written assessments administered to evaluate the cognitive as well as emotional performance of individuals regardless of their age. The main purpose of these processes is to evaluate a multiplicity of intellectual capabilities as well as characteristics such as attainment as well as…
Gregory, R.J. (2007). Psychological testing: History, principles, and applications (5th ed.). Boston, MA:Pearson.. Retrieved August 26th, 2013 http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0137017510.pdf
Psychology is an ever evolving science. While some still feel it is a pseudoscience, many researchers have shown the benefits of applied psychology and the effects mental health can have on an individual. However, because problems of the mind are not so easy to measure as they would be in biology, there tends to be a lot of guessing and misinterpretation. Businesses, schools, and the government use personality tests to understand a person and their motives. First developed in the 1920's personality tests have grown in popularity, giving rise to debunking the validity of such tests. Are personality tests like orschach Inkblots, MMPO-2, and brief anxiety scales valid? No, they are not valid. This essay will show why these kinds of tests are not valid and reliable measures of personality and psychopathology through studies revealing accuracy rates from personality test results.
Personality tests first originated in the 1920's and are…
Gacono, C., & Evans, B. (2012). The Handbook of Forensic Rorschach Assessment (p. 32). Routledge.
Graham, J. (2003). Handbook of psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Kaplan, R., & Saccuzzo, D. (2012). Psychological testing (8th ed., p. 18). Cegnage Learning.
LeBreton, J., Scherer, K., & James, L. (2014). Corrections for Criterion Reliability in Validity Generalization: A False Prophet in a Land of Suspended Judgment. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 7(4), 478-500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iops.12184
Under certain situations would I administer a projective test to a client. A projective test would be administered to a client when there are questions about the client's personality. The projective test is designed to elicit responses from the client that reveal underlying emotions, thoughts, desires, or tendencies within the person. The questions are open-ended and allow the responses to be analyzed and assessed in terms of content. The content gives clues as to the personality of the individual.
These tests are most effective with adults because by then the personality has been established. They are less effective with children because with children, researchers find that behavioral tests are more effective in revealing whether or not the child has a behavioral disorder by using "behavior rating scales" (Groth-Marnat, 2009, p. 7).
Thus I would use projective test in adult settings wherein it is helpful to gauge the individual's…
Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of Psychological Assessment. NY: John Wiley
Hogan, T. (2003). Psychological Testing: A Practical Introduction. NY: John Wiley
My MBTI assessment
According to my MBTI assessment results, I am
moderately expressed introvert moderately expressed intuitive personality slightly expressed thinking personality slightly expressed judging personality
There are many aspects of this personality review that I like and resonate with how I see myself. For example, it is said that INTJ personalities are called 'masterminds' who traditionally assume positions requiring a high degree of responsibility and dedication. They can also be objective when making decisions. However, it is noted that most of my traits are either only moderate or slightly expressed. This suggests that had I taken the test at a different time or even in a different mood, my results may have been slightly different.
The question of freedom of choice regarding major life decisions like careers is a complicated one. On one hand, having certain personality traits would seem to be an advantage for certain…
Chaffee, John. (2009). Thinking critically. 10th edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
INTJ. (2011). Keirsey. Retrieved on November 7, 2011
MBTI. Human Metrics. Retrieved on November 7, 2011
Integrative Typology of Personality Assessment for Aggression: Implications for Predicting Counterproductive orkplace Behavior," Bing et al. discuss the relevance of personality measures on organizational behavior and psychology. The authors present a typology of personality that may be particularly relevant from a human resources perspective. Self-reports are central to the personality assessments, as are conditions requiring situational and conditional reasoning. The emphasis in this study is on aggression and aggressive tendencies. The authors note the methodological weaknesses in prior research using self-reports, as "individuals possessing negative attributes, such as aggression, may be reluctant to reveal these attributes to others," (Bing et al. 722). In fact, research has shown that persons who tend toward aggression can also cultivate false sense of self with "inflated, positive, and inaccurate self-perceptions," (Bing et al. 722). To correct for the biases inherent in self-reports, the authors propose a new method of personality assessment based on "implicit…
Bing, Mark N. et al. "An Integrative Typology of Personality Assessment for Aggression: Implications for Predicting Counterproductive Workplace Behavior." Journal of Applied Psychology, 2007, Vol 92, No. 3, pp 722-744.
tests are regularly used nowadays to measure intelligence Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon invented in 1905 what has come to be acknowledged as the first scale. This initial test was aimed at ?identifying children who were mildly or perhaps more seriously retarded? (Mackintosh, 2011, p. 5) by evaluating their performance and delegating specific task sets so as any average child pertaining to a given age group could solve approximately 50% of the test. Thus, based on the number of tasks that a child could solve, the scale ?would classify children's levels of mental functioning. (Urbina, 2011, p. 23). For example, if a six years old was able to solve 50% of the test that had been delegated to this particular age group, his mental age was set at six years old. f he was able to solve above the average expectation, then he would have been attributed a superior mental…
It is acknowledged unanimously that tests would be ?designed so that the mean score is 100 points, and the standard deviation is 15 points. (Shalizi, 2009, para. 2) Older versions of Binet's scale are subject to a standard deviation of 16 (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2013, p. 301). Thus, it is considered that individuals falling under the average value display or are subject to intellectual deficit while those above are intellectually superior. The mean score which is subject to intelligence testing is known as the deviation IQ and was introduced in the 1960 revised version of the Stanford-Binet Scale as ?simply a standard score? ((Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2013, p. 294) ?ascertained by evaluating the standard deviation of mental age for a representative sample at each age level. (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2013, p. 294)
III. Verbal vs. Performance Properties of the Modern Binet and Wechsler Scales
We stated earlier that there are various tests which measure intelligence and we have already spoken of Binet's contributions in this respect. However, there is another name which is often related to significant and effective scales of intelligence testing. David Wechsler proposed his first scale in 1939 for adults and ten years later, for children. It has even been argued that Wechsler developed subtests prior to the Binet-Simon scale (Boake, 2002, p. 383). Wechsler's first scale was designed in 1939 for adults and revised for publishing in 1955, being subject to subsequent revisions (Crawford
Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative eview," Judge, Bono, Ilies & Gerhardt (2002) focus on the trait theory of leadership. In "Applying a Psychobiological Model of Personality to the Study of Leadership," O'Connor & Jackson (2010) study the relationship between personality and emergent leadership. In "When the omance is Over: Follower Perspectives of Aversive Leadership," Bligh, et al. (2007) explore what the researchers call the "dark side" of leadership. Whereas the Judge et al. (2002) and O'Connor & Jackson (2010) research centers on personality traits and leadership in a straightforward way, focusing on the leader, Bligh et al. (2007) instead take into account follower perspectives on aversive leadership. Although Judge, et al. (2002) and O'Connor & Jackson (2010) are interested in trait theory, O'Connor & Jackson (2010) study alternatives to the Big Five model as well as the Big Five model itself; Judge, et al. (2002) are primarily concerned…
Bligh, M.C., et al. (2007). When the romance is over. Applied Psychology: An International Review 56(4): 528-557.
Bobbio, A., Dierendonck, D.V. & Manganelli, A.M. (2012). Servant leadership in Italy and its relation to organizational variables. Leadership 8(3): 229-243.
Judge, T.A., Bono, J.E., Ilies, R. & Gerhardt, M.W. (2002). Personality and leadership: A qualitative and quantitative review. Journal of Applied Psychology 87(4): 765-780.
McClelland, D.C. & Burnham, DH (2003). Power is the great motivator. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved online: https://hbr.org/2003/01/power-is-the-great-motivator
leadership coach begins each public presentation making it very clear that having a leadership position and being a leader are not the same thing. Leadership and management are quite different even though often used synonymously. A "position" is something one is hired into, or appointed -- whether that results in leadership is dependent on the qualities of the individual. Some leaders rise from relative obscurity, and lead from below; some managers never learn to lead (Ventura, 2008).
Almost all the literature reviewed, though, seem to see the leader as being one who can see a situation and assume the right style of leadership for that occasion (e.g. Harry Truman taking over after Franklin Roosevelt's death). Certainly, once there is a leadership role assumed, the dynamics of interpersonal relationships change -- as they should. It is impossible for a leader to be completely fair and unbiased if that leader openly socializes…
John Glenn. (2012, Feburary 19). Retrieved from TimesLeader Online.com: http://www.timesleaderonline.com/page/content.detail/id/536833/John-Glenn.html?nav=5005
Brown, L., & Posner, B. (2001). Exploring the Relationship Between Learning and Leadership. Leadership and Organizational Development, May (5), 274-80.
Brown, T., Browne, M., Giampetro-Meyer, A., & Kubansek, N. (1998). Do We Really Want More Leaders in Business? Journal of Business Ethics, 17(15), 1727-36.
Carlyle, T., & Tenneyson, G. (Eds.). (2000). A Carlyle Reader. New York: Copley Publications.
Personalized Project Management
The personality portrayed by 'the Coordinator' traits is such that he pays too much attention to details and criticizes almost every step of a project. He likes gathering sufficient information before making ad decision and are highly critical of the information they receive from people and sources. They are people who strive for orderliness and correctness with pursuit for factual data and logical arguments. Even after getting the data or information, these are people who will test and analyze the data before using it to make any decisions. They are known to fear irrational acts and impulsive decisions hence known as systematic managers (ob P., 2015).
Due to these traits, the best project that such a manager can undertake in the business world is the duty of project monitoring and evaluation for the projects that the organization engages itself in. this is a responsibility that needs one…
Gary R.V. & Elizabeth K.D., (2012). Results First: Using Evidence-Based Models in State Policy making. Review, 35 (3), 550-563.
Rob P., (2015). The Coordinator-Green/Blue. http://www.robpurfieldinsights.com/eight-types/the-coordinator-greenblue/
Attitude rating scale
For each question, circle one that best matches your perspective:
The state wide educational assessment will improve the levels of education.
Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
The state wide educational assessment and the goals are well understood by all the teachers within the state.
Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
The state wide educational assessment meets the dynamic contemporary needs of the students.
Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
The state wide educational assessment should be made more regular than it is.
Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
The state wide educational assessment enables the teachers to know the weakness of the students.
Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
The state wide educational assessment enables the teachers to know their own weaknesses.
i. Definitely agree
ii. Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
Grutter J. & Hammer A.L., (2012). Strong Interest Inventory Profile and Interpretive Report. Retrieved November 4,2014 from https://www.cpp.com/Pdfs/smp284104.pdf
Thorndike, R.M. & Thorndike-Christ, T.M. (2009). Measurement and evaluation in psychology and education (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Personality traits make up the characteristics of the individual. Schmutte and yff (1997) define personality traits as describing, "individual propensities toward stable patterns of behavior and thought, that often are neither inherently good nor inherently bad." Psychologists generally assess five factors of the personality, known as the Big Five personality factors. These five factors include neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness. There are multiple scales designed to measure such factors. This paper will examine four major instruments used to measure personality, specifically, the Big Five personality traits; the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), the Five Factor Personality Inventory developed by Somer, Korkmaz & Tatar in 2002 (Tok, 2011), and the Big Five Inventory (John, Donahue & Kentle, 1991).
Discussion of Topic
When deciding on an instrument to measure personality, a researcher must take into account the scale's validity, reliability and preferred methodology. For this reason,…
Costa, P.T., Jr., & McCrae, R.P. (1992). The revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Goldberg, L.R. (1992). The development of markers for the Big-Five factor structure. Psychological Assessment, 4, 26-42.
Salami, S. (2011). Personality and psychological well-being of adolescents: The moderating role of emotional intelligence. Social Behavior and Personality, 39(6), 785-794.
Schmutte P, Ryff C. (1997). Personality and well-being: Reexamining methods and meanings. Journal Of Personality & Social Psycholody, 73(3), 549-559.
Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.
Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic…
Personality: Behavior, Thoughts, Motives, and Emotions That Characterize a Person
Personality: a distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives and emotions that characterizes an individual.
Psychologists use a variety of tests to determine and study a vast number of personality traits among groups of people. They've found that although everyone exhibits five to ten central traits that determine how we react to different people and various situations, not all traits carry the same weight in their importance in someone's life. (Where you might fear speaking in front of a crowd, for example, I may find it invigorating and fun.) We all have secondary traits, too (food preferences, for example, or how we feel about a style of dress), but these aren't as stable as the central traits. Although secondary traits can change as we mature and grow, central traits generally stick with us our entire lives. The central…
Personality Theory Blog
Personality Theories and Conducting Assessment
According to the humanistic psychologist's theory of personality, people in their endeavor, try to reach superior levels of mental functioning and personal growth that they also evaluate through objective measures and individual reflections. Even though objective measures are not biased, they do not offer a lot of information. An objective measure of personality is one that uses research to get results. For instance, a pen and paper pre-employment test is very likely an objective measure, other examples of which include: the Second Edition (MMPI-2), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and other major assessments of personality/intelligence (Heffner, 2015). Humanistic psychologists use objective tests to understand better how the patient views his/herself. In these tests, choices that when chosen by the patient will give a clear description of the patient are presented as compared to the unstructured and structured personal interviews…
Boeree, C. G. (2006). Personality Theories. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/persintro.html
Evans, R. (2012, November). Japan and blood types: Does it determine personality? Retrieved from BBC News Magazine: http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-20170787
Fletcher, R. (2014, August 21). Cross Cultural Personality Research. Retrieved from Randall Fletcher: https://randallnf.wordpress.com/2014/08/21/cross-cultural-personality-research/
Heffner, C. L. (2015, Novemeber 1). Assessment Theories. In AllPsych (Ed.), Personality Theory: An Introduction. AllPsych. Retrieved from All Psych: http://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/assessment_theories/#.VjZkw1TnUV4
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-II)
The MMPI-II Test is utilized in the assessment of the individual's personality characteristics that affect the individual's personal and social adjustment.
The MMPI-II is authored by S.R. Hathaway and J.C. McKinely MMPI; J.N. utcher, J.R. Graham, W.G., Dahlstrom, A.M. Tellegren, and . Kaemmer and is published by the Psychological Corporation. (Fischer, 2001)
Cost of the Test
According to Lisa Rochford, Ph.D. The cost of having the MMPI-II administered is $150.00 which includes one to two hours hosting the client at the office with scoring and interpretation costs included. (2012)
Test Users Qualifications and Time To Administer the Test
Cherry (2012) states of the MMPI-II test that The MMPI-2 contains 567 test items and takes approximately 60 to 90 minutes to complete. The MMPI should be administered, scored, and interpreted by a professional, preferably a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist, who has received specific training…
Cherry, Kendra (2012) The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory- MMPI-2: History and Use of the MMPI-2. Psychology. Retrieved from: http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologicaltesting/a/mmpi.htm
Fischer, Jerry (2001) Portfolio Test Review Form. Retrieved from: www.educ.uidaho.edu/jfischer/TestReviewshandout.doc
Karp, Cheryl L. And Karp, Leonard (2012) General Information on the MMPI. Retrieved from: http://deltabravo.net/custody/mmpi-info.php
Kaye, Dr. Jeff (2012) Introduction to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) Retrieved from: http://www.drjeffkaye.com/mmpi.htm
There are six approaches for studying the personality development of a person. Two of the most popular ones are the biological and humanistic approaches. The other four of these approaches include the trait, cognitive, behavioral and psychoanalytic. Each of these approaches are used to describe the system through we acquire our personality and factors that influence this personality development. The use of the approach is determined by the psychotherapist as well as the client, as they can differ from one person to another with respect to their effectiveness. However, it is the responsibility of the therapist to make sure that the approach used by him would be appropriate for the particular client he is dealing with. Even though it is not expected of the therapist to specialize in all the approaches, he should at least have an idea about each one of them. In this paper, we will…
Lawrence, Sawyer (2009). "Biological vs. Humanistic Approach to Personality." University of Phoenix.
Vigil, Jeremy (2002). "Biological v. Humanistic." Psychology 250.
Psychological Influences on Personality Development
ecognizing Various Unconscious Behavioral Determinants
Contemporary psychologists understand that myriad influences of variable origin contribute to the development of human personality. Some of those influences are more apparent than others and some operate on the conscious level whereas others operate on a completely unconscious level. Naturally, the latter present more complex potential issues simply because they are not known to the individual. That is especially true with regard to aspects of personality whose roots go back to infancy but that only become manifest in behavior only much later.
Different psychological theorists have provided conflicting explanations for the origin of major issues in human personality development. Freud, for example, regarded virtually all manifestations of psychological pathology as being the result of early trauma, sexual impulses, and the failure to successfully negotiate specific stages of infancy, such as the oral stage, anal stage, and the Oedipal stage.…
Bretherton, I. "The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth
Developmental Psychology, Vol. 28 (1992): 759-775. Accessed Online:
Byng-Hall, J. "Creating a Secure Family Base: Some Implications of Attachment Theory
Purpose: The Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic eading Battery's designation is for assessment and measurement of the important dimensions of phonological oral language abilities and phonological awareness, both in adult and children.
Population: Both adults and children (age of 3-80 years).
Date of Publication: 2004.
Acronym(s): WJ III (DB).
Score Scales: eading Comprehension, Basic eading Skills, Phonics Knowledge, Broad eading, Brief eading, Total eading, eading Fluency, Spelling of Words, Oral Comprehension, eading Vocabulary.
Time: 50-60 minutes.
Author (s): Fredrick, S.A., Nancy, M. & Woodcock, .C.
Publisher: iverside Publishing, Inc.
Comments: Software Scoring and Paper-and-Pencil.
Sub-tests: Passage Comprehension, Word-Letter Identification, Sound Awareness, Spelling of Sounds, Oral Vocabulary, Sound Blending.
elated eview: 1713318.
The Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic eading Battery is for the assessment and measurement of the important dimensions of phonological oral language abilities and phonological awareness, in both adult and children (Brande, 2008). By utilization of software scoring and the…
Risk & Needs Assessment Group. (1986). Substance Abuse Questionnaire (SAQ)-Adult
Probation III. In R.J. Nagle. (Ed.), the ninth mental measurement yearbook (Electronic
version). Retrieved from the Buros University Mental Measurement Yearbook online database.
1). One potential criticism of the MMPI-2 is that although it is only supposed to be scored by a trained professional, the multiple choice "objective" format can lead to cursory diagnosis and analysis.
hile the MMPI-2 is used on many different types of patients, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) "is a series of questions developed to measure the intensity, severity, and depth of depression in patients with psychiatric diagnoses" (BDI, 2009). It is specific to a singular category of diagnosis (depressive illnesses) and is only use on patients with psychological disorders. It consists of 21 questions or items, each with four possible responses on the subjects of depressed mood, pessimism, sense of failure, feelings of dissatisfaction, guilt, desire for self-punishment, self-dislike or self-hared, self-blame, suicidal ideation, frequency of crying, feelings of irritability, social withdrawal, distorted body image, work difficulties, insomnia, fatigue, appetite, weight changes, bodily preoccupation, and sexual desire (BDI,…
The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). (2009). Mind disorders.
Retrieved November 19, 2009 at http://www.minddisorders.com/a-Br/Beck-Depression-Inventory.html
Wagner, Kendra Van. (2009). MMPI-2. About.com. Retrieved November 19, 2009 at http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologicaltesting/a/mmpi.htm
Big Five Personality Analysis
Cher from the film Clueless: Big five personality trait analysis
Openness is an appreciation for new ideas. On one hand, sixteen-year-old Cher is fairly unaware of problems that exist outside of her narrow world of Beverly Hills, and she is very judgmental of so-called 'stoners' at her high school, or people who do not fit in with her in-group. However, she is open enough to embrace a new girl named Tai who comes to the school, even though the girl seems very 'clueless' about how to dress and behave. Cher tries to teach Tai the values of the high school -- Cher's values.
Despite her apparent superficiality, Cher does have a clear sense of personal morality. She is open about the fact that she is a virgin, saying that she is waiting for the right person to enjoy 'first time'. This makes her unusual in…
Clueless. (1994). Directed by Amy Heckerling.
Table 2 -- Correlation of Character Traits with Handwriting (Hull and Montgomery)
Shape of riting
Upward Sloping Line
Upward Sloping Line
Firmness of Line
Lateral narrowness of m's and n's
Heavy bars on t's
Length of bars on t's
Length of bars on t's compensating
Closed as and o's
Now, we jump to 1954, with a study by Lorr, Lepine, and Goldner entitled, "A Factor Analysis of Some Handwriting Characteristics." Initially, the authors are open minded about the subject, citing that one of the difficulties has been the lack of proper measurement regarding graphological characteristics. In addition, since different types of pedagogy exist when teaching writing, it is difficult to compare students without solid factors.
In this study, a group of 200 right-handed graduate psychology students with a…
Bayne, R. And F. O'Neill. (1988). "Handwriting and Personality: A Test of Some Expert
Graphologists' Judgments." Guidance and Assessment Review. 4 (1): 1-3.
Beyerstein, B. (2008). "How Graphology Fools People." Qackwatch. Cited in:
Further, the subjectivity in scoring and interpretation is a huge issue (Sutherland, 1992). For example, if one believes that a relationship exists between say, a Rorschach feature such as color and a personality trait such as emotional style, then one's prior beliefs can bias judgment (Vyse, 1997). As evidence, psychologists were prone to say a relationship existed between a test response and a psychological condition -- if it accorded with their prior beliefs -- even when none actually existed (Chapman & Chapman, 1971, cited in Vyse, 1997).
Arnheim, R. (1974). Art and visual perception (rev. ed.). erkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Groth-Marnat, G. (1997). Handbook of psychological assessment (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Lilienfeld, S.O. (1999). Projective measures of personality and psychopathology: How well do they work? Skeptical Inquirer, 23(5), 32-39.
Sutherland, S. (1992). Irrationality: Why we don't think straight! New runswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Arnheim, R. (1974). Art and visual perception (rev. ed.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Groth-Marnat, G. (1997). Handbook of psychological assessment (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Lilienfeld, S.O. (1999). Projective measures of personality and psychopathology: How well do they work? Skeptical Inquirer, 23(5), 32-39.
Sutherland, S. (1992). Irrationality: Why we don't think straight! New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Measurement of Personality by Henry Murray
The emergence of the psychoanalytic tradition in psychology by Sigmund Freud provided social scientists with profound insights and information regarding the personality and behavior of the individual. In the 20th century, psychoanalysis has been taken into the field of study of personality development, and is quantified through techniques in psychological testing. Henry Murray, one of the proponents and formulators of psychological tests as effective tools for analyzing human behavior, had introduced his own theory of personality, influenced by the works of Freud.
Personality research during Murray's time was quantified because this field of study seeks to rationalize human behavior, thinking, and action, providing more stable ground to formulate generalizations regarding the study of humans and their development. During the 1930s, continuing conflict among nations of the world prompted psychologists to study human personalities in order to gauge and predict actions through behaviors displayed by…
Neill, J. (2003). Personality Traits. University of Canberra Web site. Accessed 13 December 2003. Available at http://www.wilderdom.com/personality/L6-2PersonalityTraits.html.
Santrock, J. (2000). Psychology. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
This means that for both parent-acquaintance and self-other consensus, it was observed that increased length of acquaintance leads to high stereotype accuracy.
This study on the relationship between length of acquaintance and stereotype accuracy highlighted the importance of length of acquaintance in relationships in order to best assess an individual's personality. Through this study, it was found out that, among other factors, length of acquaintance is indeed a determinant that could determine a person's accurate assessment of an individual's personality. The study conducted demonstrated how length of acquaintanceship is a function of stereotype accuracy.
Part 4- the Role of Mood Regulation
In this study conducted by Eid and Lischetzke, the authors delved into the components that act as mediators of individuals with extrovert personalities. In assessing these mediators, the authors determined pleasant-unpleasant trait mood and mood regulators such as mood repair and mood maintenance as its main factors. Through regression…
person is born, the family, neighbor and the culture is the prime aspect through which they interact before they can enter into the outside world. The development of the personality of an individual is the synthesis of traditions, values, thoughts, feelings, and various other factors that is based on the cultural aspects. In this regard, the dissertation is about the ways in which personality and culture have a relationship to each other. The thesis paper has also discussed how culture leaves a profound impact on the development of the personality.
How are Culture and Personality Related?
hat is Culture?
hat is Personality?
Is there a relationship between Culture and Personality?
How is Culture and Personality Related?
Since the world has come to existence, people have divided themselves into smaller groups that have been named as civilizations and societies. These diverse civilizations with different norms, customs, traditions…
Bock, P.K. Rethinking Psychological Anthropology. 2nd Edition. USA: Waveland Press, 1999. Print.
LeVine, R.A. Culture and personality: contemporary readings. USA: Transaction Publishers, 1974. Print.
LeVine, R.A. Psychological Anthropology: A Reader on Self in Culture. USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2010. Print.
Triandis, H.C. & Suh, E.M. "Cultural influences on personality." Annual Review of Psychology 53 (2002): 133 -- 160. Print. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135200
Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test
It is assessed that at least 20 out of a hundred of adults who visit a physician have had an alcohol issue at one time. Also, in a survey of patients self-proclaimed to an inpatient service, 15 to 30 out of a hundred screened definitely for alcoholism. However, numerous recent studies designate that physicians in numerous health care settings often do not identify and treat alcoholism (Drake, 2013). These answers underline the need for effective and correct events that will allow clinicians to screen for alcoholism. One of these test are used to do this are the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Established in 1971, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) is one of the most accurate and oldest alcohol screening tests accessible, effective in classifying dependent drinkers with up to 98% accuracy.
Purpose for the instrument
It is evident the MAST is considered to be one…
Ball, J.D. (201). Time requirements of psychological testing: A survey of practitioners. Journal of Personality Assessment, 17(6), 34.
Butcher, J.N. (203). Clinical personality assessment. Annual Review of Psychology (12), 385-401.
Clark, H.W. (2012). Residential substance abuse treatment for pregnant and postpartum women and their children:Treatmen. Child Welfare, 45(8), 80.
De-Micheli, D. & . (2012). Screen of drug use in a teenage Brazilian sample using the drug use screening inventory. Addictive Behavior, 25(5), 683-691.
Avoidant Personality Disorder
As per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), a certain case of avoidant personality disorder (APD) is featured by the existent sign of social inhibition, feeling of being short of requirement, and hypersensitivity to negative valuation. (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, p.1) Even though personality disorders are not often discovered in persons below age 18, children who come within the condition of APD are recurrently portrayed as being aloof to the core, fearful in arising circumstances, and afraid of dissention and social boycott. The proportion of the signs and the inability is way behind the practice of inhibition that is prevalent in as much as 40% of the populace. Hence it is of great relevance of examining the disorder as it relates to professional counseling.
Exploration of disorder
Bearing a semblance to other personality disorders, the state of Avoidant Personality disorder turns out…
American Psychiatric Association: (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Beck, Aaron T; Freeman, M.D; Arthur, Ed.D. (1990). "Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders." New York: The Guilford Press.
Benjamin, Lorna Smith (1996) "An Interpersonal Theory of Personality Disorders," in Major Theories of Personality Disorder, Clarkin, John F. & Lenzenweger, Mark F (Eds.). New York: The Guilford Press
Craig, Robert J. (1995). "Interpersonal Psychotherapy and MCMI-III -- Based Assessment, Tactical Psychotherapy of the Personality Disorders An MCMI-III -- Based Approach." Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
It is used to determine how dependable a candidate is, as well as how organized that individual is. A sample interview question that would competently assess the one's conscientiousness and emotional stability is: can you provide an outline a five-year plan for your professional and financial goals, which would include your acceptance to this position? The way that people choose to organize what it is that they are trying to achieve, and how they would go about doing so, would indicate their conscientiousness.
A good question to gauge a candidate's agreeableness is: how do you perceive the values of autonomy compare to those of teamwork? This is a trick question, because trust and collaboration is essential to both of these concepts, which candidates should reveal with their answers.
A good question to assess a candidate's level of neuroticism, which can encompass self-conscious, anxious behavior at one end and a sophisticated…
Carl Roger's Theory Of Personality Development
In Rogerian therapy the therapist enters into the client's "phenomenological world" and in mirroring this world the therapist does not disagree nor point out contradictions, nor delve into the unconscious (http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html).Therapy focuses on immediate conscious experience, a process of freeing a person by removing obstacles thus allowing normal growth and development to take place and thereby the client becomes independent and self-directed (http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html).The therapist must be "congruent, have unconditional positive regard for the client as well as show empathic understanding...and to be completely genuine," by communicating back to the client an understanding of feelings and personal meanings as they are experienced (http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html).The core tendency is to actualize one's inherent potentialities, although this potential exists in all living organisms, humans possess the additional form of self-actualization (http://oldsci.eiu.edu/psychology/Spencer/Rogers.html).According to Rogers, "of basic importance is the fact that one's inherent potentialities are genetically determined, while the self-concept…
Carlozzi, Alfred F.; Bull, Kay S. Ells. " Empathy as related to creativity, dogmatism, and expressiveness." The Journal of Psychology. July 01, 1995
Pescitelli, Dagmar. "Rogerian Therapy." http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html .(accessed 12-04-2003).
Rowan, John. "The Person-Centered Approach." Association for Humanistic
The findings of the research suggest that it is possible to make accurate judgments of individuals from an assessment of their personal space.
An impediment in the research is that the authors fail to provide an adequate assessment of stereotypes that influence the meaning of cues. The authors establish that stereotypes can be problematic. They however only look at gender-based stereotypes. It is apparent that ethnic, sexual orientation and religious stereotypes were ignored. Stereotypes are an intervening variable that can potentially pollute the process of inferring personality from the environment by the observer.
I find the article to be highly informative and very interesting. It addresses a concern that is often considered general information, in a scientific manner. It therefore takes phenomenon that is in the public domain and applies academic rigor to its explication. This act is insightful and consistent with the highest traditions of research. I also wondered…
His overactive super-ego demands rigid acceptance of social conformity, including a set of standards that are applicable to him being a role model to others. He might ask himself the question, " that if he, as a conservative role model, cannot control his physical urges what then would a less "public" and conservative individual do if he or she were exposed to such materials? His response with regard to reaction formation might tell him that despite ample scientific evidence that arousal from erotic imagery is normal and even healthy and that the majority of people who view such material still remain within the confines of acceptable adult morality, that the average lesser individual might react to erotic material by committing adultery, raping or acting sexually aggressive toward someone, turn deviant (i.e. gay), or the worst case scenario inappropriately touch a child. All of these fears are aspects of reaction formation,…
Landon Carter's Character through
Erik Erikson's stages of development
Erik Erikson was an American developmental psychologist who was born in Germany and went to postulate eight stages of psychological development. He developed a model that talked about the eight stages every human passes through as he grows. These stages depict and analyze a person's life from when they are baby till they die. It mentions how in every stage a person is presented with problems and challenges. Every stage depicts a crisis which has to be resolved or else it will create problems in the next stage. Thus, for a person to attain a positive personality they need to attain positive goals of that stage and progress smoothly to the next one. (osenthal, Gurney, & Moore 2)
A Walk to emember is a popular romantic drama movie released in 2002. With the setting in North Carolina, the movie revolves around…
A Walk to Remember. Dir. Adam Shankman. Perf. Mandy Moore, Shane West, Peter Coyote. Warner Bros. Pictures, 2002. DVD.
Beaumont, Sherry L., & Zukanovic, Ray. "Identity Development in Men and Its Relation to Psychosocial Distress and Self-Worth." Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science. January (2005) Web.
Elkind, D. "Erik Erikson's Eight Ages of Man." New York Times. New York Times, 5 April 1970. Web. 15 November 2012.
Gross, Francis L. Introducing Erik Erikson: An invitation to his thinking. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. 1987.Print
In the 1950's in Kansas City married couples ages 40 through 90 were put through a series of psychological tests to gain insight into the optimal idea of aging (USC, 2010). The Kansas City study lent to the idea of the disengagement theory which states that optimally aging adults gradually withdraw from society and social obligations as they age. Cumming and Henry, whom devised the disengagement theory, argued that the theory sufficiently explained why the elderly reduce their workload, social interactions, amount of new activities, and seem to have increased wisdom (USC, 2010). One suggested reasoning for adults' disengagement in life is because of the departure from society that takes place with death. In order to reduce emotional pain, many adults attempt to sever ties with friends and loved ones beforehand (USC, 2010). The other possibility is that lessening social obligations and commitments essentially frees elderly people as they…
The Psychology of Aging. (2009) University of Southern California. .
F. De Fruyt, R.R. McCrae, Z. Szirmak, & J. Nagy (2004). The Five-factor Personality
Inventory as a measure of the Five-factor Model: Belgian, American, and Hungarian comparisons with the NEO-PI-R. NCBI Vol. 11 (3), 207-15.
Belsky, J. (1999). The Psychology of Aging: Theory, Research, and Interventions. Grove,
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
The TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) has long been used to assist psychoanalysts elicit fantasy material from their patients (Morgan & Murray, 1935). According to Belleck and Murray (1973), the TAT was designed to bring forth interpretations by subject of social situations. Stories and pictures reveal some of the dominant drives, emotions, sentiments, conflicts, and complexes of a personality. The original cards used in the test were drawn or painted in color (Morge, 1995), but over time and much use, they became more and more achromatic. This achromatic appearances of the cards has caused many to speculate about their validity, especially, in patients suffering from depression. The question being asked by some researchers was, "would the achromatic appearance of the cards cause a depressed story whether or not the subject was depressed?
The Thematic Apperception Test is an untimed, individually administered psychological test used for personality assessment.…
Schizoid Personality Disorder Chart
SPD or Schizoid Personality Disorder is a Cluster A personality, which is a group consisting of peculiar and odd personality disorders. SPD is categorized by a prevalent social detachment pattern and a restricted amount of emotions. Due to this, the people affected by SPD are isolated socially and do not seek for relationships that get them close to a person.
Individuals suffering from SPD are mostly reserved and they organize their life so they can avoid social contact. A lot of individuals with SPD do not marry and even live with their parents their whole life. Some other commonly found characteristics of SPD are:
They seek solitary activities and jobs
They do not seek and enjoy relationships with a close bonding
They do not take pleasure in a lot of activities (group)
They do not have any close relatives
They find it difficult to relate…
Thomas, V., Melchert, T.P. & Banken, J.A. (1999). Substance dependence and personality disorders: comorbidity and treatment outcome in an inpatient population. J Stud Alcohol, 60:271-277.
WebMd, (2014). Schizoid Personality Disorder. Retrieved 11 June 2016 from http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/mental-health-schizoid-personality-disorder?page=3
Mayo Clinic. (2013, July 27). Schizoid personality disorder. Retrieved 11 June 2016 from Mayo Clinic: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/schizoid-personality-disorder/basics/complications/con-20029184
AAPT Level IV Cert / Written Test
Anxiety is fear that interferes with normal, daily functioning (Akiskal & enazzi, 2006). There are several different categories, including generalized anxiety, panic disorder, and phobias. While these all present themselves in different ways, they are similar in the problems they can cause in daily life. Theories of anxiety and the psychopathology related to feeling anxious include issues with biological, cognitive, and learning perspectives. The biological perspective addresses the receptors in the brain and how the chemicals there work with one another. Cognitive theories deal more with the way people perceive issues, such as feeling as though they do not have control over something. The learning perspective focuses on how people actually learn to be anxious about something, and the changes they learn to make in their lives in order to lower the levels of anxiety they feel (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2004; Kato,…
Akiskal, H.S., & Benazzi, F. (2006). The DSM-IV and ICD-10 categories of recurrent major depressive and bipolar II disorders: Evidence that they lie on a dimensional spectrum. Journal of Affective Disorders, 92(1): 45 -- 54.
Alonso, J., Angermeyer, M.C., Bernert, S., Bruffaerts, R., Brugha, T.S., Bryson, H., Girolamo, G., Graaf, R., et al. (2004). Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: Results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 109(420): 21 -- 7.
Berrios, G.E. (1999). Classifications in psychiatry: A conceptual history. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 33(2): 145 -- 60.
Clarke, G.N., Hawkins, W., Murphy, M. & Sheeber, L. (1993). School-based primary prevention of depressive symptomatology in adolescents: Findings from two studies. Journal of Adolescent Research, 8(2): 183 -- 204.
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a personality disorder connected with anxiety which is characterized by repeated thoughts and behavior. epeated thoughts, feelings compose the obsessive part of the disorder while actual drive to do those actions repeatedly falls under the compulsive category. A person suffering from this condition would succumb to the drive and engage repeatedly in those actions just to get rid of the feeling but it only helps him temporarily. Failure to engage in the actions can result in serious anxiety attack.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Like most personality disorders, the causes of OCD are unknown. Several theories have surfaced regarding the causes but none is universally accepted or agreed upon. Some studies have connected the disorder with brain abnormalities but only further research can confirm this. It is known that those who eventually display OCD usually start developing symptoms by the age of 30.…
1. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA. Personality and personality disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, Biederman J, Rauch SL, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. 1st ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2008:chap 39.
2. Feinstein RE, Connelly JV. Personality disorders. In: Rakel RE, ed. Textbook of Family Medicine. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2007:chap 60.
adults become susceptible to avoidant personality disorder.
Avoidant Personality Disorder
Avoidant Personality Disorder results in social constraint, feeling of insecurity and susceptibility towards criticism. Even if one want to socialize with others he is most often scared to. Being embarrassed in front of others horrifies individuals suffering from Avoidant Personality Disorders. As a result they usually withdraw themselves from social gatherings to avoid any sort of discomfort. John G. Gunderson in his article Childhood Antecedents of Avoidant Personality Disorder: A etrospective Study outlines the risk factors and primordial exhibition of Avoidant Personality Disorders by investigating present perspective reports of social functioning and antagonistic childhood encountering.
Primitive social operative and pathological childhood experiences were investigated through a childhood experience questionnaire. It was shocking to find out that around 146 adults out of 376 patients suffered from Avoidant Personality Disorder.
Adults with AVPD reported poorer child and adolescent athletic performance, less involvement…
Gunderson J. Childhood Antecedents of Avoidant Personality Disorder: A Retrospective
Study. 1 Sept. 2003.
Theoretical Perspective of the Approach
The approach's personality models are grounded on biological models. The models are based on empirical human and animal findings concerning the associations between neurological system functions and personality dimensions. Traits that are measured are reward-dependence, harm avoidance, novelty-seeking etc. The hypothesis is that they are grounded on genetic and neurochemical influences. For instance, sensation-seeking and explorative tendencies like drug usage make use of dopaminergic pathways, and such a characteristic corresponds to novelty-seeking behavior in Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TQP). People who are high on the novelty-seeking spectrum tend to be impulsive and take a lot of risks. Serotonin is linked to harm and punishment avoidance. Lower serotonin levels result in a "neurotic" personality. eward dependence is linked to noradrenaline. People that lean more towards harm avoidance tend to be more affectionate and sentimental. Those on the other end of the scale tend to be pragmatic and…
Allport, G. W. (1937). Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York: H. Holt and. Company. Biological Approaches.(n.d.). Retrieved November 11, 2015, from http://www.sparknotes.com/psychology/psych101/personality/section5.rhtml
Cattell, R. B. (1965). The scientific analysis of personality. Baltimore: Penguin Books.
Eysenck, H. J. (1952). The scientific study of personality.
Eysenck, H. J. (1966). Personality and experimental psychology. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society.
personality profiles considered to be part of my strengths. The paper identifies and discusses the specific dimensions that influence my personal strengths and weaknesses.
My Personality Strengths
Conscientiousness and openness to experience are the strengths in my personality traits, I am freshman undergraduate student with the following personality profiles.
Openness to Experience: Openness is one of my strengths in personal profiles that involves active to the imagination, preferring different intellectual curiosity, attentive to my inner feelings, and active in aesthetic sensitivity. With regards to openness, I prefer new experiences over a routing experience because I believe that a new experience will add to my body of knowledge and assist in delivering a wide variety of interests. Creativity is one of my strengths because I believe in developing new ideas rather than relying on traditional old ideas. Moreover, I consider myself to be highly intelligent and knowledgeable. Essentially, openness is correlated…
Locke, E. A. (2001). "Motivation by goal setting." In Golembiewski, Robert T. Handbook of organizational behavior (2nd ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker. pp. 43 -- 56.
Psychological Test Report
NEO-Five Factor Inventory
Sentence Completion Series (Adult Form)
Ways of Coping Inventory
NEO-Five Factor Inventory
The individual scored average ranks in a number of the assessment categories. For the Neuroticism scale there was a total score for this category was a 21, suggesting the individual is in the average range based on comparable female scores. In general, this means that she is "calm and able to deal with stress, but sometimes experience feelings of guilt, anger, and sadness" (Locke, 2013). The individual is most likely not easily stressed to the point of detrimental psychological damage, as she may have coping skills that allow her to deal with her stress in an effective manner. This may mean she takes a calm approach to emotional or stressful situations. Still, the scores suggest she may still have feelings of guilt or empathy, which is a typical human response…
Borderline Personality Disorder
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is defined as a condition wherein the patient suffers from a difficulty in regulating his or her emotions (NAMI, 2018). Individuals suffering from BPD can lack impulse control, have a poor self-image, and experience severe emotional responses when stressed. The inability to regulate the emotions can lead the individual to lash out at the self and engage in self-harm in some cases (NAMI, 2018). Though three-quarters of individuals diagnosed with BPD are women, some research indicates that an equal number of men may also suffer from the disorder and simply not be diagnosed.
Symptoms of BPD include: strong sense of abandonment by friends or family, real or imagined; very unstable relationships with others, consisting of wild swings between intense love and intense hate; distortion of a sense of one’s self that leads to depression or delusions of grandeur; poor impulse control; self-harm or…