According to the 911 Commission Report, in effect, the U.S. was transformed. The people killed in these attacks included more than 2,600 at World Trade Center, 125 at the Pentagon, and 256 on the four planes which were more than the causalities occurred at Pearl Harbor in 1941.
young Arabs of extremists group in Afghanistan were involved in it. In September 2001, the terrorists warned the U.S. media, the congress, the government, and the public that they would kill large number of U.S. citizens. Usama Bin Ladin was behind the planning of these attacks.
War on Terror
Reagan was the first who used "war against terrorism" in 1984 soon after bombing in Beirut in 1983. President Bush launched the war on terror on September 20, 2001 during his address to a joint session of congress when he said,
"Our 'war on terror' begins with al Qaeda, but it does not end there. It will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped and defeated."
Hence, the U.S. along with its allies attacked Afghanistan on October 7, 2001 so as to terminate Taliban regime.
Several countries enacted anti-terrorism laws included the freezing of accounts of the suspected terrorists. After 9/11 attacks, Muslims faced the increased hatred against them in the U.S.
Sikhs were stereotyped as Muslims due to their turbans and beards. On September 15, a Balbir Singh Sodhi was murdered in Arizona. In various cities, several Islamic institutions were damaged.[footnoteRef:1] [1: http://lexfridman.com/blogs/thoughts/2011/09/10/people-killed-on-and-after-911/]
In his book How Does It Feel to Be a Problem?: Being Young and Arab in America (2008), Moustafa Bayoumi told about the deportation and arrest of Arabs and Arab-Americans by various government organizations.
According to Col W. Patrick Lang (2004), a former defense intelligence officer at the Defense Intelligence Agency, the Bush had planned the invasion on Iraq in the spring of 2000, long before the 9/11 attacks.
Barnett's New Map and U.S. Vision of World
In his books, Blueprint for Action: A Future Worth Creating and The Pentagon's New Map: War and Peace in the Twenty-First Century, Thomas P.M. Barnett argues that U.S. can play a vital role in ending civil war and terrorism. This will provide help in making the world safer for capitalism and liberty, and fighting against global poverty.
Barnett implies that the U.S. should cooperate with its competitors like China and Russia on broadening globalization to Africa and the Middle East. Here, creating a global middle class identity is a challenge for America and its allies.
Barnett discusses that China will be ultimately integrated into the world economy and political liberty. America can play an important role in empowering them; otherwise, the retreat may allow others to manage this process.
In The Pentagon's New Map: War and Peace in the Twenty-First Century, Barnett divides the world into two groups: the Functioning Core, which has economic interdependence, and the Non-Integrated Gap, which has unstable leadership and no international trade.
The Functioning Core is further divided into Old Core i.e. Australia, Japan, North America, and Western Europe, and New Core i.e. Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, India, Russia, and South Africa.
The Non-integrated Gap includes most of Africa, the Middle East, Northwest South America, South Asia (except India),, and Southeast Asia. A desirable alternative to terrorism is to provide opportunities for individual livings by integrating the Gap countries into the global economy. The U.S. military can facilitate this integration. For the reason, the U.S. military should not think of war in war connotation but in demographics, energy, investment, security, politics, trade, immigration, etc., association.
U.S. Vision of the World
The term "geopolitics" is used for the contention between great powers for control over resources, territory, geographical positions, such as harbors and ports, oases, river systems, canals, and other sources of influence and wealth.
Farrar, Straus and Giroux (2002) states that in his times, Teddy Roosevelt considered to turn the United States into an empire. It was a conscious project rather than an accident.
In fact, Iraq and Afghanistan have a geopolitical fact. Dick Cheney and also Democrats like Zbigniew Brzezinski had overtly discussed the U.S. struggle for maintaining its power over contending great powers. This was the Wolfowitz Doctrine uttered in the Pentagon's Defense Planning Guidance document (1994 -- 1999), and disclosed to the press in February, 1992.
This geopolitical competition has its center in South-Central Eurasia, around the Persian Gulf, the Caspian Sea basin, and the surrounding countries of Central Asia. The Persian Gulf possesses two-thirds of the world's oil.
The U.S. began the process of dominating and controlling this region before 9/11. But 9/11 prompted it. President Clinton was the first initiated military ties with Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Georgia, and Azerbaijan. The war against Iraq was intended to hold a dominant position in the Persian Gulf region.
In the Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea area, about 70% of known petroleum reserves are located. Oil is not just a source of fuel but a source of power also. U.S. strategists know, whoever controls Persian Gulf oil controls the world's economy. To sustain its economic growth, after ten years, China will be totally dependent on the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea area for the oil. South Korea, Japan, Europe will have the same case.
Feuer (2006) states that in the Caspian Sea area, Russia, China, and the U.S. are growing powers. The U.S. strives to subordinate these two contenders.
Factors of U.S. Vision of World
First, the World is becoming a global village. The U.S. views it in capitalist prism. The key stimulators behind globalization are economic, demographic, and technological.
Secondly, in some countries democracy is not rooted as was the case with Taliban regime. The U.S. perceives it a threat to social and political orders.
Thirdly, 9/11 attacks underlines the U.S. apprehensions for security.
The fourth factor is the future making of future relations and alliances with the other great powers. These will also have concerns for the coming days.
The final factor is the United States power itself. The United States will strive to remain the world's leading power in every field i.e. military, cultural, economic, and political.
While considering these five factors, we observe the U.S. foreign policy at defining moment. The new approach in their foreign policy is a process of integration. The U.S. is seeking to involve other organizations, countries, and peoples to promote prosperity and peace.
Starting from the neighborhood, the Western Hemisphere to its traditional allies in Europe and Japan, and then to India and China, the U.S. will strengthen its relation for the purpose of integration. Russia, Africa, the Middle East, the Persian Gulf, and Central Asian Republics will also be focused for the purpose.
Grossman, Lev. (2009) and Halabi, (2009) state that U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East has been problematic since the foundation of Israel. To save the oil rich radical Arabian state from the effects of Communism, U.S. has always introduced liberal ideas in the region.
The U.S. always provided support either financial or military to Arab leaders for oppressing their masses and maintaining their rule. This approach gave way to two impacts.
First, democracy did not develop in Arab world, and, second, the extremism got its deep roots in the Middle East. Zunes (2009) argues in the Jerusalem Post, that in 2006, the Bush Administration was supportive of Israeli attack on Lebanon and its expansion to the other regions.
The U.S. wanted to isolate Iran from the rest of the world, so, it banned the nuclear deal among Iran, Turkey, and Brazil. Harvey (2009) states that Obama also sees military solution of dealing with al-Qaeda and does not pay any heed to the sociological conditions.
Burgat (2009) states that the U.S. should instigate relations with moderate Islamists as they are supportive for the Rule of Law. Hamzawy (2005) states that a solution in the Middle East is hidden in the acknowledgement of the local political voices and paying attention to the sociology of the region.
Though the first stage of the post-9/11 efforts was military action, but the long-term success can be achieved through the use of elements of national power which includes secret action, diplomacy, economic strategy, foreign aid, internal defense, intelligence, and law enforcement.[footnoteRef:2] [2: http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/09/07/us-sept11-liberties-idUSTRE7860T420110907]
Soon after 9/11 attacks, various governments across the world passed legislation to cope with terrorism. Germany banned terrorists to settle and increase wealth in the country. Germany, further, extended and developed the law enforcement and intelligence. Canada was the first to pass the Canadian Anti-Terrorism Act. England passed the Prevention of Terrorism Act 2005 and the Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act 200. New Zealand passed the Terrorism Suppression Act 2002.
To assist internal anti-terrorism efforts, the U.S. established the Department of Homeland Security and passed the U.S.A. Patriot Act. The later gave the federal government even more powers including prosecution of suspected terrorists, monitoring of e-mail, telephone communications, and use of internet, and detainment of foreign suspects without any charge.
Historical Beginning of NAFTA (with specific bibliography)
What is NAFTA
The Promise of NAFTA
Structure of NAFTA
Years of NAFTA (NAFTA not enough, other plus and minuses)..
Comparative Statements (Debate)
NAFTA - Broken Promises
NAFTA - Fact Sheet Based Assessment
NAFTA & Food Regulation
NAFTA - The Road Ahead
NAFTA in Numbers
This study set out to examine the inner workings of the North American Free Trade Agreement. The aim of this study is