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Air Traffic Control Safety Issues

Words: 1293 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78313629

911 tragedy, many politicians and airline industry representatives began to search for improvements to the Airline Traffic Control system, or ATC. These improvements were deigned to increase security and safety for all flight personnel, as well as for all passengers. This paper will outline some of the changes made to the ATC systems, and will discuss the benefits of each new policy or procedure.

One of the most significant changes to ATC has been the implementation of key technology, deployed at the headquarters of NOAD, located in Colorado Springs. This technology, known as Explorer, enables the NOAD team to monitor all commercial aircraft flying across the country at any given time. Previously, the technology had been used solely to monitor for incoming missiles, or military planes (Carr and Cone, 2002). The FAA also added a staff of air traffic controllers to the NOAD base, as well as in many busy…… [Read More]


Belger, M. (2004, June). Written testimony to the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. Retrieved online April 29, 2005 from Global Security. Web site: .

Carr, D. And Cone, E. (2002, April). When air traffic control became national defense. Baseline, 3, 163.

FAA. (2002). Part 6: air traffic services. 2002 Security Updates. Retrieved online April 29, 2005 from Web site: /asd/2002Update/PDF/AT_services.pdf" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Fourth Amendment it Is a Traditional Belief

Words: 1651 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16725417

Fourth Amendment

It is a traditional belief in America that a man's home is his castle, meaning that he is lord and master of his home and no one may enter, not even the government, without his permission. This was such an important issue among the American colonists that it was included into the Constitution when they broke away from Great Britain. In short, the fourth amendment states that no private property could be searched or seized without a proper warrant; and a warrant could not be issued without due cause. Over time belief in this absolute principle has gradually softened and a number of exceptions to this rule have come into place. Police and other authorities have been given exceptions to this rule in certain circumstances and it is not uncommon for evidence, that was gathered without a warrant, to be accepted in a trial. This is the situation…… [Read More]


"Fourth Amendment: Search and Seizure." U.S. Government Printing Office.

Retrieved from -


Georgia v. Randolph, 278 G. 614,604 S.E. 2d 835. (2006). Retrieved from
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Impact of Homeland Security

Words: 847 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37427078

Homeland Security

There are those who cite the failure of the Department of Homeland Security since the attack of September 11, 2011 however, the successes of Homeland Security are clearly noted in the work of others. This study will review the successes of the Department of Homeland Security.

IT Developments

The Government Accountability Office in its 226-page report states that the Homeland Security Information Network, which is the core of the Department's mission is a "secure portal for security alerts, advisories and information on homeland security technologies, and is used by a large network of federal, state, local, and private sector organizations, from emergency management to law enforcement and critical infrastructure providers." (Hoover, 2011) Included in the portal are "document libraries, instant messaging, incident reporting, discussion boards, and numerous other features." (Hoover, 2011)

Another success for the Department of Homeland Security is the 'Trusted Internet Connections and Einstein' and it…… [Read More]


Avlon, John (2011) Forty-Five Foiled Terror Plots Since 9/11. U.S. News. Daily Beast. 8 Sept 2011. Retrieved from: 

A Decade After 9/11, DHS Matures Lieberman, Collins Commend Department's Development, Press for Continued Progress. (2011) U.S. Senate on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. 7 Sept 2011. Retrieved from: 

Statement of Gene L. Dodaro (2011) Progress Made and Work Remaining in Implementing Homeland Security Missions 10 Years after 9/11. Testimony Before the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate. Department of Homeland Security. 7 Sept. 2011. Retrieved from: 

Hoover, J. Nicholas (2011) 7 Key Homeland Security IT Developments Since 9/11. Information Week Government. 8 Sept 2011. Retrieved from:
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Local Police in Homeland Security

Words: 1507 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15367405

The most appropriate use of state and local law enforcement counter-terrorism resources (beyond soft target protection and small-scale tactical response) is in a role far less glamorous than preventing the large scale unconventional attacks that present the greatest danger domestically. ather than focusing on prevention, local and state agencies must develop effective implementation plans for orderly evacuation of those unharmed by the initial attack but still located within close enough proximity to suffer from its immediate aftermath. One of their most valuable contributions would be, very simply, emergency management preparation to distribute federally supplied "push packs" each containing approximately seventeen large truckloads of emergency supplies and medications designed to be provided immediately to any area attacked on a large scale by terrorists because antibiotics and the other vital materials in the packs are not any help if they are left sitting on airport tarmacs where federal responsibility for their deployment…… [Read More]


Larsen, R. (2007) Our Own Worst Enemy. Grand Central Publishing: New York.

GPO. (2004) the 9/11 Commission Report. Accessed September 20, 2007, at
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Bureaucracies Can Become Self-Justifying Systems and Replicate

Words: 1739 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 90801753

Bureaucracies can become self-justifying systems, and replicate ineffective administrative behaviors long after they have ceased to work. The Winter Commission eport (1993) was an attempt to provide advice to states and the federal government on the subject of civil service reform. Both bureaucratic as well as political reforms were deemed necessary to 'clean up' the civil service system and render it more effective in addressing the needs of the public. For some states such as Georgia, this has meant eliminating the traditional examination-based hierarchies and systems in which employees had virtual guaranteed employment for life, and instead employing administrators 'at will' (Nigro & Kellough 2008: 550). Merit-based systems have fallen out of favor and there has been greater deference to the independent opinions of managers to decide which employees can provide superior service to the public.

However, the Winter Commission's view of the civil service system was far from dismissive…… [Read More]


Kenney, John. (2011). Who owns snow? The New Yorker. Retrieved: 

Van Ryzin, G.G., Immerwahr, S., & Altman, S. (2008). Measuring street cleanliness:

A comparison of New York City's scorecard and results from a citizen survey. Public Administration Review, 68(2), 295-303. Retrieved March 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1435702201).
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Agencies Working Against Each Other

Words: 361 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4128641


Both the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation are part of the larger, 17 unit organization that is known as the United States Intelligence Community. The CIA and FBI have had a history of conflict and disagreement as history dictates. The most obvious and direct failure of cooperation of these two organizations was revealed in the aftermath of the attacks of 9/11. The institutional differences between these organizations were fully exposed as the intelligence relating to these events have been partially revealed throughout the last decade plus. This essay will provide some details about this conflict and provide some links to some related information about this idea.

The CIA and FBI are both separate units with different missions regarding the safekeeping of America's resources. In past years the CIA has been much more associated with foreign affairs and…… [Read More]

Here is another condensed version: 

Here is an argument suggesting that the attacks were a product of a false flag operation designed to stir emotion and begin a war in the Middle East:

Here is another that describes Operation Northwood's a model of previous false flag attempts:
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City of Norfolk VA 2008

Words: 4546 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 44210269

1-15). One may note that this amount is offset by a reduction in Federal Aid of $-2,596,200, a 29.4% drop (p. 1-15_. Educational expenses and operating the cities' public schools is by far the costliest budgetary item. This is followed by provision of police and fire services.

Costliest Line Item per Department




Personnel Services


Personnel Services


Personnel Services

Personnel Services


Personnel Services

Office of Elections

Personnel Services

General Management

Personnel Services

Non-Departmental Appropriations

Employee Compensation Increases

Community Development

Personnel Services

Parks, ecreation, and Cultural

Personnel Services

Public Health and Assistance

Personnel Services

Public Safety

Personnel Services

Public Works

Personnel Services

Debt Service

Debt Principal

Source: All data was obtained from the Expenditure Summary of the appropriate department section of the budget report.

The biggest expense in every department listed in the report was personnel and/or personnel related expenditures. Personnel services are the largest portion…… [Read More]


City of Norfolk. FY 2008 Approved Departmental Budget. The Office of Budget and Management. Accessed August 24.
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Marshall Plan and the Post

Words: 6775 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 17805296

Thus, paramount American interests were to be presented as being really the interests of the Europeans themselves. It would be a situation wherein America was simply helping along people who were, at present, unable to adequately help themselves. The concept had much in common with the goals of many charity or self-help organizations - people grow and are transformed by learning to help themselves. They are given assistance so as to be enabled to learn the skills and life ways necessary to improve their own conditions. Naturally, everything that was in the "real" interests of Europeans would also be in the interests of the United States. The more similar the peoples of the two continents could become, the more readily Europeans could identify their own aspirations with those of the American people, the closer would be the bond between the two sides. In effect, the new post-ar Europe would be…… [Read More]

Works Cited 

Adelman, Carol. "Foreign Aid: Effectively Advancing Security Interests." Harvard International Review 29.3 (2007): 62+.


Agnew, John, and J. Nicholas Entrikin, eds. The Marshall Plan Today: Model and Metaphor. London: Routledge, 2004.
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Role of a Dispatcher When

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99451937

Without the dispatcher, prioritization of incoming calls would be less organized and could result in tragedy. Moreover, the dispatcher has to be on the ball about prank calls or false alarms, which can impede public safety and drain essential resources.

Dispatchers also often play a key role in directly assisting the public by providing advice and assistance. For example, the dispatcher might need to keep a caller on the line to offer important first aid procedures in a situation in which it is needed. In these situations, the role of the dispatcher is as important as the role of the emergency technician, for some simple advice given over the phone can help save lives. Similarly, the dispatcher will sometimes need to help keep the caller calm in a frightening situation like an armed burglary. Helping someone to refrain from panicking can sometimes mean the difference between life and death.

At…… [Read More]

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How Homosexuality Is Viewed Among Major Religious Groups

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45755983

U.S. Immigration Policy After 911

The terrorist attacks on the United States that took place on September 11, 2001 have had a number of far-reaching effects, among which changes in immigration policy must be considered to be of significance. According to Malone (2003), one of the most dramatic changes is that the U.S. immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), which has served as the primary agency overseeing a variety of immigration issues, was virtually abolished as an autonomous federal agency and, as of February 2003, reconstituted under the new Department of Homeland Security as the Office of Citizenship and Immigration Service. Among the major policy changes is that local and state law enforcement agencies, along with their federal counterparts, are being required (and authorized) to use strict criteria in seeking out and detaining illegal immigrants (Pluvoise-Fenton, 2003).

Prior to 9/11, the normative framework overseeing U.S. immigration policy was the Immigration and…… [Read More]


Immigration and Nationality Act. (2003). Available at .

Malone, J. (2003). INS officially ceases to exist at midnight. The Austin-American Statesman, February

28, A3.

Pluviose-Fenton, V.
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Why I Have Chosen Teaching as a Career

Words: 529 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30103985

Teaching as a Career

Teaching Special Education requires a gentle temperament and devotion to the children. Maturity, regardless of age, and patience is very important. Special Education teacher must be loving, kind, and nurturing in order to make the children feel safe and secure. He or she must also be focused and creative in teaching methods. nd most importantly, present a positive role model for the children. I feel that I have the qualities and experience to become an effective Special Education teacher.

My background is vast and varied. I worked as a secretary at the University of California - Los ngeles for two years. The department in which I worked dealt with the clubs and fraternities on campus, therefore, I was constantly involved with the students and problems that arose from their activities. I spent a little over two years working as an office manager for a doctor's office.…… [Read More]

A then studied and received my real estate license. I worked as an agent for approximately seven years. This position required much the same skills as my other positions, flexibility, patience, and an aptitude for detail. It also required social skills, self-motivation and the ability to enjoy working with people from varying backgrounds. Between 1999 and 2000, I worked 900 hours as a substitute Educational Assistant for all grade levels in Special Education. In this position I worked with mildly to severely mentally challenged students. In 2000, I was hired full time as an Educational Assistant in the Resource Center, and am currently still employed in this position. I tutor multiple subjects, science, consumer math, algebra, social studies, and English, to special educational students. These students are mainstreamed into regular educational classes, however, still need tutoring. I have approximately 700 hours in this position.

As a wife and mother, I have devoted my life to my family and was always involved with my children and their activities. I have raised two sons, both graduated college. I have an Associate of Arts degree and will be returning to college to work towards a degree in education, with a teaching certificate and an endorsement in Special Education.

The years that I spent working as a substitute, and now full time as an Educational Assistant has given me the opportunity to understand and fully appreciate this field of study. I feel my diverse working background and life experience gives me the foundation for dedication in this area. I enjoy teaching and working with the students is very rewarding for me. I am confident that I have chosen the right career to move into at this time in my life and feel comfortable that I possess the qualities to become an effective teacher.
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National Concern on Security

Words: 738 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84348647

Safe After 911?

Life is different after 9/11. We are not as safe as we thought we were before 9/11. The terrorists who attacked the United States not only killed Americans. To some extent, they killed the American way of life. This isn't to say the life was perfect in America before the terrorists struck. It wasn't. The fear we felt before the attacks was a personal fear, though. It was the everyday fears that everyone has to some degree. This has been altered considerably. We worry now about terrorists attacking our country in ways that we have learned about, such as the plane attacks or chemical strikes. We also worry about the ways we can be threatened and not have any idea of what type of attack is planned, or where it might occur.

There are so many repercussions from the attacks on 9/11. The economy has suffered and…… [Read More]

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Treatment of Traumatic Injuries and

Words: 2501 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 80812246

As cellular phone usage has increased the emergency response systems in rural areas has found itself being jammed with over use while the traditional wired trunk lines go unused. Unfortunately, balancing the cost of adding new wireless trunks line in order to meet the new demand has to be balanced against the cost of maintaining the old wired trunk lines. Due to the fact that cell phone coverage is not universally available in rural areas, traditional wired phone access is still needed so rural areas must still adequately meet the needs of both technologies, the old and the new. (Kurtis)

The new E-911 system is an enhanced version of the old 911 system. The advance of wireless technology has allowed the transmission of more information in a much more efficient manner. Under the E-911 system, the 911 operator can easily identify the telephone number of the person calling and any…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chapman, S. a. (1998). Emergency Use of Cellular (mobile) telephones.

Federal Communications Commission. (2010). Wireless 911 Services. Washington D.C.: FCC.

Habib, I.M. (20007). Wireless technologies advances for emergency and rural communications. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing .

Kurtis, M. (2004). Deploying E-911 Phase II in Rural America. Business Source Complete .
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International Students Coping With Culture

Words: 2514 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2151347

g. culture shock, potential solutions and/or considerations to better overcome potential negative consequences are examined during the proposed literature review.

Research Questions to Guide Exploration

The research questions proposed for this study, presented in the previous chapter will help ensure sources remain in tune with proposed aims and objectives.

1. hat challenges/scrutinizes currently confront Middle Eastern Students attending George Mason University, located in the heart of Northern


2. How did 911 impact policies related to Arabian students?

3. Do Arabian students and/or the U.S. gain any intrinsic value(s) from time invested to study in the U.S.

Along with answering these research questions, additional consideration will be invested in culture shock, George Mason University; U.S. government policies following the 911 disaster; positive counters to culture shock and other relevant current concerns.

2.2: In the U.S.A.

U.S. Government Policies Following the 911 Disaster

George Mason University actively promotes positive cultural interactions.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arensberg, Conrad M. (1964). Introducing Social Change. Aldine Publishing Company. Chicago, IL

Campus Blues. Campus Center. (2001) Some Facts Psychologists Know About Foreign Student' Adjustments. Retrieved (7/16/02) at

CNN Law Center. (May 2002). INS Aims to Better Track Foreign Students in the U.S. Retrieved (7/19/02) at

Cushner, Kenneth. (1996) Intercultural Interactions: A Practical Guide.
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Why Is the Main Security Program at Airports Still Ineffective

Words: 1452 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6102445

Aviation Security Since 911

How has aviation security improved since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001? hat do reliable sources in the literature say with reference to safety and security in 2015? And how effective is the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) at keeping air travelers safe? This paper covers those issues and in particular provides a number of good sources commenting on the quality (or lack of quality) displayed by the TSA employees.

Generalizations about aviation security in the Post-911 era

For most people who travel by air, the screening at the airports in 2015 is certainly more thorough than it was prior to 911, but there are continuing problems with TSA, as will be documented in this paper. But at the beginning of this paper it is worth reviewing the "Mission" of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in terms of what the U.S. Government wants the public to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blackburn, M. (2012). The TSA Is Coming To A Highway Near You. Forbes. Retrieved August 20, 2015, from .

Federal Aviation Administration. (2014). Mission. Retrieved August 21, 2015, from .

Jacobson, A. (2009). Why have 67,000 TSA Employees Left Their Jobs? PJ Media.

August 20, 2015, from .
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Analyzing the Hearsay and the Sixth Amendments Confrontation Clause

Words: 2732 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 27742404

Hearsay evidence and the Confrontation Clause of Amendment VI.

The main objective of the American constitutional provision under study was: prevention of ex-parte affidavit deposition, which was employed against prisoners in place of personal questioning and cross-questioning of witnesses. (CS/LII Annotated Constitution Sixth Amendment).

The main objectives that this paper will look at include:

The confrontation right is one among the basic assurances of liberty and life

The 6th Amendment's Confrontation Clause assures one key aspect of the process of adversarial trial (Sixth Amendment -- ights of Accused in Criminal Prosecutions)

Challenging questions pertaining to these rights' limits and scope

A set of principles may be derived from available Maryland appeals court and U.S. Supreme Court cases connected with the clause, for aiding busy practitioners or trial judges with speedy and accurate analysis of potential issues relating to it, even right in the midst of trial, where there is no…… [Read More]


Grimm, P., Deise, J., & Grimm, J. (2010). The Confrontation Clause and the Hearsay Rule: What Hearsay Exceptions Are Testimonial? 40(2). Retrieved, from 

HUNT v. STATE. (2009). Retrieved April 8, 2016, from 

(2004). LII / Legal Information Institute. CRAWFORD V. WASHINGTON. Retrieved April 3, 2016, from 

[Petitioner in the case was tried at court for attack and an attempt at murder. Washington State wished to introduce his wife's recorded statement made in the course of law enforcement interrogation, as proof that the purpose for stabbing wasn't self-defense. His wife, Sylvia, didn't testify before trial court judges owing to the marital privilege of the State. Petitioner contended that admission of the evidence implies a violation of his Amendment VI confrontation right.]
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The Confrontation Clause and the Sixth Amendment

Words: 2732 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26606538

Hearsay evidence and the Confrontation Clause of Amendment VI.

The main objective of the American constitutional provision under study was: prevention of ex-parte affidavit deposition, which was employed against prisoners in place of personal questioning and cross-questioning of witnesses. (CS/LII Annotated Constitution Sixth Amendment).

The main objectives that this paper will look at include:

The confrontation right is one among the basic assurances of liberty and life

The 6th Amendment's Confrontation Clause assures one key aspect of the process of adversarial trial (Sixth Amendment -- ights of Accused in Criminal Prosecutions)

Challenging questions pertaining to these rights' limits and scope

A set of principles may be derived from available Maryland appeals court and U.S. Supreme Court cases connected with the clause, for aiding busy practitioners or trial judges with speedy and accurate analysis of potential issues relating to it, even right in the midst of trial, where there is no…… [Read More]


Grimm, P., Deise, J., & Grimm, J. (2010). The Confrontation Clause and the Hearsay Rule: What Hearsay Exceptions Are Testimonial? 40(2). Retrieved, from 

HUNT v. STATE. (2009). Retrieved April 8, 2016, from 

(2004). LII / Legal Information Institute. CRAWFORD V. WASHINGTON. Retrieved April 3, 2016, from 

[Petitioner in the case was tried at court for attack and an attempt at murder. Washington State wished to introduce his wife's recorded statement made in the course of law enforcement interrogation, as proof that the purpose for stabbing wasn't self-defense. His wife, Sylvia, didn't testify before trial court judges owing to the marital privilege of the State. Petitioner contended that admission of the evidence implies a violation of his Amendment VI confrontation right.]
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Law Enforcement How Technology Is

Words: 2126 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92113740

"After September 2001 law enforcement agencies realized the potential devastation and chaos an act of terrorism can cause. The Council was created to improve the ability of the Police Department to respond to a situation and educate the Department and the community." (ichmond Police Department, 2004)

Police departments have had to become terrorist experts. The Homeland Security Terrorism Advisory Council for example is a collaboration of sworn officers and civilian employees with diverse backgrounds. Many of these members are or were leading members of specially trained units or have extensive training in SWAT, bomb technology, military assault, hazmat crime analysis, international terrorism intelligence, strategic planning and many other legal units such as basic attorneys. Through technology and experience, the Homeland Security Terrorism Advisory Council should be able to identify, acquire, plan, and advise on terroristic crisis. With this knowledge base the unit should be able to therefore anticipate, prevent, and…… [Read More]


Boyd, David G. (1995). On the cutting edge: law enforcement technology. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 7/1/1995.

Dempsey, Tom, Department of Government and Public Affairs, & Newport News. (1997, November 1). Computer Communications Technology Facilitates Law Enforcement. Retrieved September 16, 2004, at 

Division of Emergency Communications. (n.d.). Captain Linda Samuel. Retrieved September 16, 2004, at

Richmond Police Department. (n.d.). Richmond Police Department. Retrieved September 16, 2004, at
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Social Psychology and Note How

Words: 849 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 68492125

Part C

A number of excuses are given over the course of the film. The brother and sister of one of the perpetrators said they initially assumed the killer was drunk and disoriented. Later, they say that they didn't want to be involved in something 'negative.' The girlfriend of one of the killers also said he initially sounded drunk and confused. When she discovered the body of the victim, she called 911, but refused to give much information. The mother of one of the killer's friends says she was initially told the victim was fine, and then assumed he had been taken to an area hospital after the body was discovered. When 911 was called -- twice -- the vague attitude of both of the callers caused emergency personnel to treat the call as a non-emergency.

Decision tree

Source: Prevos, Peter. (2006, January 3). Explanation models for the bystander effect…… [Read More]

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Disaster Recovery Plan XYZ Retail

Words: 2422 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96271196

Avoid dangerous spots near a window, hanging objects, mirrors, or merchandise fixtures

If you take cover under a piece of furniture, be sure to hold onto it. If the furniture moves be prepared to move and navigate along with it

Hold the position until the aftershock abates and it's safe to proceed further.

Scenario 4

A pandemic or other people disaster has struck, and people resources (employees) have been impacted.


Being located in South Florida, heavy rains will undoubtedly occur. These rains coupled with the high prevalence of winds increases the likelihood of a flood. This problem is further compounded as the hurricane season is south Florida is predicated with high winds and rain. Floods can be troublesome for XYZ personnel as merchandise is damaged, the threat of electrical damage is increased, and the water damage to the facility can be substantial (United States Department of Commerce, 2006). In…… [Read More]


1) Amanda Ripley. "Floods, Tornadoes, Hurricanes, Wildfires, Earthquakes... Why We Don't Prepare. "Time. August 28, 2006.

2) Burgos, Jr., Nestor P. (11/07/2010). "Iloilo power firms asked to explain brownouts." Philippine Daily Inquireir. Retrieved 22 July 2012.

3) Dobson et al. Blackout Mitigation Assessment in Power Transmission Systems. System Sciences 2003. July 20, 2011

4) Petroski, Henry (2006). Levees and Other Raised Ground. 94. American Scientist. pp. 7 -- 18..
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Davis V Washington and Deuteronomy

Words: 924 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 57149354

Davis v Washington

The so-called "Confrontation Clause" of the Sixth Amendment states that "in all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right…to be confronted with the witnesses against him." The plaintiff in Davis v. Washington claimed that the admission during trial of a recording of his ex-girlfriend's 911 call after he had beat her up qualified as a "testimonial" statement, and thus the girlfriend's refusal to take the witness stand and be cross-examined qualified as a violation of his Sixth Amendment right. The U.S. Supreme Court found, more or less unanimously, that the 911 call did not count as testimony and therefore Davis' inability to confront the ex-girlfriend during trial was not a violation of his Sixth Amendment rights.

What if the 911 call was instead a text message and photograph taken with a similar phone, as in the hypothetical outlined above? This becomes slightly more difficult to adjudicate.…… [Read More]


Daniel, Chapter 13.

Deuteronomy, Chapter 19.

MacCarthy, T.F. (2007). MacCarthy on cross-examination. Chicago: American Bar Association Publishing.

Worrall, J.L. (2012). Criminal procedure: From first contact to appeal. (4th Ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
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Letter of Advocacy in Re

Words: 2021 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 58185622

his work has reviewed the opinion of the judiciary and other experts in the field of law and has found that in 2006, this was addressed in 18 U.S.C. 921(a)(20) which effectively states that the individual who has had one or all three of their civil right taken away from them will necessarily upon restoration of one of these will effectively have all of these restored upon seeking restoration of one of these civil rights.


he opinion of professional advocates, Congress and the U.S. Supreme Court along with others in the judiciary capacity hold that the restoration provision regarding civil rights reinstatement "...reflects that an ex-offender currently has the rights to vote, run for office, and serve on a jury, thus is considered to be a law-abiding citizen, and should not be subject to a lifetime prohibition on firearms ownership." (Halbrook, 2006) herefore, it can be understood that the…… [Read More]

The Insiders Guide for Gun Owners (2002) the Gottlieb Tartaro Report Issue 090, June 2002. Second Amendment Foundation.

Felony Disenfranchisement Laws in the U.S. (2003) Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd. Online available at 

Letter of Advocacy: Reinstatement... Requirements
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Emergency Disaster Planning in Case

Words: 3418 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3361979

.Additional batteries are also needed, however, not the rechargeable batteries or flashlight. To help full the numerous lists of "necessary" items to prepare for an emergency disaster the army/navy retailer is generally not the best place to purchase batters; bottled water; etc.. These stores do on the other hand provide emergency water filtration and purification products. They also market field food prep kits and portable cooking accessories. Other items readily available at these stores include: "Shelter -- military surplus blankets, cots, sleeping bags, tents, duffels, shovels... outerwear are very practical, well-made and inexpensive components of any home disaster preparation kit. Military-style inflatable lifeboats and vests are great for flood use." Gas masks, on the other hand, are not a particular item needed for emergency disaster planning and as Hawver contends, "best promoted as Halloween items rather than as effective for use in emergency situations." In the same sense, helmets, chemical…… [Read More]


Bauer, Jim. (2005). "How To: Survive A Natural Disaster." 19 November 2006. .

Boston, Gabriella. "Shelter from disaster; Homes should be stocked with food, first-aid kit for emergencies.(FAMILY TIMES)," The Washington Times, March 7, 2004.

Brewer, E. Cobham. (1898) "[Scornful Dogs will eat dirty Puddings.]." Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Philadelphia: Henry Altemus, 1898;, 2000. 23 November 2006. .

Bubny, Paul. "Survival & emergency gear: a state of readiness: hurricane season is a good time to emphasize survival and emergency gear, but disasters can strike any time of year.," ANSOM (Army, Navy, Supplies, Outdoor Merchandise), July 15, 2006.
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Corrections Police Law Enforcement Police Technology

Words: 3819 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94009628

The middle of the decade of the 1980's was witness to the creation of the Technology Assessment Program Information Center and the Technology Program Advisory Agency. Their functions were as follows:

Technology Assessment Program Information Center: Picked up laboratories for testing equipment, supervised the testing process, published reports concerning the results that the lab released after testing.

Technology Program Advisory Agency: This was a large advisory body of senior local and federal law enforcement officials which are the predecessors to that which exists today

Important in the advancement of police protection was the creation and application in use of pepper spray.

VI. The Role of the National Institute for Justice in the Development of Law Enforcement technology:

The National Institute of Justice issued a "mandate in its capacity as the criminal research and development arms of the U.S. Department of Justice was to improve and strengthen the nations' system of…… [Read More]


Are U.S. Police Agencies Being Outpaced in 09-28-04 [Online] available at http://www.policeone.come/policeone/frtonend/parser.cfm?object+Product Categories&te

Visteon Provides the Latest in Law Enforcement Technology to Alkland County Sheriff Bouchard PR Newswire 10-29-05 [Online] available at 

Satellite Technology Boosts Officer Safety 26 Jan 2004 [Online] available at http:

NIJ: Autoloading Pistols for Police Officers: NIJ STandard Series: Law Enforcement and Corrections Standard and Testing [Online] available at
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Business Plan Professional Medical Transportation In Order

Words: 397 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Business Plan Paper #: 83864235

Business Plan

Professional Medical Transportation:

In order to prepare a Business Plan, it is worthwhile to note that professional medical transportation can be offered both as an emergency as well as non-emergency service. Services offered could be Priority Medical Dispatch, 911 Pre-arrival instructions, Emergency Ambulance Service, Wheelchair service and Scheduled Ambulance Service. Since Priority Medical dispatch will be taking the 911 calls, it has to be ensured that ambulance possessing the most sophisticated equipment and qualified medical experts reach during emergency situations. As regards 911 pre-arrival instructions, the dispatchers will be answering 911 callers, the information they require to tackle an emergency medical situation till arrival of the ambulance. (Services we offer)

Under Emergency Ambulance Service, paramedics and emergency medical specialist have to attend to emergency calls and deal with transfers among health care facilities, round the clock, all seven days in a week. Under Wheelchair service, non-emergency patients using…… [Read More]


Medicaid/Reach up Program. Vermont Public transport Association. Retrieved from  Accessed on 6 February, 2005

Medical Transportation. Prince William Health System. Retrieved from / Accessed on 6 February, 2005

Services we offer. Allina Hospitals and clinics. 2004. Retrieved from  Accessed on 6 February, 2005
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Establishing a Community Policing Program

Words: 5970 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54696928

According to ohe and his colleagues, though, "Over time, however, there has been a tendency for departments to expand their programs to involve a larger number of officers and to cover wider geographic areas. Besides these special units, a number of police departments also expect all of their officers to embrace the principles of community policing and to undertake at least some community problem-solving activities" (ohe et al., 1996, p. 78).

Constraints to Implementation study by Sadd and Grinc in 1994 concluded that, of all the implementation problems these programs faced, "the most perplexing... was the inability of the police departments to organize and maintain active community involvement in their projects" (p. 442). Hartnett and Skogan suggest that because every community is unique, the implementation problems will likewise be local in nature but there have been some consistent problems reported with implementation across the country that can serve as a…… [Read More]


Bass, S. (2001). Policing space, policing race: Social control imperatives and police discretionary decisions. Social Justice, 28(1), 156.

Comey, J.T., Hartnett, S.M., Kaiser, M., Lovig, J.H., & Skogan, W.G. (1999). On the beat: Police and community problem solving. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Davis, G.J., III, & Gianakis, G.A. (1998). Reinventing or repackaging public services? The case of community-oriented policing. Public Administration Review, 58(6), 485.

Fielding, N. (1995). Community policing. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
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Sociology Comprehending September 11 Attacks Through the

Words: 2577 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72239595


Comprehending September 11 attacks through the eyes of Emile Durkheim

This research paper discusses a current event through the eyes of a social theorist. The orks Cited five sources in MLA format.

Societies form individuals and social orders of different kinds produce different individuals. Hence our research paper will revolve around the following thesis statement:

An individual is the product of his/her own society therefore those who take extreme measures to become what they grow to expect themselves to be and those who strive hard to cooperate with certain groups even at the cost of their own lives, do so as a result of the social external forces that are at work. Both social as well as political elements, primarily cultural components play a pivotal role in forming various groups including the main example of terrorist groups and suicide commandos including those that made the orlds' skyscrapers disintegrate into…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Social Problems. Retrieved April 7, 2003 at 

Arthur & Kroker. Terrorism of Viral Power. CTHEORY THEORY, TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE VOL 24, NO 3.

Achenbach J. THE CLASH; Two professors, two academic theories, one big difference. depending on which is right, September 11 may mark a brief battle against terrorism, or an endless struggle between Islam and the., The Washington Post, 12-16-2001, pp W17.

Goska D. Islam & Terror. Retrieved April 7, 2003 from:
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Athletic Injuries

Words: 3570 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68475215

athletic coach I have garnered a wide variety of skills, as well as an extensive understanding of the standard practices and procedures an individual in the field of exercise science should possess. My past experiences have provided me with substantial knowledge of the principles involved in the prevention and care of athletic injuries. With the following, I hope to illustrate that my experiences and subsequent research have provided me with a broad awareness of typical athletic injuries and treatments as they apply to exercise science.

When a member of my dance squad sprained her ankle it became necessary for me to tape it as to provide additional support. I employed the traditional Gibney basket weave procedure. This consists of an interwoven network of stirrup strips "which cover the plantar surface of the hindfoot and extend proximally on both the medial and lateral aspects of the leg, and horseshoe strips, which…… [Read More]


Boyle, Daniel J.M.D. Sports Medicine for Parents and Coaches. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1999.

Brown, Lee E. And Vance A. Ferrigno. Training for Speed, Agility, and Quickness. New York: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 2000.

Garrick, James G.M.D. And Peter Radetsky, Ph.D. Anybody's Sports Medicine Book. Toronto: Ten Speed Press, 2000.

Levy, Allan M.M.D. And Mark L. Fuerst. Sports Injury Handbook. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993.
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Alternative to a Memorial

Words: 1068 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92464094

9/11 Memorial in New York City

Selection Analysis

"Memorials serve so many essential functions: they give us a context for remembering the past, engaging the present, and reflecting on the future. We are seeking to honor the lives lost in the attacks of 9/11 on New York City -- and on Washington, DC and the flight that ended in Shanksville, PA -- as well as during the attack on the World Trade Center on February 26, 1993. We also need to commemorate the resilience as well as the grieving of survivors, co-workers, neighbors, and citizens profoundly affected. The values of liberty and democracy transcend geography and nationality, and they must be given physical expression as we reimagine Lower Manhattan (Lower Manhattan Developent Corporation, 2003)."


The World Trade Center site was developed and constructed by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey which formed an interstate compact for…… [Read More]


Gonzalez, S. (2012, November 28). Architect for 9/11 memorial tells the story of its creation. Retrieved from Yale News: 

Loos, T. (2011, September 1). Architect and 9/11 Memorial Both Evolved Over the Years. Retrieved from The New York Times: 

Lower Manhattan Developent Corporation. (2003, May 29). World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition. Retrieved from 911

Sisto, C. (2014, May 27). The National September 11 Memorial Museum should have kept the memorial and skipped the museum. Retrieved from The National Review:
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Michigan Community Child Watch Programs

Words: 1228 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46397554

1. The Michigan Community Child Watch Program is a program dedicated to helping deter crimes against children. Being a Michigan based program, it helps spread education and awareness of child victims. However, the program has it weaknesses.

2. Established in 1979, the Michigan Community Child Watch Program offers the community a chance to minimize the risk of children becoming victims of crime. Administered as a joint effort by school districts and local law enforcement agencies, the Community Child Watch Program owes its long-running success to volunteers that are trained to recognize, observe, report, and record any suspicious persons and activities. Every trained volunteer gains a handbook for reference and a poster to display on their door or window to show he or she has completed the program and is informed on what steps are needed to prevent crime regarding minors. Window posters have acted to deter would-be criminals like child…… [Read More]

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Gary Heidnik and His Death

Words: 1389 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10778819

ut for some reason he began to collect junk, sometimes as many as four non-working cars and heaps of junk piles scattered around the front yard. Neighbors began to complain, not only about the mess on the lawn but also about the women in the house. Heidnik became furious and there were shouting matches with the neighbors. He also screamed to friends about a coming racial war that whites would win, although he himself dated only black women. His religious and sexual rants continued to fire up the neighbors. Finally, Heidnik withdrew to the basement and locked himself in there, with his arsenal, and daring one of them to come down to the basement and "tell him to his face." One neighbor decided to do this, and Gary shot him in the face. Somehow, charges were dropped, but Heidnik fled the house.

In 1977, he decided to invest the rest…… [Read More]

Bibliography, html. April 14, 2010. . April 14, 2010,
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Democratic Transitions

Words: 1931 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57683391



Democratic Transitions

Dear Mr. President.

Your historic win to become the President of the United States is an event that has altered our view of national policy for each of us here within the borders of our nation and it immediately alters the course of our existing foreign policies which may directly or indirectly affect every man woman and child on the planet. We are here to suggest that your foreign policy analysis must be considered to be interdisciplinary because it will draw from a variety of theoretical approaches. Usually, public pundits have added emphasis on presidential leadership as key components of United States foreign policy so it is critical that you understand what else is needed to have, create and implement a successful foreign policy process.

The success of your policies, your cabinet and all associated policy makers will require an implementation of various underlying theories towards…… [Read More]


Elliot, John. (2000). "How Clinton Created A New Love Affair." New Statesman. 04/03/2000, Vol. 129, Issue 4480, p30, 1p

Badertscher, Eric. (2005). "George Washington." George Washington; edited by Sara Ann McGill. P 1-4, 4p.

Solomon, Jay. (2009). "U.S., India Expand Counterterrorism Cooperation." Wall Street Journal Online. (2009). Retrieved on December 15, 2009, from online.wsj at 

Stein, Janice Gross. (2008). "Foreign Policy Decision-Making: Rational, Psychological, And Neurological Models." Retrieved on December 15, 2009, from
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Domestic Violence and Poverty Appear

Words: 355 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21062583

Each 911 call reporting an assault by a family member or member of the household will be considered a domestic violence incident. Income will be determined by looking at the tax records for the individuals listed as the tenant or owner of the location identified in the 911-telephone call. The phone calls will be tracked, and the researcher will determine how many of those phone calls end up in a conviction. Because domestic violence offenders can frequently plead-down, any conviction stemming from the alleged family violence incident will be considered a domestic violence conviction for the purposes of the study.

After collecting six months worth of initial phone calls, and tracking the resolution of those calls through the legal system, the researcher will correlate the number of calls attributable to each member of a socioeconomic group with income to determine whether domestic violence varies with income. After making that determination,…… [Read More]

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Terrorism Has a Long and Violent History

Words: 3383 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12639816

Terrorism has a long and violent history and incidents of terrorism have been recorded from at least 2,000 years ago. Acts of terrorism have included political assassinations, violent political revolutions, hijackings, skyjackings, and bombings intended to attract attention, shock, intimidate and instill fear. Before the 911 terror attacks the threat of terrorism, though always a potential danger, was of an episodic nature, and seemed to be under control. The devastating attacks on the orld Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, however, have brought terrorism to the center stage of world politics and exposed the vulnerability of soft civilian targets to a small but determined group of terrorists. The issue of terrorism and home security now dominates the foreign policy of most countries including the United States. The focus on terrorism has also forced people to think deeply about its root causes, which may have historical, cultural, political,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. "The Holy Qur'an." Translation in English. Wordsworth Classic of World Literature. UK: Wordsworth Edition Limited: 2000

Chomsky, Noam. "Who are the Global Terrorists?" Z-Net. May 19, 2002. April 22, 2005.

Cohn, Marjorie. "Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) (2002): 25+.

Hoffman, Bruce. "Terrorism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. 2005. April 22, 2005.
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Business Plan for a Residential and Day Treatment Facility

Words: 3843 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Business Plan Paper #: 49410881

Business Plan Assisted Living Facilities

Residential and Day Treatment Facility

Business Plan

Residay Home and Residential Care provides assisted living solutions for senior adults. Residay Home and Residential Care is dedicated to making the provision of the highest quality care to senior citizens requiring or desiring an assisted living facility. Residay Home and Residential Care is located in the Tennessee Valley Area of North Alabama and is an alternative to the generally larger and less personal senior assisted living facilities specializing in the ability to make provision of a very high level of care in a smaller and more personal environment. Residay Home and Residential Care makes provisions of assistance to seniors in their activities of daily living including assisting with medication, meals, reminders, personal grooming, physical therapy and other such assistance. Further provided by Residay Home and Residential Care are opportunities for companionship, entertainment, and activities, which seniors enjoy…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Administration on Aging, Department of Health and Human Services (2005). Fact Sheets: Eldercare Locator.

Administration on Aging. (2004). Report to Congress. Long-term Care Ombudsmen Report, Fiscal Year 2004. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Aging.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (1996). Medical Expenditure Panel Survey: Nursing Home Component. Retrieved from: .

Alabama State Board of Health, Alabama Department of Public Health, Division of Licensure and Certification Administrative Code. Chapter 420-5-4 Assisted Living Facilities. Retrieved from:
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Terrorism Response and Local Police

Words: 3075 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 3887390

Local Police Response to Terrorism

The Council of State Governments

The council of State Governments is a body of representatives of all states, Territories within the ambit of the U.S. And Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. It is an organization that provides vital data and statistics towards excellence in running the matters of the state. It seeks to enable the three apex institutions, viz., legislature, judiciary and the executive with intellectual inputs with a national perspective, innovative technological tools grooming effective and quality leadership and maintaining the autonomy of the states at the same time. It provides as a base for resolution of intra and inter-sate conflicts and mutually beneficial action plans.


Terrorism is an illegal act of force or violence to exact on any public domain to put the government under duress and thereby extract social or political mileage and seek objectives for a particular community or group. Terrorism,…… [Read More]


Chapman, R., Baker, S., Bezdikian, V., Cammarata, P., Cohen, D., Ph.D., Leach, N., Schaprio, A., Scheider, M., Varano, R., Boba, R. (2002). Local Law Enforcement Responds to Terrorism Lessons in Prevention and Preparednes. The Police Foundation, Washington D.C.

Ed. Harris, (2001). (Director of emergency communications, Austin Police Department).Telephone Interview.

Flynn, Edward, (2001). (Chief of Police, Arlington County Police Dept.)Letter.Washington Post.

Gene Voegtlin and Jennifer Boyter. Legislative Alert -- State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Programs Face Cuts. International Association of Chiefs of Police. Retrieved on 23rd September, 2014 from