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2nd Grade Essays (Examples)

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Grade Level 3rd the Student
Words: 2545 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51521972
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Although these students are very active learners, they also enjoy reading silently and time for their own thinking. The students enjoy participating in sports, dancing, and singing.


Luis (not his real name) is a bright, outgoing 3rd grade boy. After speaking with Mrs. Jones, I learned he has been in the United States since the end of 1st grade. During the (approximately) two years Luis has lived in the United States, he has gone back to Mexico for extended periods. Luis is verbal and is not shy. He can speak fairly well, but struggles with some English. The push in services Luis receives is from a paraprofessional who has had some ESL training. The Para comes in twice a day to work with Luis. In addition, Mrs. Jones has taken the proactive approach of labeling "everything" in the room as well as partnering Luis with strong students.

Lesson Plan…

Grade Novel Report the Novel
Words: 340 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81671828
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he story's lesson is that one should not be too impatient towards quickly wanting to experience the many physical, emotional, and spiritual changes that occur on one's journey from childhood to adolescence. he language of the book is childlike in nature, in that it could almost be imagined that a real eleven-year-old girl had written it.

As far as the book's format is concerned, its shape is rectangular and its size is 8.4x5.5x0.7 inches; it is easy to handle and sturdy. It contains 160 pages, its font is big and simple, it is colored with light hues such as sky blue and pink, and its cover is of a young girl staring up at the sky as though she wishes to "speak" to God. I was extremely fond of this book because it was nice to see the author tackle deep issues like spirituality and religion as well as more…

The novel to be evaluated is Are you there God? it's me, Margaret by Judy Blume. Athenum/Richard Jackson Books published it and its date of publication is April 1, 2001. This date refers to the 2nd hardcover edition; before then its publishing history began with both paperback and hardcover editions in 1970. Subsequent paperback editions were reprinted in 1973, 1979, 1982, 1986, 1988, 1990, and 2000. The novel belongs to the Young Adult genre and the price for its 2nd hardcover edition is $13.46. It can still be located in libraries, homes, and bookstores everywhere.

The story is about eleven-year-old Margaret Simon who experiences many significant changes in her life, such as moving to the suburbs, experiencing puberty, and questioning whether religion should play a role in her life. By the story's end it is seen that she has successfully adjusted to these changes, including the one regarding spirituality by deciding not to join any particular faith, by becoming more mature in her entire outlook on life. The story's lesson is that one should not be too impatient towards quickly wanting to experience the many physical, emotional, and spiritual changes that occur on one's journey from childhood to adolescence. The language of the book is childlike in nature, in that it could almost be imagined that a real eleven-year-old girl had written it.

As far as the book's format is concerned, its shape is rectangular and its size is 8.4x5.5x0.7 inches; it is easy to handle and sturdy. It contains 160 pages, its font is big and simple, it is colored with light hues such as sky blue and pink, and its cover is of a young girl staring up at the sky as though she wishes to "speak" to God. I was extremely fond of this book because it was nice to see the author tackle deep issues like spirituality and religion as well as more common preteen issues like puberty and peer approval. I would definitely recommend it to young girls about to undergo puberty just so they can have a story to relate to.

2nd Appeal to the Board Members of
Words: 316 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52577400
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2nd appeal to the board members of Florida International University School of Journalism and Communications for the purpose of re-admittance with the intent of graduation.

A began at Florida International University in 1994 and enrolled in Television Production in 1996 and have worked full-time while going to school part-time as well as struggled with numerous interruptions of unemployment and personal finance.

The School of Journalism received accreditation in 2002, along with changes in grading and course policies. Many students were excluded or forced out of this program, myself included. The Grade Point Average, GPA, requirement for graduation has changed from 2.50 to 2.75, however, the GPA requirement for admittance has changed from 2.00 to 3.00.

A completed the College-Level Academic Skills Test, CLAST, in the Fall of 2003 and completed my minor in Spring of 2004. Today, I am considered a low division of senior status. My 2.52 GPA falls…

Art Grades Do Encourage Learning
Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89824845
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Grades encourage most students to learn because they have pride in their accomplishment when they score good grades, and they have the urge to try harder when they do not.

Grades encourage higher learning, as well. As students grow older, they often become more competitive, and grades can help motivate them not only to learn more, but to come out with a higher grade point average that can translate into a better job, more earning power, and respect among peers and educators. Grades encourage students to learn more and apply it more effectively, and they help them make decisions about what subjects they enjoy and what subjects they do not, so they can make better decisions about their futures and careers. Assessment is necessary so students know where they stand and for most students, they can be extremely motivational and encouraging, as well. Some students may become unenthusiastic if they…


Guskey, Thomas R. And Jane M. Bailey. Developing Grading and Reporting Systems for Student Learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Publishing, 2000.

Walvoord, Barbara E. And Virginia Johnson Anderson. Effective Grading: A Tool for Learning and Assessment. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 1998.

Sixth Grade Reading Assessment Interest
Words: 1592 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72375540
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If anything, Jessica's apparent equating of reading speed as an indication of reading well undermines her comprehension more than technical difficulty.

Jessica understood the main idea, in general but possibility too literally: she retitled the story "What Comes Around Goes Around," and incorrectly attributed a direct cause-and- effect relationship to Leonard's charity and Riley's fate. Instead of characterizing events as an unfortunate but coincidental relationship between a genuine act of charity and an accident,

Jessica apparently assumed that Riley's misfortune might have been related to Leonard's revenge.

Summary Statement:

Jessica reads and comprehends well above her grade level. This is likely a function of her enjoyment of reading. Jessica clearly enjoys reading about subjects of interest but is comparatively easily frustrated by assigned reading outside her intrinsic interests. Jessica possesses good reading mechanics that enable her to deduce pronunciation and contextual meaning of unfamiliar words, but her ability to make…

Customer Loyalty Affecting Customer Loyalty Customer Grade
Words: 1988 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 44943286
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Customer Loyalty

Affecting Customer Loyalty

Customer Grade Course

This research study introduces a comprehensive conceptual framework of customer loyalty within the retail sector. It emphasizes on the perceived loyalty amongst fast moving consumer goods and attempts to explore the moderating effects of the various different factors that might influence them.

The researcher will begin by creating an understanding of the term "customer loyalty" and its significance importance in the retail sector. Additionally, the researcher shall also attempt to explore the purchase decisions made by the consumers and what really prompts them to be loyal to certain brands of product while simultaneously evaluating the importance of price, quality, brand or any other factor that might impact their loyalty status and purchase decision.

Finally, the research study will conclude by delineating the factors which impacts consumer loyalty at the same time trying to establish a means of measuring the impact of consumer…


Aaker, Kumar & Day, 1995, Marketing Research, 5th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., United States

Assael, Henry., 1984, Consumer Behavior and Marketing Action, 2nd edition, Kent Publishing, USA

Buttle, Francis (2006, July 11), Does service failure influence customer loyalty? Available from  [May 19th 2011]

Dick, Alan S., 1994, Customer Loyalty: Towards an Integrated Conceptual Framework, Journal of Academy of Marketing Science

Teaching for Exceptionalities
Words: 1100 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85814613
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Instructional Modifications for an English-As-Second-Language 10th Grade Student

Teaching for Exceptionalities

The student is a 15-year-old bilingual male in enrolled in 10th grade. He presents as having difficulties in his school work primarily due to his current inability to speak, read, and write English fluently. He is currently reading at approximately a 2nd-grade level, and all of his assignments are modified. Examples of the instructional modifications he experiences are as follows: Material is read aloud to him, writing assistance is provided to help him translate from his native language to English, and all story format math problems are converted to conventional number format to sidestep reading and translation difficulties. When a high level of academic support is provided, the student does not exhibit problem behaviors. However, he reports feeling overwhelmed and stressed, and these underlying emotions do contribute to occasional bouts of problem behavior.

Instructional example. I took a content-focused…


Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State-to-State for English Language Learners. World-Class Instructional Design and Assessment. Retrieved 

Brisk, M., & Harrington, M. (2000). Literacy and bilingualism: A handbook for all teachers. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Manuel, J. (2003, December 23). Majoring In Moneyball. Baseball America. Retrieved

Siop® Lesson Plan Template Standards Theme Properties
Words: 1159 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90546622
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SIOP® Lesson Plan Template


THM: Properties of Weather




Science for 2nd Grade


KY VOCABULARY: Snow, frost, ice, fog

MATRIALS: The book from which the story will be read is Weather by Seymour Simon. The teacher will need to use a Post chart, "Weather chart ." This will help explain how to make inferences about text and unfamiliar words by applying their schema and other words in the sentences.


(Building background)

Students at this stage may find Weather and climate confusing. Climate is examined by looking at annual patterns. Weather refers to the situation at one given time and the seasons influence the general climate.


(Language and content objectives, comprehensible input, strategies, interaction, feedback)

Second grade students are expected to apply strategies to comprehend text by making inferences about words describing weather condition when reading.


(Meaningful activities, interaction, strategies, practice…


(Reproduction of this material is restricted to use with Echevarria, Vogt, and Short, 2008. Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP® Model.)

© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Nets Analysis Graphic Organizer A Comparing and
Words: 1598 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35035660
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NETS Analysis

Graphic Organizer

a) Comparing and contrasting the National Education Technology Standards for Teachers (NETS) with any set of standards listed by the state of Maryland.

NETS for teachers are basically the standards used to continuously evaluate the skills and the knowledge that the teachers' need for their teaching profession. These standards are also used as indicators for the teachers' performance (ISTE, 2008). One of the NETS standards is that teachers are supposed to facilitate and inspire student learning and creativity. This is mainly done by using digital tools to engage students in tackling current issues. Teachers are also required to design digital age learning experiences and assessments for their students as this enables the students to develop their individual goals by use of digital resources.

The NETS standards also require the teachers to model digital age work and learning to showcase their skills as innovative professionals in technology.…


International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE). (2008). NETS. Retrieved on 23/5/12 from

Literacy Action Plan
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99165114
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teacher will" will be abbreviated by TTW and "the student will" will be abbreviated by TSW.

"Phonemic Awareness" will be abbreviated by PA, "phonics" will b P. "fluency" will be F, and "omprehension" will be .

Student is in 2nd grade and reading on Pre-Primer 2, per QRI-5. She has trouble with beginning and final sounds, sight words, retelling, and short vowels.

Literacy Intervention Plan

Literacy Intervention Action Plan

Each tutoring session will be between 30-40 minutes

*Some Days may be doubled up due to school scheduling

* "The teacher will" will be abbreviated by TTW and "the student will" will be abbreviated by TSW.

* "Phonemic Awareness" will be abbreviated by PA, "phonics" will b P. "fluency" will be F, and "omprehension" will be .

*During each week, the fluency session will begin with a systematic review of the Dolch Sight Words. Week 1 will be the Pre-Primer Sight…

C: TSW read along with an audio book in which the emphasis is a word with a short vowel sound.

PA: With digital media (Raskind & Stanberry, 2009), TSW hear a list of words and put a thumb up if they think the vowel is short in a word. Short vowels, as well as long vowel words will be used.

P: TSW plays the sound game. TTW will have two words on the board representing the two different sounds for student to practice, e.g., RUN, RAN. TTW

AR vs Traditional the Accelerated
Words: 5950 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33494180
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To generalize the results a passing population would need to be studied as well as a larger group over a longer period. One limitation that may have been missing from the study's own assessment of limitations is that the penalization of attending summer school tends to incite improvement in students, as this is seen as their last chance to have an opportunity to move forward with their own classmates and friends the following year. Due to the age of the students, (first graders) this may be a collaborative cause or impetus for motivation and therefore improvement. One can also postulate that the rote nature of the pre-reading skills that are needed for success at this level, lend themselves well to the basic low-level comprehension that is broken down for the student with A. In other words the "scientific" success of the program may be limited only to those readers who…


Accelerated Reader: Lasting Effects. (2003). Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 47(1), 4.

Baker, L., Scher, D., & Mackler, K. (1997). Home and Family Influences on Motivations for Reading. Educational Psychologist, 32(2), 69-82.

Barton-Arwood, S.M., Wehby, J.H., & Falk, K.B. (2005). Reading Instruction for Elementary-Age Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Academic and Behavioral Outcomes. Exceptional Children, 72(1), 7.

Bovair, S., & Kieras, D.E. (1991). 9 Toward a Model of Acquiring Procedures from Text. In Handbook of Reading Research (Vol. II, pp. 206-226). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Oral Reading Fluency Final Action
Words: 4792 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 38611613
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Solutions to incorporating fluency instruction in the classroom include repeated reading, auditory modeling, direct instruction, text segmenting, supported reading, and use of easy reading materials. Young readers may not always know what fluent reading should be like. Despite the awareness, oral reading fluency is a neglected aspect of the classroom (Allington, 1983). Therefore, according to Fluency for Everyone, written by asinski, "It seems clear that students need frequent opportunities to see and hear fluent reading. Since the most fluent reader in the classroom is the teacher, the teacher should be the primary model" (1989).

The method of auditory modeling can be used in several ways. Auditory modeling can dramatically improve fluency among readers (Dowhower, 1986). She says, "Auditory or oral modeling may be the most powerful of all techniques in encouraging prosodic reading." Prosodic reading can be described as reading with voice inflection and expression. Dowhower believes that modeling oral…


Abram, S. (nd) The Effects of Fluency Instruction Incorporating Readers Theatre on Oral Reading Fluency in an Eighth-Grade Classroom. Retrieved from: 

Anderson, R., Hiebert, E., Scott, J & Wilkinson, I. (1985). Becoming a Nation of Readers, Urbana, IL: The Center for the Study of Reading.

Cooper, D. (2000). Literacy: Understanding Literacy Learning and Constructing Meaning. Massachusetts: Houghton Muffin Company.

Fluency (nd) National Institutes of Health. Chapter 3. Retrieved from:

Information Education
Words: 1743 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12264750
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Paterson Public Schools School 28 or Public School Twenty Eight was erected in 1962. The president is John J. Pasquale and the vice president is Leonard R. Jacoby. The general contractor for the school is Thomas Construction Company. PS28 is located in New Jersey. The school's address is 200 Presidential Blvd., Paterson, NJ 07522. The school's telephone number is [HIDDEN] . There are a total of 360 students in the school.

The school has several classrooms dedicated to specific areas such as pre-kindergarten, special education, and performing arts. The students range from pre-kindergarten all the way to grade 8. So the age range is around 4-13 years of age. Because New Jersey is located within the tri-state area, the population is diverse with black, Hispanic, Asian, and white students and faculty. The principal, Nancy Castro is Hispanic as well as the Assistant Principal, Victoria, Larosiliere. The majority of the students…

Technology Tools in Teaching
Words: 876 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26066890
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Learning Games for the Future

The impact of technology on the education system has not been fully explored in many ways. Teachers and students alike are discovering new ways in which technology may be incorporated within the day and find approaches that utilize technology to its greatest advantage. Combining technology with the sense or need for play and games is at the heart of this problem. It is essential for researchers to have a strong grasp of the opportunities that exist. This research topic will specifically examine the role of games and technology as they relate to 2nd grade education modalities and approaches. This essay will review literature discussing this topic and provide some strengths and weaknesses of those arguments and how the research itself was conducted.

Summary of Findings

Shin et al. (2006) used their research efforts to investigate the effects of handheld gaming on student learning within the…


Black, J.B. (2010). An embodied/grounded cognition perspective on educational technology. In New Science of Learning (pp. 45-52). Springer New York.

Hoysniemi, J., Hamalainen, P., & Turkki, L. (2004, June). Wizard of Oz prototyping of computer vision based action games for children. In Proceedings of the 2004 conference on Interaction design and children: building a community (pp. 27-34). ACM.

Shin, N., Norris, C., & Soloway, E. (2006, June). Effects of handheld games on students learning in mathematics. In Proceedings of the 7th international conference on Learning sciences (pp. 702-708). International Society of the Learning Sciences.

Cultural Diversity Interview Narrative Cultural
Words: 4850 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8522541
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While in high school, she worked as a waitress at a local diner. Most of the population was black, therefore there was little contact with white customers or employees. Margaret feels that she was socially isolated until the 1950s. She was not exposed to white culture; it was foreign to her. She was only exposed to black culture of the time. They were not allowed in certain stores, restaurants, or other places of business. She remembers "white only" restrooms and "black only" fountains. This cultural isolation was oppressive.

Margaret feels that the oppressive attitudes and discrimination that she experienced as a child determined much of how her life proceeded in adulthood. The idea that she could only go so far was ingrained as a child. She never really broke free of this feeling. In her 40s, she moved to upstate New York. Here, she found that many women had succeeded…


Diller, D. (1999). Opening the dialogue: Using culture as a tool in teaching young African

American children. Reading Teacher, 52(8), 820-828. [Available electronically through ERIC/EBSCOhost]

Moll, L.C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching:

using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice, 31 (2), 132-141.

Perspectives of a Teacher and an Administrator on Education
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39903316
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Teacher/Administrator Interviews

Perspectives of a Teacher and an Administrator on Education

This is a report on the results of an interview with two veteran educational professionals, a 2nd grade teacher and an administrator. These interviews were conducted to better understand the subject's viewpoints on education and to gain insight as to why they chose to pursue their careers in education. The teacher reported she had been in the classroom for 24 years as a teacher and had experience as an instructional aide previously. The administrator stated he had taught for 19 years before he assumed his duties as a principal eight years ago. The teacher's highest level of education was a Bachelors Degree in Education plus 30 units of graduate work, while the administrator said he had a Masters in Administration and supervision. Both subjects revealed that they each had a sister in the profession and the teacher's mother had…

Communicating No Child Left Behind
Words: 431 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 54682892
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"Develop and explain an argument verbally or with objects"

5. Restatement of 2.RP.6:

We're going to practice explaining mathematics problems with words and with objects and how they are the same.

6. Original Statement of 2.RP.7:

"Listen to and discuss claims other students make (Students will select and use various types of reasoning and methods of proof)"

6. Restatement of 2.RP.7:

We're going to see how mathematics can help us know what is true and what is not true about numbers.

7. Original Statement of 2.CN.7:

"Recognize the presence of mathematics in their daily lives (e.g., counting money)"

7. Restatement of 2.CN.7:

We're going to learn how important mathematics is in regular life outside of the classroom and why it is so important.

8. Original Statement of 2.CN.8:

"Recognize and apply mathematics to solve problems"

8. Restatement of 2.CN.8:

We're going to learn how to know what types of…

Established Trend for Non-White Students
Words: 484 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 61269499
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Annotated Bibliography Prep

Before attempting to find appropriate journal articles in the library itself, the use of electronic databases is highly recommended. The larger databases, such as EBSCO Academic Complete and ProQuest will pull articles on a variety of topics that contain the user-entered search terms, which could lead some to be highly specific and lengthy with their terms. I have found it helpful to peruse broader results first, though, noting out any articles that appear to be relevant, then using key words from these articles to conduct more refined searches. This creates a body of literature that will be on topic and inter-related, making comparisons easier during the research and the writing phases of the study.

Another advantage of researching via the computer first is that the library's catalog can also be searched for books and hard-copies of journals on the research topic. Using the most relevant sources discovered…

Paul Is a Student in a New-York-Based
Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43203554
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Paul is a student in a New-York-based school that is located in the Bronx area of New York. It is a Jewish school whose administration, and therefore, structure, is fervently Jewish, and it is a comparatively new school, dealing with a majority of Russian immigrants. Paul is one of the few American-born students and, therefore, conspicuous in his self-contained co-ed. class of 5 other individuals 3 of whom are Russuan born, and one other Ethiopian.

Paul is out of place in another way too. Aside from being the oldest in his class -- he is 8 years-old, the class is 2nd grade -- Paul's conduct is conspicuous and, with a record of teachers being unable to control him, Paul has spent his time being shuttled between teacher and principal.

The problem with Paul, according to his teacher's diagnosis, is that he has ADHD. ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder…

Effect of Looping on Children at Risk
Words: 4552 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12208187
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Looping on at-isk Children


eview of the Literature

Operational Definitions


Instruments and Materials

F. Design and Procedures

G. Data Analysis


This chapter will introduce the educational process of looping, as well as evaluate the benefits that looping can have on students. It will also address the individual needs of at-risk children, and explain how looping effects these children.

Looping, which is also known as multiyear teaching or multiyear placement, occurs when teachers are promoted with their students to the next grade level, staying with the same group of children for two or three years.

For example, in a looping situation, the teacher would teach a class of first grade students and then remain with those students another year as their second grade teacher. At the end of the second grade, the same teacher would return to first grade to teach a new…


Milburn, Dennis (1981). "A Study of Multi-Age or Family Grouped Classrooms." Phi Delta Kappan, 62. 513-514.

Haslinger, John, Patricia Kelly and Leonard O'Hare (1996). "Countering Absenteeism,

Anonymity and Apathy." Educational Leadership, 54. 47.

Hampton, Federick M., Dawne Mumford and Lloyd Bond. "Enhancing Urban

Role of Music in My
Words: 1146 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24124921
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(Helium Entertainment, 2010)

I have been raised with music around me throughout my life. My family is musically associated. My grandfather used to write simple and intricate pieces. However he does not copyright them. Further my grandmother usually performed. She still sings several songs for several hours and plays piano daily. My dad used to play trumpet for a long time and my mom has tried each instrument that can be imagined including accordion and bagpipes. I dwelled into the game at an early age, performing with my grandmother, learning and playing piano with grandfather, learning about various songs from my mother and always developing upon the notes in the piano. While in 2nd grade most of the students in my class had the opportunity for playing recorder. During 3rd grade I initiated playing cello. Later I moved to New York where to my misfortune, the music department of my…


Enotes. (2010) "Topic: What is the importance of music in your life?" Retrieved 25 August

2010 from 

Helium Entertainment. (2010) "The importance of music in our lives" Retrieved 25

August 2010 from

How to Score the Basic Reading Inventory Reflection
Words: 1328 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19427015
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Basic Reading Inventory Reflection Paper
Part I: Findings
Upon administering the BRI to a struggler Reader, I undertook the process of reflection in order to consider the experience overall. The Reader’s name was Diana: she is 8 years old and enrolled in the third grade. Currently, she is one year behind her current reading grade level she should be in--i.e., she is reading at a 2nd grade reading level instead of a 3rd. She is attending Patricia DiChiaro in Yonkers, NY, and the BRI revealed quite a few things about her ability to read.
For the first part of the BRI, Diana had to read aloud a paragraph about dodge ball. Each line was analyzed according to miscues made by the student during the reading exercise. Miscues consisted of substitution (in which a wrong word was read instead of the word on the page), insertion (in which the reader inserts…

Iri Impact of Qualitative Reading Inventories and
Words: 714 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Chapter Paper #: 63049159
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Impact of qualitative reading inventories and subsequent educational intervention plans have on literacy development in elementary students

Impact of qualitative reading inventories and subsequent educational intervention plans on literacy development in elementary students

eading inventories are frequently used both to assess students who are struggling and to identify strategies that are helpful in supporting reading success for the larger student body. "Procedurally, [informal reading inventories] IIs assess a student's instructional level in reading using sets of passages that are written or selected to be representative of the difficulty level of texts at different grade levels, and in different schools and reading programs" (Specter 2005: 595). "By charting and analyzing patterns in oral reading error types, educators identify whether students rely on one cueing system & #8230; to the exclusion of the others, as beginning readers typically do, or if they use a balance of strategies, as mature readers at…


McIntyre, E., Petrosko, J., Jones, D., Powell, R., & al, e. (2005). Supplemental instruction in early reading: Does it matter for struggling readers? The Journal of Educational

Research, 99(2), 99-107,128.

Nilsson, N.L. (2008). A critical analysis of eight informal reading inventories. The Reading

Teacher, 61: 526 -- 536. doi: 10.1598/RT.61.7.2

Assessing the learning ability of'student with possible ADHD
Words: 1478 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 66613100
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Do you think this student might have a learning disability? Why or why not?

learning disability is referred to as affecting acquisition, organization, retention, and understanding of information, both verbal and nonverbal, as gauged from perceiving, thinking, remembering, or learning. The student understands information, memorizes information, understands science concepts, and has fairly good math skills.


Do you think this student might have ADHD? Why or why not?

ADHD is defined through three main groups of symptoms; inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Inattention; the student has messy writing, lacks focus -- struggles to read class materials, and forgets to complete homework. Hyperactivity; the student has difficulty staying at his desk, and is very talkative in class. Impulsivity; has difficulty following rules, and talks out inappropriately without raising his hand.

What assessment tools would be used to determine whether or not this student has ADHD?

There is not an established criterion…


Danielson, M. (2015, October). "The Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD Among Children in Foster Care Using Medicaid Claims Data, 2011." In 2015 AAP National Conference and Exhibition. American Academy of Pediatrics.

Siu, A. L. (2015). Screening for speech and language delay and disorders in children aged 5 years or younger: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Pediatrics, 136(2), e474-e481.

2000 the National Reading Panel Developed and
Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60963147
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2000, the National eading Panel developed and publicized a report that included give critical areas that need to be addressed in order to provide effective reading instruction: 1) Phonemic awareness, 2) Phonics, 3) Fluency, 4) Vocabulary, and

Comprehension (National eading Panel, 2012). Too, we must realize that not all children become phonemically aware at the same age or grade level. Some preschool children can segment and even understand multi-syllabic words, which some even in 2nd grade cannot. However, using the 5 basic steps, it is possible to provide a standards-based program that logically defines and emphasizes basic reading skills (Neuman and Dickinson, 2006). We can think of each portion of the 5 steps as building blocks towards fluency, with one logically contributing to the other through a series of exercises, drills, and finally mastery of each level.

Phonemic Awareness -- Is the ability to notice and cognate discreet sounds in…


Boost Vocabulary and Spelling. (2012). Retrieved from: 

Teaching Phonics. (2012). A to Z. Retrieved from: 

What are the Five Essential Elements of Reading? (2009). Literacy Collaborative at Lesley University. Retrieved from: 

Cunningham, P. (2008). Phonics They Use: Words for Reading and Writing. Allyn And Bacon.

Mental Retardation in Relationship to Developing Learning
Words: 469 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63618298
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mental retardation in relationship to developing learning programs.

Review relevant literature.

Developmental learning programs are based on the child's cognitive abilities and IQ range.

To begin, an individual is considered to have mental retardation based on the following three criteria: intellectual functioning level (IQ) is below 70-75; significant limitations exist in two or more adaptive skill areas; and the condition is present from childhood (defined as age 18 or less) (AAMR, 1992).

When considering the development of learning programs for the disabled, the following terms refer to the link between the child's IQ and their ability to learn basic skills.

The least severe form of retardation is mild with an IQ range of 52-68. Moderate refers to an IQ range of 35-40 and 50-55; severe is 20-25 and 35-40 and profound is below 20-25.

Individuals in these categories tend to learn at a slower rate, have a hard time combining…


Hallahan, Daniel, Kauffman, James M. Exceptional Learners: Introduction to Special Education, 9th Edition.

Kenny TJ, Clemmens RL: Mental retardation, in Primary Pediatric Care, edited by RA Hoekelman. St. Louis, C.V. Mosby Company, 1997.


ESL'students and How to Help them
Words: 1109 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31656789
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Meeting Community Needs

Language and Speech skills are vital to academic learning and success. Language is the foundation of communication. Reading, writing, gesturing, listening, and speaking is all methods of language. Learning takes place through the process of communication. The aptitude to communicate with peers and grown-ups in the educational setting is vital for a student to prosper in school. However, the problem of communication at this 2nd-grade level is the ESL. Comment by rammarly: Deleted:l Comment by rammarly: Deleted:are

Who are the people most affected by this problem?

The students are the ones hardest hit by this issue, especially in the classroom. A lot of times, students will routinely look to the teacher for correct answers rather than trying to find out what is going on for themselves. Sometimes this can be a problem among the student and the teacher. However, if the teacher assists them with the answer…

Garcia-Lascurain, M., Kicklighter, J. R., Jonnalagadda, S. S., Erin, A. B., & Duchon, D. (2006). Effect of a nutrition education program on NutritionRelated knowledge of English-as-second-language elementary school students: A pilot study. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 8(1), 57-65. doi:  Comment by Grammarly: Deleted:e

Wagner, R. M., & Huang, J. C. (2011). Relative performance of English second language students in university accounting courses. American Journal of Business Education, 4(5), 31-38. Comment by Grammarly: Deleted:e

Warren, E., Harris, K., & Miller, J. (2014). Supporting young ESL students from disadvantaged contexts in their engagement with mathematics: Teachers' pedagogical challenges. International Journal of Pedagogies & Learning, 9(1), 10-25.

Analyzing Autism grades K 2nd in Ben Hill county
Words: 812 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 71149206
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Aggregate Strengths and Weaknesses

An all-inclusive, careful evaluation incorporating informal as well as formal methods is vital to adequately understanding and aiding autistic people. An evaluation of autistic persons must, in particular, offer information regarding how their development relates to that of their peers, in addition to information on the unique challenges, symptoms, and strengths displayed by autistic children (Durocher, n.d.).

The process of assessment directly facilitates the designing of a student IEP (Individual Education Program). IEPs denote written records detailing the services (including special education) to be offered to students with disabilities, for meeting their unique needs. They cover six key, mandatory elements:

An account of the disabled child's current functioning or performance level: The foremost step in IEP designing entails preparing an updated student profile which underlines the student's interests, style of learning, and current behavioural and academic abilities. The profile should also discuss the impact of disability…


Durocher, J. S. (n.d.). Assessment for the Purpose of Instructional Planning for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. University of Miami, 29.

NJC. (2010). Comprehensive Assessment and Evaluation of Students with Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from LD Online:

Guided Reading Lessons
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Grade Students with some Early Readers

What I did and what I would change

After a preview of the age-appropriate book selection, I highlighted words that might be challenging for the children. I did this ahead of time so that I would be prepared. I then called the group together, and we then did a walk-through focusing on the pictures. I mentally took note of which of the words were most challenging for the students. Next time, I would have tried writing these words down if they were different from the words I chose earlier. After the walk-through, each child was given a copy of the story. I told them that first they were going to read the story by themselves out loud, and then we were going to discuss what they read. As a prompt, I read the first sentence of the story with them before letting them continue…

Balanced Literacy
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Balanced Literacy Program for Second Grade

This paper outlines a sample balanced literacy program and how it is organized for second grade students. In addition, the paper explains instructional approaches that can be integrated in the balanced literacy program to improve students' reading and writing skills. Moreover, the paper gives an insight of school practices that when initiated can improve students' classroom learning. The paper further notes components of balanced literacy program that the instructional approaches satisfy.

ecently there has been a downhill trend in reading and writing among students in second grade. This is due to establishment of literacy programs providing students with little phonemic awareness. Additionally, the balanced literacy programs are poorly designed; often lacking effective educational support for students (Mermelstein, 2005). Furthermore, teachers undertake improper training on implementation of learning instructions such as phonics; often prodding the students to memorize lessons. Given this, integration of instructional approaches…


Altieri, J. (2011). Content Counts! Developing Disciplinary Literacy Skills, K-6. Houston:

International Reading Association .

Camilli, G., & Wolfe, P. (2004). Research on Reading: A Cautionary Tale. Educational Leadership Journal, 26-29.

Fresch, M.J. (2003). A National Survey of Spelling Instruction: Investigating Teachers' Beliefs

Tall Buddies Peer-Assisted Learning Initiative
Words: 6521 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34945821
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Methods for evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of peer-assisted learning programs are discussed as well, followed by a summary of the literature review.

Background and Overview.

The growing body of scholarly evidence concerning peer tutoring has been consistent in emphasizing the powerful effects that children can exert on the academic and interpersonal development of their classmates and/or other students (Ehly & Topping, 1998). For example, Bloom (1984) reported early on that one-on-one tutoring by a fully skilled peer was more effective than both conventional (i.e., teachers' lecturing) and mastery learning (i.e., student- regulated) methods of teaching. Across several replications of academic content and student age levels, Bloom (1984) reported that peer tutoring programs produced effect sizes on the order of 2 standard deviations above the mean of the control group (i.e., students receiving conventional lecture-based instruction), compared with 1.3 standard deviations for mastery learning (effect sizes larger than.25 of 1…


Adelgais, a., King, a., & Staffieri, a. (1998). Mutual peer tutoring: Effects of structuring tutorial interaction to scaffold peer learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 134.

Afflerbach, P., Baumann, J.F., Duffy-Hester, a.M., Hoffman, J.V., McCarthey, S.J. & Ro, J.M. (2000). Balancing principles for teaching elementary reading. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Arreaga-Mayer, C., Gavin, K.M., Greenwood, C.R., Terry, B.T., & Utley, C.A. (2001). Classwide peer tutoring learning management system. Remedial and Special Education, 22(1), 34.

Bloom, B.S. (1984). The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher, 13, 4-16.

Learning as Well as Assessment
Words: 3633 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8900464
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(Singer, 2003, p. 36) Education should be a constructive process. Palinscar states that the teacher must assume an active and directive role by establishing the pace, content, and goals of the lesson. (Palincsar, 1998) Byra also described such a process of "task progression" through which content is broken down and sequenced into meaningful learning experiences. (Byra, 2004) the lesson learned from receiving fifty percent credit on a late assignment is not necessarily the lesson intended.

Each step in the academic process contributes to the learning process. An assignment is not merely research. It is not merely a grade. It is the sum total of the student's entire experience vis-a-vis that experience. (Bailey, Hughes & Moore, 2004, p. 32) a student who receives a grade of fifty percent because he or she completed an assignment late sees that arbitrary judgment of his or her work as a "lesson" too. Studies show…


Alderman, M.K. (2004). Motivation for Achievement: Possibilities for Teaching and Learning (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Bailey, T.R., Hughes, K.L., & Moore, D.T. (2004). Working Knowledge: Work-Based Learning and Education Reform. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.

Group Protocol for Adolescents -
Words: 1719 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96453566
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Next, the facilitator will pose an introductory question that will stimulate brainstorming by engaging students in the "why" of their involvement in the group (Bouassida et al., 2006). Next a transitory question will lead to examination of the problem at hand, where the members of the group attempt to answer key questions including (1) what is the foundation of the problem (2) what tools are available to solve the problem (3) what are the most probable outcomes of a problem given the information provided (Bouassida, et al., 2006).


Bouassida et al. (2006) provide the rationale for this protocol, suggesting it enables group members to participate in a manner that allows greater collaboration and verification of the results. This form of focus group enables each member to participate on an equivalent basis. The outcome will result in rapid resolution of complex problems including those presented in the future to students…


Bouassida, M.S., Chridi, N., Chrisment, I., Festor, O. & L. Vigneron. (2006, Jun).

Automatic verification of a key management architecture for hierarchical group protocols, in, Cuppens, F. And Debar, H., editors, 5th Conference on Security and Network Architectures.

CEISMC (2006). Focus Group Protocol, Center for Educational Integrating Science,

Mathematics and Computing at Georgia Tech College of Sciences. Retrieved October 18, 2007:

Arundel Partners Is Taking Under
Words: 1637 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92415483
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if, hypothetically speaking this number is 100 trees for each option, the cumulated value of both options is:

PV5 option 1 + PV5 option 2) * 100 = (21.6 + 20.78) * 100 = 4,237.9

PV10 option 1 + PV10 option 2) * 100 = (23.47 + 21.62) * 100 = 4,507.6

The comparison's results suggest that cutting the trees after 10 years maximizes the Mr. Smith's tree value. It also seems that the tree value is increasing in time and the growth rate is increasing in time, which implies that the more Mr. Smith can wait before cutting the trees the higher their value will be at the cutting moment.

Thinning the forest will lower their total value. However, the thinning will also relieve the cost burden. Assuming that Mr. Smith cuts half of the forest growing according to option 2, the total tree value in:

year will be…

Reference List

Ochoa, C.M. 2007. Valuation: From the Discounted Cash Flows (DCF) Approach to the Real Options Approach (ROA). GRUPO DE INVESTIGACI N. EN FINANZAS Y BANCA - EAFIT. 



Nursing Case Study Family Nursing Diagnosis Is
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Nursing Case Study

Family nursing diagnosis is a holistic process that involves a thorough and complete family assessment to establish both curative and preventive concerns in a given family. The assessment from the participating family established a number of diagnostic issues. One of the family members suffers from obesity. D.K. who is ten years old and in second grade took two years to complete first grade. Obesity is a condition whereby the Body Mass Index (BM1) is over 30kg/m2. This is because of excess fat accumulation in a person's body. The Body Mass Index BM1, is the measure for obesity, and it is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by his/her height in square meters.

Obesity may be associated with the several of medical conditions like heart attack, type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis and some types of cancer (Domino, 2007). Major causes of obesity are lack of physical exercises…


Domino, Frank J, (2007). 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Karch. A.M. (2007). Lippincott's Nursing Drug Guide. Philadelphia: New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Katz, David L.; Friedman, Rachel S.C. (2008). Nutrition in Clinical Practice: A Comprehensive, Evidence-Based Manual for the Practitioner. 2nd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Looping School Systems Are Regularly
Words: 1526 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48981920
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Most important, the teachers need the backing of the principal in order to have the time and resources to implement such a program and to further enhance the concept of a school that cares about its students and their educational and personal needs.


Denault, L.E. (1999) estructuring? Keep it simple. Consider Looping! Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin 65(4): 19-26.

Elliot, I. (1998). When two years are better than one. Teaching Pre-K 29(3): 38-41

Forsten, C., Grant, J., and ichardswon, I. (1999) Multiage and looping. Borrowing from the past. Principal. 78(4): 15-16.

Jordan, D. (2000) Looping: Discovering the Difference. Teaching PreK-8-30(6): 58-59.

Little, T.S., and Dacus, N.B. (1999) Looping up with the class. Educational Leadership.

Phi Delta Kappa Fastbacks. (2001) Looping. Creating elementary school communities

478: 7-39.

Schaefer, B.A., Khoury, .A., and Ginsburg-Block, M. (2003). Does looping make the rade? A preliminary study of…


Denault, L.E. (1999) Restructuring? Keep it simple. Consider Looping! Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin 65(4): 19-26.

Elliot, I. (1998). When two years are better than one. Teaching Pre-K 29(3): 38-41

Forsten, C., Grant, J., and Richardswon, I. (1999) Multiage and looping. Borrowing from the past. Principal. 78(4): 15-16.

Jordan, D. (2000) Looping: Discovering the Difference. Teaching PreK-8-30(6): 58-59.

Gun Safety Be Taught in Schools The
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Gun Safety Be Taught in Schools?

The purpose of this 2009 mixed method study by Cecelia Obeng was to ascertain the need for teaching gun safety to students in pre-K to grade 6. Additionally, the researchers hoped to determine who teachers felt were most qualified to teach children about gun safety and to determine if gun safety were to be, taught the most appropriate grade level. In 2005 there were 3,006 firearms related deaths in among children aged 15 and younger. Of these 822 (27%) were children that committed suicide with a gun, 1,972 (66%) were gun related homicides, and 212 (7%) were a result of accidental death related to firearms. Approximately one-third of U.S. homes with children have firearms. esearch indicates that levels of firearm deaths among children are closely related to the availability of guns in the home.

This study was conducted in two counties in a single…


Obeng, C. (2010, August). Should schoool safety be taught in schools? Perspectives of teachers. Journal of School Heatlh. Vol. 80, No. 8. 394-398.

Diagnostic Reading Study This Study
Words: 923 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72000836
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While motivated students may exceed expectations based on their IQ, the greater relevance of the relationship between motivation and reading development is that poor motivation often results in unexpectedly low reading skill development relative to higher IQ scores.

To isolate instances of motivation-based poor reading performance in the study group, I intend to design an investigation using elements of hands-on, active learning study programs, such as the Full Option Science System (FOSS). While FOSS is not specifically designed as a diagnostic reading program, incorporating one or more of the learning exercises will help identify students whose unsatisfactory reading performance scores relate to motivational issues, rather than issues addressable by merely providing intensified reading instruction. Though science-based, the FOSS teaching materials use post-lesson tests that also measure module subject matter comprehension and lesson retention. I intend to administer grade-appropriate science lessons, because the nature of the FOSS materials relies more on…

Evidence-Based Strategies and Materials Related to Classroom Management
Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 279465
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Evidence-Based Homework Policy

Homework enables a student to better learn what is being taught in the classroom. It gives more experience of the subject principals. At the same time, homework and homework policies teach students social interaction skills, self-motivation, and active engagement skills and promote best practices in these areas. Homework policies work better based on grade levels of the student.

Ms. Zalogwe's homework policy does promote social interaction. Human use tools from their culture, such as reading, writing, etc., to develop social functions (Vygotsky, 2014). A teacher's collaboration with students to develop meaningful construction leads to higher thinking skills. This in turn, builds social interactions with others. Students learn communication skills that builds interactions with others.

Self-efficacy enhances motivation for more learning and skill building (Schunk, 1985). As homework brings more practice with classroom activities, students gain more confidence in what they are learning. This would also apply to…

Works Cited

Schunk, D. (1985). Self-Efficacy and Classroom Learning. Pschology in the Schools, 22(2), 208-223 retrieved from ...

Simonsen, B. e. (2008). Evidence-Based Practices in Classroom Management: considerations for Research to Practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351-380 retrieved from

Vygotsky. (2014). Social Development Theory (Vygotsky). Retrieved from Learning http://learning-theories.comvygotskys-social-learning-theory.html

Rubber Tech Purifier Chai Chalermvatcharaporn
Words: 974 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98085371
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The RTP is able to process 5,000 tons of rubber per year, whereas its competitor can only process 4,000 tons. Furthermore, compared to his competitors, Chai has the advantage of Thailand's experience and good reputation in regard to rubber production. This comparative advantage could aid Chai boost his product to other foreign countries, as well as Thailand.

Given that the small and middle size plantations could be persuaded into accepting a higher price, but the larger plantations would not pay a cent above $10,000, the RTP's price should remain unchanged. However, the company ought to consider investing more money into sales, so to increase the number of sold RTP, and also in research and development, in order to further improve the quality of the RTP and its life cycle. Also, separate funds should be allocated to the R&D department as to allow them to continue their research for technologies applicable…


Porter's Five Forces: A Model for Industry Analysis, 2007,, , last accessed on September 28, 2007

Rubbertech, Marketing Parts 1 to 3

Porter's Five Forces: A Model for Industry Analysis, 2007,

Rubbertech, Marketing, Marketing Part 2

1 As She Suffers From
Words: 2770 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15201917
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Woods up with an exercise group close to her house, or a support group
who could help her with adjusting to her new diagnosis and give her
support. The social worker and the nursing staff would also be able to
educate Mrs. Woods' family on the condition and what needs to be done to
maximize her bone health.
5. Should Mrs. Woods have a history of renal calculi; care will be
taken for the administration of calcium supplements. Any supplement she
would take would need co-administration of Vitamin D for proper absorption.
Hormone replacement therapy is no longer considered to be a stable of
treatment due to concerns about heart disease. Additionally, there was no
significant evidence of fracture reduction of the HES study, so the risk
of thrombosis and breast cancer probably outweighs the need for HT.
Selective estrogen receptor modifiers are other alternatives which preserve
bone density but…

1. Libanati CR, Baylink DJ. (1997) Prevention and treatment of
glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. A pathogenetic
perspective. Chest. 102:1426-35.
. 2. Sambrook P, Birmingham J, Kelly P, et al. Prevention of
corticosteroid osteoporosis: A comparison of calcium,
calcitriol and calcitonin. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1747-1752
2. Heaney RP. (1998) Pathophysiology of osteoporosis. Endocrin
Metabol Clin North Am.;27:255-65.

PBS Against Bullying Students With
Words: 3022 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 44348595
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Pretraining: Before implementing the actual intervention method, the classroom teacher will conduct two 20 minute group instruction sessions designed how to teach the students to report their peers prosocial behaviors as well as general positive variables that have been observed on the part of their peers. Emphasis will be placed on the fact that all students of the class have to be involved. The teacher will allow the students to select their desired reward as long as this were feasible and practical and will ensure that unanimous approval and interest is evidenced in desired reward. A cumulative goal (e.g. 120 tootles) too will be unanimously decided on. The teacher will ascertain that all students understand the elements and conditions of 'tootling', that all agree to be involved, and that questions, if any, are satisfactorily addressed and answered. Students will be encouraged to provide examples of instances that can be mentioned…


Anderson, C.M., & Kincaid, D. (2005). Applying behavior analysis to school violence and discipline problems: School wide positive behavior support. The Behavior Analyst, 28(1), 49 -- 63.

Cashwell, T.H., Skinner, C.H., & Smith, E.S. (2001). Increasing second-grade students' reports of peers prosocial behaviors via direct instruction, group reinforcement, and progress feedback: A replication and extension. Education and Treatment of Children, 24, 161 -- 175.

Cihak, D., Kirk, E., & Boon, R. (2009) Effects of Classwide Positive Peer "Tootling" to Reduce the Disruptive Classroom Behaviors of Elementary Students with and without Disabilities J. Behav Educ 18:267 -- 278

Fairbanks, S., Sugai, G., Guadino, D., & Lathrop, M. (2007). Response to intervention: Examining classroom behavior support in second grade. Exceptional Children, 73, 288 -- 310.

No Child Left Behind -
Words: 5384 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87005254
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For Bush, the "formation and refining of policy proposals" (Kingdon's second process stream in policymaking) came to fruition when he got elected, and began talking to legislators about making educators and schools accountable. Bush gave a little, and pushed a little, and the Congress make its own changes and revisions, and the policy began to take shape. The third part of Kingdon's process stream for Bush (politics) was getting the necessary votes; Bush had his handlers buttonhole certain conservative politicians, and united them with Democrats, to get enough votes to pass the NCLB.

Meantime, it was truly "organized anarchy" as the debate in the House and Senate lasted seven weeks, and some members of Congress rejected the idea of having the NAEP double check state statistics that show whether test scores have gone up or not. Civil rights groups attacked the bill, saying it would be unfair to minorities.


Works Cited

American Federation of Teachers. "NCLB - Let's Get it Right." Retrieved 7 Dec. 2007 at .

American Teacher. "Harvard study cites NCLB implementation flaws." (April 2004) Retrieved Dec. 2007 through .

Nation at Risk. "An Open Letter to the American People: The Imperative for Educational

Reform." April 1983. Department of Education. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2007 at /pubs/natAtRisk/findings.html.

Teen Smoking Behaviors Current Consequences
Words: 3189 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 9699318
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e. managerial, social, political, economic benefits are linked to the study's results) the proposed helpful outcomes are realistic (i.e. dealing with questions that can actually be answered through the type of data gathering and analysis you're proposing. The suggested helpful outcomes do not go beyond the data that's to be collected).

The increase in teen smoking may be abating, or may be taking a pause before it continues the climb seen in the past 10 years, from 1996 to 2005. In either case, reducing smoking at an early age has a lifelong effect on individuals' health, and can lead to better quality of life for millions of people who might otherwise take up smoking. A secondary benefit is that lessons learned may help to reduce the current 3.1 million teen smokers, many of whom try smoking and quit -- it would be useful to know why they started in the…


Bobo, J.H. (2000). Sociocultural Influences on Smoking and Drinking. Alcohol Research & Health, 225-234.

Cooper, T.K. (2003). A prospective evaluation of the relationships between smoking dosage and body mass index in an adolescent, biracial cohort. Addictive Behaviors, 501-512.

Falba, T. (2005). Health events and the smoking cessation of middle aged Americans. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, n.p.

Gies, C.B. (2007). Effect of an Inpatient Nurse-Directed Smoking Cessation Program. Western Journal of Nursing Research, n.p.

Special Education Before One Is
Words: 1675 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24234748
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It is noted that he tends to make a pattern out which type of structure he decides to use.

Conclusions: ased on the above cited observations as viewed through the Student Written Language Observation Matrix, Joe is performing at a Fully Proficient level, or Phase IV. In terms of his SWLOM Percentile Score: (20 + 1)x4 = 84%.

Whole Language Proficiency

Whole language proficiency refers to the combined assessment of an English language learner's oral language and written language proficiency. Whole language proficiency is determined by the following formula: (SOLOM Score x 2) + {(SWLOM Score + 1)x2} = WLP Percent.

In the case study at hand, Joe's whole language proficiency would be determined as follows: (17 x 2) + {(20 + 1) x 2} = 34 + 42 = 76%. This means that Joe's estimated whole language proficiency is 76% of expected native speaker proficiency for a third grade…


Freeman, D. (2007): English Language Learners. New York: Teaching Resources.

Gottlieb, Margo. (2006): Assessing English Language Learners: Bridges from Language Proficiency to Academic Achievement. London: SAGE Publications.

Herrell, Adrienne. (2007): Fifty Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners. New York: Prentice Hall.

Hill, Jane. (2006): Classroom Instruction that Works with English Language Learners. Association for Supervision & Curriculum.

Students in the Case Study
Words: 1355 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 73895769
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Many of the students at the school are intelligent, but they do not know how to put that intelligence to good use, because no one has ever taught them that they are capable of doing many things that they may want to do. Since this is the case, the teachers at the school must be given tools that are practical and can be easily incorporated into what they already do, which will help to stimulate the minds of the students that they work with when it comes to teaching them language literacy. While not an easy task, it is a worthwhile one that should be considered. Children are the future of this country and it seems wrong to neglect any of them, regardless of their race, ethnicity, background, language ability, or mental capabilities.

Those that can be educated should be educated, and ways must be found to ensure that this…

Instructional Levels According to Burns
Words: 842 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1163473
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Lesson plans should closely follow the IEP goals.

Disabilities should be an essential part of any curriculum discussion because it can impact a student's ability to learn certain material. Dylexic students for instance will have a fundamentally harder time with reading comprehension and writing than other students. Therefore, their IEP will factor in their learning disability in order to allow them to reach their own goals in terms of education level and standards. Without such a criteria certain students will become frustrated and oftentimes underperform.

eading Levels

eading level refers to ability of students to read and comprehend instructional material. It is critical to understand that students' reading levels might be higher or lower than their grade level. A fifth grader might enjoy reading books with a 6.0 to 6.9 reading level, which would be appropriate for the average sixth grader.

By using assessments that indicate a student's reading level,…


Burns, M., VanDerHeyden, a., Jiban, C. (2007). Assessing the instructional level for mathematics: A comparison of methods. School Psychology Review. Retrieved June 20, 2007 at

Zangle or Parent Connect Is
Words: 4814 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32315808
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Free access for students and teachers will be available at school and home at any time (Charp, 2002, p. 10).

Schools have also been helped by funding from corporations of various types, many of which see the need for a workforce in the future that is fully adept at using the new information technology, or that has some stake in assuring that a well-trained public is developed. Companies focusing on engineering and mathematics offer computer help to students, and some programs are more far-reaching:

lso, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is donating $40 million to create small high schools across the United States to increase high school graduation and college attendance. Students will be able to earn both a high school diploma, and an associate's degree or two years of college credit. The effort includes the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Ford Foundation and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation.…

Although widely accepted as a useful statistical tool, multiple regression and correlation analysis are fraught with dangers in estimating effect sizes when one uses a number of predictor variables in the linear equation. For example, it is highly unlikely that a large number of naturally occurring predictors will be statistically independent. When two or more variables are relatively highly correlated, the statistical estimation method of squared error minimization used in multiple regression is incapable of sorting out their independent effects on the dependent variable. This condition is referred to as multicollinearity and results in highly unstable regression coefficients (Pfaffenberger & Patterson, 1997).


Zangle is a system for providing information on student performance, assignments, and other matters to parents over the Internet, making it possible to keep this information flowing all year long and not simply during parent-teacher conferences. The intent is to enhance communication between teacher and parent and so to help change behavior and improve the performance of students, addressing problems as soon as they appear rather then waiting. This is a proposal for research to test whether the system delivers on its promises and does improve student performance in those districts where it is currently in use.

Museum That Was Visited for
Words: 717 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35069969
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The third exhibit was another highlight from "Mission to the Planets," which was the Cassini-Huygens Probe. This highlight is related to the educational standard 4(e) from the earth sciences unit for grade 8. It states that "students know the appearance, general composition, relative position and size and motion of objects in the solar system, including planets, planetary satellites, comets, and asteroids." This exhibit relates to the standard by revealing how scientists are still discovering new information about planets like Saturn and their moons like Titan within the solar system through unmanned spacecrafts like this one.

Cassini-Huygens is responsible for finding out about Saturn's gravitational and magnetic fields, mapping Titan's surface, and studying Saturn's and its moons' atmospheres and ionospheres among other things. The exhibit conveys the standard by displaying full-scale models of Cassini-Huygens that are covered by insulating blankets; the blankets can be pulled back to reveal the spacecraft underneath.…

Stems Increasingly Because of the
Words: 607 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74553984
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However, learning the stem words can be very helpful, especially if the other language is one that uses a similar one or derivation. People who live in the United States and learning English as a second language can find stem words very helpful, as well.

Of course, there are other reasons for using words stems as well, such as increasing reading, writing and speaking ability, searching on the Internet, looking up words in the dictionary or encyclopedia, even puzzles.

This current year, the school system began requiring that all students in the grades fourth through eighth study word stems during the school months. My principal assigned me the responsibility of making sure that all teachers in these grades were trained in their usage, had the proper materials and were following the timeline to implement the program.

A obtained the materials from the Central Office, met informally with each grade level,…

Education and Identity in His
Words: 1737 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86736738
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With Kim's help, I saw that I had a knack for helping people. I was able not just to be supportive of others, but I could really connect with people and help them. I also had a great knowledge of course planning for almost every major at UConn, because I liked to read through the course booklet and see what kinds of classes were out there and see the different majors and what the requisites were for each. Also, I realized that I often helped my friends with their course selections and major planning before they went to their own advisors. Therefore, I decided to major in Human Services, where my concentration was in academic advising.

Thus, in my own way, I was able to travel through each of the seven vectors identified by Chickering and elucidated by eisser, ultimately arriving at the final point: the development of purpose in…


Chickering, a.W. Education and Identity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1969.

Straub, C. And Roberts, R.F. "An Exploration of Chickering's Theory and Women's

Development." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1986, 27, pp. 216-224.

Reisser, L. "Revisiting the Seven Vectors." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1995, 36, pp.

Vail AZ School District's Online
Words: 1659 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47989166
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To do this, the teacher needs to adopt a diverse, personalized teaching style and curriculum.

To accomplish this, a teacher's learning style must show respect for the students' individual and different learning styles, be responsive to students' different learning styles by utilizing different levels of tasks and activities, utilize a range of teaching strategies, and teach thinking skills that stretch across the curriculum. One of the most significant challenges that a teacher using a learning style centered approach to teaching is the growing pressure to "teach to the test." Teaching to the test refers to the practice of utilizing standardized test to assess the learning of students. Since such things as funding and raises are often tied directly to how well a student performs on the standardized test, many teachers and schools have adopted a curriculum that essentially teaches to the test, or in away that ensures high rates of…


Alaska Department of Education and Early Development: Mathematics and Science,  mathematicsandscienceinstructionalpracticestoreachallstudents, Retrieved 12/01/2007

EDAS 7776: Curriculum Design Qualifying Exam Notebook. (2006) Retrieved 12/01/2007.

Madeus, G.F., & Stufflebeam, D.L. (1989). Educational Evaluation: the Works of Ralph Tyler. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Press.

Prideaux, D. (2005). Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia. ABC of Learning and Teaching in Medicine: Curriculum Design, . Retrieved 12/01/2007.

Teaching in Cyberspace Online vs
Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23400619
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Comparison of the effectiveness of the students' grades and evaluation ratings between the two groups -- traditional as the control group and online as the experimental group -- completed the experimental design of the study.

Internal Validity Threats.

History- Yes, because of the differences in the time period in which traditional and online classes are conducted. Can be remedied through determination of fixed time schedules for each day or class meeting.

Maturation- No, because both classes finished in the same time period, signified by the fact that both groups took their exams simultaneously and within one setting/location.

Testing- No, since utilization of the ANOVA within-subjects and between-subjects test was the most appropriate statistical test to be conducted for this type of study.

Instrumentation- Yes, because there are other more efficient ways from which effectiveness can be assessed. Instruments focusing on actual time spent for the course, especially for online students,…

Acids and Bases Juice for
Words: 797 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50645475
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The students did the same with lemon juice and milk of magnesia, after cleaning out their pipets and the wells. The students then recorded the color changes on their worksheet.

It was rewarding to see students carefully test these substances with great curiosity and care, as they could not guess what the result would be. The more challenging part came when the students had to mix acidic and basic solutions, including vinegar and baking soda, and lemon juice and milk of magnesia together and record the results. This was to show how when an acid is added to a base, its acidity level falls as it becomes neutralized, changing the color of the red cabbage water. The opposite occurs when a base is added to an acid. The students were encouraged to try their own mixtures of different substances on hand.

A left the classroom feeling that the students had…

Works Cited

Juice for Sleuths." Chemistry 3090. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at

Browse the PA State Standards
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eview two separate Internet resources. In a separate document, write two or three paragraphs, per source, evaluating the resource by at least three of the following standards: age-appropriateness, the accuracy of the content, usability of the resource in the classroom, and the accommodation of different learning styles. Cite the resources you evaluated.

This resource is very good for my lesson plan because it focuses on engaging students in the actual properties of a polygon. It is age appropriate at the 8th grade level for several reasons. First it is a very sophisticated project in that the instructions for constructing this polygon is complex, therefore it takes high cognitive skills in order to build such a project. It is ambitious enough that the entire class is engaged and that at this grade level students will have enough knowledge to be both challenged in its construction while still feeling that they…

Resources section of the template in APA format.

My Autobiography
Words: 2913 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1399239
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Autobiography of Iviannette Figueroa

In this paper, I will describe my life and how my life experiences have shaped the person that I am today, how they have impacted my dreams, and what I intend to do in the future. In this paper I explore my childhood and how the difficulties that I encountered in that childhood have helped shape the woman I am today. The woman that I am today is a mother, a wife, and a student working towards admission into the respiratory therapist program. Generally, I have worked hard to put a difficult childhood behind me. As a result, I have to acknowledge that an autobiographical paper was very challenging for me. I do not like to think about how my childhood has impacted the woman that I am today. While I am generally self-confident, I realize that the things I like the least about myself are…


Deaux, K. & Snyder, M. (2012). The Oxford handbook of personality and social psychology.

New York: Oxford University Press.

DiCanio, M. (2004). Encyclopedia of violence: Frequent, commonplace, unexpected. Lincoln,

NE: Mystery Writers of America.

Native Americans in Public Schools
Words: 928 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27847544
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Indian Education

Although sometimes it goes unrecognized, ethnicity or other superficial prejudices can help to determine an individual's role in a group or community. For example, in a community that is predominately white, those who are among this majority will often receive the most opportunities. Although this does not necessarily guarantee their success, those individuals in the majority will often have the first chance to fulfill the desirable roles. By contrast, individuals within the minority might commonly receive a mediocre education as well as more obstacles to have the same opportunities as other groups; sometimes these obstacles are virtually insurmountable. The feeling of unfairness and inequality can led many students who are disadvantaged to give up or drop out and their futures do not have the same probability for success. In the short story "Indian Education" by Sherman Alexie, the author tells a story in which the stereotypes that people…