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This leads him to a key precept of the text, that grammar
education is far too deeply biased by its philosophical conceits, rendering
it a poor educational standard in both disciplines.
Such is the launching point for the larger focal point of the text,
which revolves upon the argument that natural law such as that implicated
by Judeo-Christian and Eastern philosophical value systems must be
preserved against the dehumanizing impact of exclusively rationalist
thought. This drives a vision of the future which echoes the presentation
in such seminal dystopian texts as Orwell's 1984 and Huxley's Brave New
orld. As with these familiar texts, Lewis describes a bleak future in
which rationalism has shifted into aggressive social, psychological and
behavioral control which essentially relieves us of our humanity.
At the crux of the text is a somewhat alarmist and emotionally driven
discourse that transitions from a meditation on education into a…
Lewis, C.S. (1943). The Abolition of Man. Harper One.
Abolition of Man, C.S. Lewis argues that young people should not have their feelings severed. They should be able to coexist with their emotions. He believes that children need to have a foundation of sensitivity so they know right from wrong. The heart harbors sensitivity and the head is charge of justness. The head should overrule what is in the heart if necessary, but the feeling should still exist. Men are created without chests. They are told that they should have motivation and drive. They should achieve in business. They should be powerful rulers, yet they have no hearts.
e must ask several questions when considering Lewis' essay. hat is the mind without the heart? hat kind of rulers are we creating? hat kind of men are we creating. It is true that min are focused on the after, the result of their labors instead of the process. They look…
Lewis, C.S. The Abolition of Man. Macmillan Publishing, New York, 1947
They may know what they have done and freely confess to it, but a true understanding of what they have done is not really present.
It is somewhat like the difference between knowing that jumping off the roof and hitting the ground will hurt, and actually making the jump and understanding what it feels like to hit the ground that hard from 10 or 15 feet up. The concept of what it really means to take another human being's life is not there; nor is the concept of being executed by the state for the taking of that life.
Third, the person must have an IQ that is significantly below average. There are quite a few people out there who do not have an 'average' intelligence score, (around 100 to 110, as previously mentioned), but that does not make them mentally retarded to the point that their reasoning and abilities…
AAMR. Position Statement on Mental Retardation and the Death Penalty. 6 March 2002. AAMR. http://www.aamr.org/Policies/position_statements.shtml .
American Civil Liberties Union. Mental Retardation and the Death Penalty. 26 June, 2002. ACLU Publications. http://www.aclu.org/DeathPenalty/DeathPenalty.cfm?ID=9314&c=63 .
Death Penalty, the. 2002. Human Rights Watch. http://www.hrw.org/campaigns/deathpenalty/mr.htm .
Derbyshire, John. She was just someone. (2000, August 10). National Review Online. Retrieved from http://www.nationalreview.com/nr_comment/nr_comment081000b.shtml
The manner in which consumer goods can affect human affairs, however, differs. hile demand for certain consumer goods can lead to oppression, the way people demand consumer goods may also destroy oppressive practices. hen Britons demanded sugar with no regard to the way sugar and coffee they enjoyed for the breakfast were produced, slavery flourished. But when the Britons began to demand goods that they believed were not causing slavery, the change of tastes undermined slave trade and contributed to the ending of slavery. hile tobacco and cotton were not as important at the time as sugar, they played a similar function in abolitionist and independence movements that fought against slavery.
The function of consumer goods is also linked to material culture. This was the case in the eighteenth century, as books by Dubois and Carrigus and Hochschild demonstrate. European colonial practices that led to the enslavement of tens of…
Dubois, Laurent and John D. Carrigus. Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: St. Martin's Press, 2006. Print.
Hochschild, Adam. Bury the Chain: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire's Slaves. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005. Print.
Civil Rights historian Steve Estes adds: "the ever-present threat of lynching for supposed sexual improprieties meant that their [Black male] survival could depend on their ability to mask their masculinity" (Estes, 2005). Being able to express one's sexuality and desire in an open, healthy fashion and not feel in danger of persecution, in Estes' view, is a critical, but often unacknowledged part of being a man.
Closely guarding the rights to claim the status of man is not particular to America's racial history. "The early modern Spaniards...also assumed that manhood was revealed, in large part, through a person's behavior," through what today might be called "machismo" (Behrend-Martinez, 2005). To be a man in Spain, included "keeping one's word, supporting one's family, heading a patriarchal household, demonstrating sexual prowess, sobriety, maintaining one's independence of thought and action, and defending family and personal honor" (Behrend-Martinez, 2005). Stressing the ability to keep one's…
Estes, Steve. "Introduction." From I am a Man: Race, Manhood, and the Civil Rights
Movement. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2005. [22 Feb 2007] Excerpted at http://uncpress.unc.edu/chapters/estes_i.html
Behrend-Martinez, Edward. "Manhood and the neutered body in early modern Spain."
Journal of Social History. 22 Jun 2005. [22 Feb 2007] http://www.encyclopedia.com/printable.aspx?id=1G1:133934746
Religion and Slavery
Sometime around the year 1818, in Talbot county, Maryland, a child was born to a slave woman named Harriet Bailey. This child, named Frederick Augustus ashington Bailey, was a slave the moment he was born, but through sheer determination, would die a free man. In between his birth and death, Frederick, who later changed his name to Frederick Douglass, suffered under the yoke of slavery, escaped to freedom, and became a great writer, orator, and leader of the abolitionist movement. During his life he wrote three autobiographies, the first, entitled Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, is a graphic description of his early life as a slave, and his struggle to be free. (Douglass) hile Frederick Douglass was not an overly religious man, religion played an important part in his story. Religion brought him comfort and kindness, it helped him to read, but…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. 1845. Literature at SunSite. Web. 24 May, 2011.
Proponent of Slavery
As a Southerner, I believe I know and understand the peculiar institution better than any Northerner ever can. We live and breathe our way of life. The Yankee only presumes to know what is best for us in a way some might call arrogant. While the Northerner looks down upon us from the ivory towers of New England, the Southerner works hard in the fields, training and beating slaves so that the price of cotton and tobacco remains at market rates. We Southerners have provided the bread and butter of the American economy for generations, and suddenly, abolitionists formed of groups of women want to destroy our way of life, tell us what to do, and moralize? We pay good money to keep alive our slaves, but the Yankee wants to exploit us.
The Northerner would envision a world in which miscegenation sullied the racial soil of…
Foner, E. (2012). Give Me Liberty: An American History (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Norton.
Foner, E. (2012). Voices of Freedom: A Documentary History (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Norton.
Harris, L.M. (n.d.). The New York City draft riots of 1863. Retrieved online: http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/317749.html
The Tao does not encourage this type of thinking. ather, the Tao believes that it is natural for man to think for himself and to think logically. When we as humans are not allowed to think for ourselves, we take away the options we have to experience live to the fullest (www.columbia.edu/cu/Augustine/arch/lewis/abolition1.htm).
The Conditioners are not proponents of the Tao, either. Selective breeding goes completely against nature. The Conditioners have stepped totally outside of the Tao and created their own values system. Instead of allowing mankind to grow naturally, they seek to remake mankind to fit their mold. If this is allowed to take place, then we have a race of people that do not know how to think independently or behave. Instead, they think and behave in the manner in which they were conditioned and created. In doing this, the Conditioners ultimate goal is to control and eventually conquer…
Kingsley, David R. (1995). Chinese Religions: Ecological Themes. Pp. 68-83 (Chapter 6) in Ecology and Religion: Ecological Spirituality in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Lotzer, Robert a. (nd). Outline of the Abolition of Man* by C.S. Lewis. Retrieved from http://www.covopc.org/Lewis/Abolition_Man.html .
Naugle, Davey. (2003). An Introduction to and Themes from C.S. Lewis's the Abolition of Man. Retrieved from http://www3dbu.edu/naugle/pdf/3303_handouts/abolition_summary.pdf.
www.columbia.edu/cu/Augustine/arch/lewis/abolition1.htm. Retrieved on April 27, 2010.
The authentic morals behind what are genuinely considered justice, also symbolized by the Tao, are shifting. Man consumes himself here by selfishly yet blindly carrying on as a conqueror mindlessly on a mission as opposed to a team-player. Men are falling away from the standard of justice, the Tao, to a new class of man, one that has claimed everything and will conquer himself.
Man has found ways to defy gravity, generate specific life, and try to conquer death; this is what leads man to strive toward conquering nature, and trying to conquer nature is what makes man conquer himself. Lewis explains this, accordingly, as man deceiving himself. With these scientific advances over nature becomes a "power exercised by some men over other men with nature as their instrument." This is leading to man's domination of some men over other men. These attitudes result in a loss of values and…
Bloss, a Christian evangelist and labor activist who published a newspaper titled "Rights of Man" (Kaye, p. 147).
ere there others whose names are not well-known but who played an important role in the abolitionist movement? According to author Harvey J. Kaye, the co-editor of "Freedom's Journal" was an African-American named Samuel Cornish. Kaye writes (p. 147) that Cornish also launched his own abolitionist newspaper, "The Rights of All." Another free black man, David alker, from North Carolina, was "apparently moved by the Bible, the egalitarian spirit of the Declaration of Independence, and the revolutionary example of Paine's "Common Sense," started his own pamphlet that called on black slaves to "rise up against their white oppressors" (Kaye, p. 148). The pamphlet launched by alker was called: "An Appeal, in Four Articles, Together with a Preamble, to the Colored Citizens of the orld, but in Particular and Very Expressly to Those…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave.
Charleston, SC: Forgotten Books, 1845.
Kaye, Harvey J. Thomas Paine and the Promise of America. New York: Macmillan, 2006.
Lamme, Ary J. "Commemorative Language in Abolitionist Landscape Texts: New York's 'Burned-Over District'." Southeastern Geographer 48.3 (2008): 356-373.
Disorder does not descend from Heaven,
It is the spawn of a woman. 10
Contemporaneous with relocating the capital from Edo to Tokyo was the drawing up of the 'Memorandum on Reform of the Imperial Palace' in which Article 1 states that the emperor would 'deign to hear about all political matters' in the front throne room adding that 'women are to be prohibited from entering the front throne room' 11.
Yoshii Tomozane, enior ecretary for Court Affairs peremptorily dismissed all court ladies, after which a rare few were reselected for appointment. In his dairy, he noted: 'this morning, the court ladies were dismissed in their entirety… the power of women already lasting for centuries has been erased in a single day. My delight knows no bounds." 12.
In this way the power of the 'hens' was removed from the 'Enlightened regime' of Meiji rule and suppressed throughout the country.…
Adler, Philip. World Civilizations. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth / Thomson, 2008
De Vos, George & Wagatsuma, Hiroshi, "Value Attitudes Towards Role Behavior of Women in Two Japanese Villages," American Anthropologist, 63, (1961).
Hastings, S.A. "Gender and Sexuality in Modern Japan" a Companion to Japanese History, Blackwell Pub., 2007
Hendry, Joy, Understanding Japanese Society. London: Routledge, 1991.
The concept of
miscegenation is explored as an avenue which is suppressed in order to
sustain passability in white culture. The Hardin article denotes that this
invisibility, essentially, "is about passing as white, and the resultant
challenge to stable notions of race; however, at the subtextual level, this
notion also seems to be about passing as heterosexual." (Hardin, 103) In
this work, we can find a connection between the narrator's dedication to a
constantly shifting identity and his desire to obscure either a racial or a
sexual identity of any type of impact on those around him.
Ellison levies a pointed criticism at a racially exclusionary society
while simultaneously recognizing the willful decisions on the part of the
protagonist to adopt this disposition. The author illustrates that the
invisibility which he describes is not necessarily always derived from
within the subject. One sentiment on the novel points to an elected…
Ellison, R.W. (1953). The Invisible Man. Random House.
Hardin, M. (2004) "Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man: Invisibility, Race and
Homoeroticism from Frederick Douglass to E. Lynn Harris." Southern
The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers
The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:
a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.
b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.
c. white settlers who administered British rule.
d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.
Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:
a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.
Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:
a. Japanese modernization.
b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.
c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.
d. British Fabian socialism.
When studying the history of the formation of the United States, one usually thinks in terms of separate events and individuals. However, the American republic was established, instead, by a series of important decisions and the joint efforts of some of the most prominent men of all time. In a matter of ten years, these critical interactions among the eight leading figures of John Adams, Aaron Burr, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and George Washington formed a nation that to this day remains one of the most successful "experiments" of democratic governments. As Joseph J. Ellis, the author of Founding Brothers: the Revolutionary Generation states:
What in retrospect has the look of a foreordained unfolding of God's will was in reality an improvisational affair ... If hindsight enhances our appreciation for the solidity and stability of the republican legacy, it also blinds us to the…
" By commerce, one should read the relationship between master and slave in general. Here, Jefferson speaks as a true man of the Enlightenment who cannot accept the degrading submission of a human being.
On the other hand, some of his arguments against slavery are related to manners. Manners should probably be here less regarded as the social conventions of the time, but rather as some sort of collective conscience that should oppose the idea of enslaving another individual. More so, the people's morale, as well as the respect for people tolerating slavery, will be broken by perpetuating slavery.
3. The Sally Hemings Case
The controversy surrounding Sally Hemings is well-known, although it has never been fully proven. Sally Hemings was owned by Jefferson's father-in-law and rumors appeared that Jefferson had fathered five children with Sally Hemings. At that moment, the controversy started as a political quarrel in fact, in…
1. Armitage, David. The Declaration Of Independence: A Global History. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2007
2. Koch, Adrienne, Peden William. The life and selected writings of Thomas Jefferson. Modern Library. 1998.
From Armitage, David. The Declaration Of Independence: A Global History. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2007
Nineteenth Century Reform
The nineteenth century, particularly between 1825 and the outbreak of the civil war in 1861, the United States was in a state of reform. There were five key reform movements that made themselves present in America in the nineteenth century. There was the Utopianism/
Communitarian Movement, which established an ideal society separate from present politics. Educational reforms were important in the creation of taxes to support the public school system, higher education for adults, as well as mandatory education and attendance. The Temperance Movement urged abstinence from alcohol and the oman's Rights Movement was vital in the improvement of the life of women politically, socially, and economically. It also included the battle forged for women's suffrage rights. Humanitarianism was improving the lives of those less fortunate.
Reform in the nineteenth century was generated by secular communities, which arose in the mid 1800s. The primary goal of these…
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. The Transendentalist. 1842. http://www.emersoncentral.com/transcendentalist.htm
Fitzhugh, George. Sociology for the South or The Failure of Free Society. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1998.
Sumner, William Graham. What Social Classes Owe to Each Other. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Press, 2003.
U.S. Constitution. http: www.usconstitution.com/const.html.
e must canonize our own saints, create our own martyrs, and elevate to positions of fame and honor black women and men who have made their distinct contributions to our history." (Garvey1, 1)
Taken in itself and absent the implications to African repatriation that we will address hereafter, this is a statement which seems to project itself upon both Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, mutually driven as they would be by a belief that African men had been deprived of a humanity which it was their duty to see restored. But it is here that we can also begin to observe the elements of Garvey's rather poetic and frequently biblical rhetoric as producing multifarious responses in its future champions. Certainly, the greatest and most daunting common ground between King and Malcolm X in this instance is in their mutual 'creation' of 'martyrs.' They would both sacrifice themselves to the…
Associated Press (AP). (1963). MALCOLM X SCORES U.S. And KENNEDY; Likens Slaying to 'Chickens Coming Home to Roost' Newspapers Chided. New York Times.
Edward, W. (1996). "A Lunatic or a Traitor" by W.E.B. DuBois. African-American Political Thought, 1890-1930: M.E. Sharpe.
Edward1, W. (1996). "The Negro's Greatest Enemy" by Marcus Garvey. African-American Political Thought, 1890-1930: M.E. Sharpe.
Garvey, a.J. (1967). The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey. Routledge.
.. The history of miscegenation in this country...demonstrate[s] how society has used skin color to demarcate lines between racial groups and to determine the relative position and treatment of individuals within racial categories. (Jones, 2000, p. 1487)
Prior to the civil war lighter skinned blacks were more likely to gain their freedom, and own property, through favor or inheritance. This is probably in part to the public, sometimes even official, recognition of their lineage, often they were the product of their white masters and favored slaves.
The large number of mulattoes among the slaves freed in Missouri suggests the master's benevolence was a genuinely warm feeling he had for persons he knew to be his blood relations. By 1860, the presence of 1,662 mulattoes in the total free Negro group of 3,572 in Missouri, indicates considerable race-mixing. (Official Manual State of Missouri, 1973-1974 "The ole of the Negro in Missouri…
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=25779117' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
A good example is the 1985 murder of convenience store clerk Cynthia Barlieb, whose murder was prosecuted by a district attorney bent on securing execution for Barlieb's killer (Pompeilo 2005). The original trial and all the subsequent appeals forced Barlieb's family, including four young daughters, to spend 17 years in the legal process - her oldest daughter was 8 years old when Cynthia was first shot, and 25 when the process ended without a death sentence (Pompelio 2005). During those 17 years, Cynthia Barlieb's family was forced to repeatedly relive her murder.
hen a person is murdered, it is understandable that American society demands justice, particularly on behalf of the victim's family and loved ones. But we can not advocate capital punishment under the guise of protecting the interests of victims' families, and then cut those members out of the process when they do not support the death penalty. and,…
American Civil Liberties Union (2002). "ACLU Praises Supreme Court Refusal of 'Sleeping Lawyer' Case as 'Acknowledgment and Reminder' of Death Penalty Problems." Retrieved Sept. 30, 2006 at http://www.aclu.org/capital/unequal/10466prs20020603.html .
American Civil Liberties Union (2002). "DNA testing and the death penalty." Retrieved Oct. 1, 2006 at http://www.aclu.org/capital/innocence/10392pub20020626.html .
Amnesty International (2006). "Death penalty." Retrieved Sept. 30, 2006 at http://www.amnestyusa.org/abolish/index.do .
Antonio, Michael E. (2006). "Arbitrariness and the death penalty: how the defendant's appearance during trial influences capital jurors' punishment decision." Behavioral Sciences & the Law. March 2006.Vol.24, Iss. 2.
Transcendentalism emerged in early 19th century. It is believed that Ralph Waldo Emerson who denied that he was a transcendentalist started transcendentalism. Amongst his peers, he was seen as the pioneer of American transcendentalism. Emerson has criticized various things in his essay especially regarding the Unitarian church. Other key transcendentalists were Henry David Thoreau, Thomas Parker, Amos Bronson Alcott, Margaret Fuller, James Freeman Clark, and Mary Moody Emerson. Ralph Emerson urged Americans to be themselves and searching for inspiration from Europe. He aimed at encouraging people to think openly and search for answers from nature and art. Emerson held on to the belief that people were naturally good, and they all had limitless potential. Emerson was totally against slavery, but was unwilling to speak up about it initially. Eventually in 1844, he began taking an active role in slavery opposition.
Thoreau pushed for simple living and encouraged people to…
American Constitution: A living, evolving document -- from guaranteeing the right to enslavement in the 18th century to modifications in favor of freedom in the 19th century
Constitution today protects the rights of all in its language, but this was not always the case in its text and spirit. As a political tactic as well as out of personal conviction and experience, Frederick Douglass' characterization of the American Constitution as an anti-slavery document is certainly an admirable piece of rhetoric. Douglass stated that although the America he spoke to at the time of his autobiography My Bondage and My Freedom, was a nation divided between free and slave states and territories, fundamentally America was and "is in its letter and spirit, an anti-slavery instrument, demanding the abolition of slavery as a condition of its own existence" (396)
Slavery, Douglass stated, deprives an individual of his or her dignity, deprives an…
Douglass, Frederick. My Bondage and My Freedom. Available in full text online at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer new2?id=DouMybo.sgm& images=images/modeng& data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed& tag=public& part=6& division=div2[29 Jan 2005].
Lincoln, Abraham. "First Inaugural Address: Monday, March 4, 1861." From Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S.G.P.O.: for sale by the Supt. Of Docs, U.S.G.P.O., 1989. Bartleby.com, 2001. www.bartleby.com/124/. [29 Jan 2005].
Madison, James. "Federalist No. 10." The Federalist Papers. Available in full text online ( http://www.thisnation.com/library/books/federalist/10.html ) [29 Jan 2005].
"The United States Constitution." Available in full text online http://www.house.gov/Constitution/Constitution.html . [29 Jan 2005].
Dr. Martin Luther King's, but Frederick Douglass' influence on the civil rights movement in the United States is just as remarkable. orn a mulatto slave in Maryland, Douglass endured most of the typical trials of slavery during his childhood. Witnessing fellow slaves and family members being beaten by their masters, Douglass resolved to escape and after a few failed attempts, finally managed to secure his freedom with a one-way ticket to New York City in 1838. Over the course of his 77-year life, Frederick Douglass devoted every ounce of his soul to advocating the rights and freedoms of blacks. He successfully fought not just to end slavery but to end segregation, discrimination, and all other forms of racism in America.
When Douglass was about thirteen years old, he first learned how to read and write and once he escaped the bondage of slavery, Douglass honed his literacy skills and became…
Before, during, and after the Civil War, Douglass fought for blacks' rights and freedoms, including suffrage. He even allied himself with feminists and adopted the women's suffrage movement as part of his political agenda. After supporting Lincoln's campaign for presidency, Douglass became a friend and advisor to the president. Douglass encouraged Lincoln to take a more aggressive stance on the issue of slavery during the Civil War.
Lincoln's assassination and Johnson's presidency offered more challenges for Douglass and the outspoken advocates of equal rights for all citizens. During the Reconstruction, Douglass fought alongside the radical Republicans to opposed President Johnson's conservative stance on black rights. A radical Republican congress overrode Johnson's vetoes on several matters, including the Civil Rights Bill of 1866. Douglass was at the forefront of such landmark measures, including the 15th Amendment, granting all men the right to vote.
Although he did not achieve all of his desires, such as universal suffrage including women, Douglass actively helped to change the American perspective on the rights of African-Americans. Douglass was a controversial figure throughout his life, battling prejudice and waves of political opposition. After enduring the personal trials of enslavement, Douglass transformed American politics and set the stage for future civil rights movements.
It might be said that, had Lincoln not been elected, the war might have been put off by a few years, and then a solution might perhaps have been reached. However, as has been demonstrated, the country was moving inexorably toward war and no other solution would work. If the war had been put off by a few years, the result would more than likely have been even more terrible and bloody than it was. General Grant was of the opinion that the war was inevitable. "The Southern rebellion was largely the outgrowth of the Mexican war," he wrote in his Personal Memoirs, in accord with his belief that the Mexican-American War was the result of the South's attempts to extend slavery into Mexican-controlled Texas, "Nations, like individuals, are punished for their transgressions. We got our punishment in the most sanguinary and expensive war in modern times." Grant would then…
This intervention by U.S. In a foreign country, in literal words, changed the course of history for the whole world and still its outcomes are yet, to be decided.
The attack on U.S. By Al-Qaeda, on 11th September, 1998, changed the course of American paradigm of Muslims and gave a strong cause for George Bush's "ar against Terrorism." here thousands of American citizens died in Twin Towers, so did the global efforts of maintaining peace between estern and Muslim countries.
Right after, this attack, U.S. invaded Afghanistan initially through Missile attacks and then landed its troops into this land of rocks, physically. Thousands of American soldiers were deputed there and made to fight the mujahids of Al-Qaeda who were rather well-versed with the seasonal feasibility of their land.
Therefore, initially, U.S. army did faced a lot of difficulties, mainly because of weather and foreignness of the war field. However with…
Bean, Lowell John. "Mukat's People: The Cahuilla Indians of Southern California." Berkeley, California: University of California Press.1972
Bean, Lowell John. "Cahuilla," in California" pp. 575 -- 587. Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, vol. 8. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 1978
Bean, Lowell John, Sylvia Brakke Vane, and Jackson Young. " the Cahuilla Landscape:
Brown, Glenn . "Chapter XX Sculpture." History of the United States Capitol. Government Printing Office. 2007
Strauss on Moral Relativism
The Shifting Sand of Moral Relativism
Current political and social thought which is built on the foundation of moral relativism can no more chart a path for a nation to follow out of confusion into an enlightened and orderly society any more than a blind man can describe an elephant, or a child can pilot a 777 airliner. The tools, talents, skills, and abilities of moral relativism are completely inadequate for leading a nation. As can be seen by the steady social and societal decay which has been evident in our county since political and moral relativism have become the dominantly accepted social understanding since the early 1960's, the fruit of such a philosophy pits one group against another, one segment of the population against another without giving them any shared basis to build upon. 'My rights' replace a shared vision of 'our well-being;' and 'my…
Connor, Ken. Fighting for a Virtuous Nation. Immigrants for America. 2003. Accessed 19 March 2004. http://www.immigrantsforamerica.com/john_adams.html.
Guerra, Marc. The Ambivalence of Classic Natural Right: Leo Strauss on Philosophy, Morality, and Statesmanship. Perspectives on Political Science, Vol. 28, 1999
Petrie, John. John Petrie's collection of Benjamine Franklin Quotes. 2003 Accessed 19 March 2004. http://www.arches.uga.edu/~jpetrie/
Strauss, Leo. Liberalism, ancient and modern. Cornell University Press. 1989.
Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Amelia Bloomer were all instrumental in shifting the status of women in American society. Their writings reveal the personalities, assumptions, and values of the authors. Each of these women took incredible personal risks by challenging the underlying assumptions in the society that women were not valid, valuable members of society. The place of women in American society prior to suffrage was no better than domestic servitude. Anthony forever aligns herself with the likes of Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr., by using the technique civil disobedience to achieve social justice. Each of these women recognized the connection between slavery of African-Americans and slavery of women. They each fought for abolition as well as suffrage, and therefore understood that women's rights were human rights.
When Anthony, Stanton, and Bloomer fought for equality, they did so in a time when more than fifty percent…
Anthony, S. (1872). On women's right to vote. Retrieved online: http://womenshistory.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=womenshistory&cdn=education&tm=443&f=00&tt=14&bt=0&bts=0&zu=http%3A//www.historyplace.com/speeches/anthony.htm
Bloomer, A. (1895). Women's right to the ballot. Retrieved online: http://www.apstudent.com/ushistory/docs1851/suffrge1.htm
Stanton, E.C. (1898). Eighty Years And More: Reminiscences 1815-1897. New York: T. Fisher Unwin, 1898. Retrieved online: http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/stanton/years/years.html#XV
Penal is a word pertaining to punishment and the penal system or penal practices are those related to trial of a person to judge if he should be punished or not and if yes, how much and for how long should he be punished. The penal practices are governed by standard penal laws that are similar yet customized in every country. For example, theft is the same crime but punished with imprisonment in USA, cutting of hands in Saudi Arabia and some time ago, punished by being shot in China. Thus the penal practices can vary from country to country and region to region.
Objective of Penal System
The objectives of penal system are evident and clear. There is a party, a person a group or an organization that committed crime and another party that was wronged. The first objective of penal system is to compensate the affected…
1. Spivakovksy, C. 2013. 'Chapter 1: The Infalliable Science of Offending Behaviour', Racialised Governance: The Mutual Constructions of Race and Criminal Justice, Ashgate Press, pp. 15-37.
2. Davis, A.Y. 1998. 'Racialised punishment and prison abolition', in J. James (ed.), The Angela Y. Davis Reader, Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge, pp. 96-107.
3. Alexander, M. 2010. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, The New Press, New York.
4. Bird, G., Martin, G. & Nielsen, J. (eds.) 1996. Majah: Indigenous Peoples and the Law, Federation Press, Sydney.
Social Analysis of the lues Music in the American Society
The blues, or blues music, has been considered an important and popular music genre in the history of American music. Its history goes back many years ago, during the black slavery period in the American history. lues music was said to have traced its roots in the cotton plantations commonly found in the South, and that blues music sang by the African-American slaves were their forms of protest against the slavery system that the white American society encourages. However, blues music did not proliferate and became prevalent among the black and white American society until after the Emancipation period, wherein most African-American slaves were now freed from bondage to slavery legally, and slavery was now abolished and prohibited to practice in the society, especially in the white American community.
The blues is defined as a "musical style created in response…
David, Angela. "Blues Legacies and Black Feminism." 1998. George Washington University Newsletter Web site: "Women Writers Talk History, Feminism, and Politics." 3 November 2002 http://www.gwu.edu/~wstu/newsletter/spring98/writers.htm .
Douglass, Frederick. E-text of "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave." 1845. Afro-American Almanac Web site. 3 November 2002 http://www.toptags.com/aama/books/book10.htm .
Evans, David. "Demythologizing the Blues." 1999. Institute for Studies in American Music Newsletter. 3 November 2002 http://depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/isam/evans.html.
Herman, Hawkeye. "History of the Blues."
Kabul is a cosmopolitan center and demonstrates a willingness to modernize but outside Kabul old traditions remain strong and there is little interest in these rural areas for any change.
III. Social Factors
The rural nature of Afghan society cannot be over-emphasized. The population of the country is estimated at 24 million but it is highly fragmented into a variety of ethnic groups that are further broken down into tribal groups. This tribal fragmentation has been encouraged by the countries bordering Afghanistan that have, in order to promote their own political agendas, disturbed any efforts by the Afghan central government from uniting these tribes. hat has developed is a system of ethnically-based rivalries supported by localized Islamic religious sects.
Tribal traditions inside Afghanistan tend to be more powerful than either Islamic theology or political philosophy and these traditions can be harsh toward women (Rohde). Gender roles under tribal traditions are…
Bickers, Robert. The Scramble for China: Foreign Devils in the Qing Empire, 1832-1914. New York: Penguin Global, 2011.
Cleary, Thomas. The Essential Confucius: The Heart of Confucius' Teachings in Authentic I Ching Order. New York: Book Sales, 2000.
Countries and Their Cultures. Afghanistan. 2011. 4 May 2011 .
Ellis, Deborah. Women of the Afghan War. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2000.
Christianity claims to be unique and this work in writing will demonstrate the uniqueness in research and show why other religions could not be considered as the way to salvation. The work of J. Hampton Keathley, III discusses the uniqueness of Christianity and states that Christianity is unique "because it stems from the uniqueness of Jesus Christ, the greatest man who ever lived. In Jesus, we have One who has virtually changed every aspect of human life, but sadly, most people are completely oblivious to the reality of how He has so completely impacted the world." (Keathley, 2012)
The uniqueness of Jesus Christ is examined by Keathley from the view of the uniqueness of Christianity as a religion and states of Christianity that "alone of all the beliefs of mankind, be they religious or political or philosophical…" Christianity is the one religion founded upon the bases of "historical acts and…
D. James Kennedy and Jerry Newcombe, What If Jesus Had Never Been Born?, Thomas Nelson, Nashville, 1994,
Henry Morris, Many Infallible Proofs, Creation Life Publishers, 1974, p. 10 in Keathley (2012)
Keathley, J. Hampton (2012) The Uniqueness of Jesus Christ. Bible.org. Retrieved from: http://bible.org/article/uniqueness-jesus-christ#P35_5584
Monticello, the mansion that Thomas Jefferson designed in the hills of Virginia near the State University that he founded, has three portraits that are to be found on the wall of President Jefferson's study that have remained there for 200 years. These portraits are of three writers Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton and John Locke. Jefferson, who wrote the Declaration of Independence and acquired the Louisiana Purchase form the French, refers to these three as "the greatest men who ever lived." e see Lockean reasoning reflected in the Declaration where Jefferson says that we hold life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness to be self-evident truths. A similar reverence was afforded Karl Marx in the Soviet Union, where many streets and several smaller cities were named after Marx and his fellow communist Frederick Engels. One could argue that the primary ideologies of the 20th-century were those of Locke and Marx, as…
We can see the best examples of these 19th century economic theories in the works of Henry George, a populist who wished to ensure plurality by limiting the ability of property owners to hoard natural resources, and Herbert Spencer, an English sociologist who incorporated Darwinism into his defenses of what is now termed 'classical' liberalism and famously advocated "the right to ignore the state."
Locke, John, Second Treatise on Self-Government. http://www.swan.ac.uk/poli/texts/locke/lockcont.htm
Marxist Origins of Communism, George Mason University. http://www.gmu.edu/departments/economics/bcaplan/museum/marx1.htm
When Sogolon is brought to the king by two hunters, he marries her despite her ugliness. When Sogolon becomes pregnant, she is treated with a great deal of favorability because of the prophecy. Maghan's first wife, Sassouma Berete, became jealous of Sogolon's and fears that her child will displace her own eight-year-old son. Sassouma later affects Sogolon's and Sundiata's lives when, following the king's death, she maneuvers to have her son placed on the throne, forcing Sogolon and Sundiata to flee in exile ("Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali").
From reading this document, it is very clear that the society had similarities to today's culture as far as the roles of men and women are concerned. It is believable that in American culture, women appeared to be weaker while maintaining a mental strength, which is the strongest of strengths.
With that, slavery was another issue that American culture had very…
On June 27, 1844, hundreds swarmed the jail and brutally murdered the Smith brothers, leading their followers to conclude that they were martyred (Sisk).
At Joseph's death, righam Young was president of the Twelve Apostles of their church and became the leader of the largest faction within (Sisk 1992). Some who separated from Young's group formed their own, called the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, under the leadership of one of the brothers of Joseph Smith. In 1846, Young's group declared that the "saints" would leave Nauvoo and they settled in Utah the following year and, for the next 20 or so years, many moved to Salt Lake Valley to join those "saints (Sisk)." The growth was so tremendous that many ascribe greater magnetism to Young than to Joseph himself in attracting followers. It is noted that the current-day Mormon Church has millions of such followers…
Bowman, Robert N., ed. Mormonism. Christian Research Journal, 1989. http://www.mustardseed.net/html/tomormonism.html
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Joseph Smith: a Prophet of God. Intellectual Reserve, Inc., 2004. http://www.lds.org/library/display/0,4945,104-1-3-2,00.html
Griffith, Michael T. The Book of Mormon - Ancient or Modern? Could Joseph Smith Have Written the Nephrite Record? Refuting the Critics: Evidence of the Book of Mormons in Authenticity. Horizon Publishers, 1993. http://ourworld.cs.com/mikegriffith1/id108.htm
Institute for Religious Research. Translation or Divination? Mormons in Transition. Institute for Religious Research, 1999. http://www.irr.org/mit/divination.html
Engels went as far to claim that the only way marriage could ever be established as an institution that was inclusive of equality was to destroy all capitalist elements in society. The following is his statement:
Full freedom of marriage can therefore only be generally established when the abolition of capitalist production and of the property relations created by it has removed all the accompanying economic considerations which still exert such a powerful influence on the choice of a marriage partner. For then there is no other motive left except mutual inclination."
Thus is the claim of Engels but in reality the human nature would be inclined to classify itself in other ways that economical and it is most likely that another system of class distinction would arise in the place of the economical concessions that were the deciding factor as to marriages during that time period.
In another work…
Boyer, George R. The Historical Background of the Communist Manifesto "152 Journal of Economic Perspectives"
Aveling, Edward and Eleanor Marx (1886) "The Woman Question" Westminster Review 1886 Transcribed by Sally Ryan 2000 [Online] available at http://www.marxists.org/archive/eleanor-marx/works/womanq.htm
Engels, Frederich (1884) "The Origin of Family, Private Property and the State" Marx/Engels Selected Works, Volume Three" Transcribed by Brian Basgen [Online] Marx/Engels Internet Archive (Marxists.org) 1993, 1999, 2000 available at http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1884/origin-family/index.htm
Marx, K. & Engels F. (1848) "The Manifesto of the Communist Party "Marx/Engels Selected Works, Volume One, Progress Publishers, Moscow, USSR, 1969, pp. 98-137 Translated by Samuel Moore and F. Engels 1888, verified by Andy Blunden 2004 [Online] available at http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist-manifesto/index . htm
Anti-discrimination laws are enforced and companies are rated by their policies of tolerance. Homophobia is gradually being extricated from the American consciousness and so is sexism. The media plays a major role in how the American consciousness changes and those changes have an indelible impact on the character of the American Dream.
Thomspon also notes that Thrice was well-loved by his teammates. The community rallied in support of Thrice and there was a general outcry after he died. Being American has always entailed appreciation for grassroots movements. The social and political realities that evolve depend on grassroots movements. Grassroots movements precede legislation and policy changes. America becomes more of a real democracy as grassroots movements offer a voice for the most disenfranchised elements of society. Grassroots movements prevent tyrannnies of the majority and enable minority opinions to make their way into public policy. The American government remains a government of…
The Declaration of Independence." Indiana University School of Law. Retrieved April 1, 2007 at http://www.law.indiana.edu/uslawdocs/declaration.html
Library of Congress (2002). What is the American Dream? Retrieved April 1, 2007 at http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/lessons/97/dream/thedream.html
United States Constitution: Fourteenth Amendment. Retrieved April 1, 2007 at
Ernesto Che Guevara
Che went to Sierra Maestra, whose people were considered to be amongst the poorest of Cuba's poor. These poor peasants living in Sierra Maestra didn't have the opportunity of visiting doctors and getting treated. Thus, Che made all the efforts he could to help these people live a better life. When Che came here he was simultaneously playing two roles; one of a fighter and the other of a doctor. Initially, Che had been the medical leader and then became the leader of a small band. In spring of 1957, Che was deemed as the most trusted man of the leader (Castan-eda, 1997).
In 1958, when Batista sent a well- trained army of 10,000 to trap the revolutionaries in their mountain stronghold, Fidel and Che's army along with help of local people was able to defeat Batista's men. Che always had the support of people around him.…
Castan-eda, Jorge G. And Marina Castan-eda.Compan-ero. New York, N.Y: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997. Print.
Coltman, Leycester and Julia Sweig.The real Fidel Castro. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. Print.
Crompton, Samuel. Che Guevara. Pleasantville, NY: Gareth Stevens Pub., 2009. Print.
These newspapers continuously wrote that there is no essential conflict between labor class (referring to wage earners) and the capitalists and that each should not suspect the other in the development of America.
outhern slave society: An essential conflict with free labor social order
There were many distinctions in the Northern and outhern economic and social outlook of America. There were conflicting ideologies being pursued in these regions and the economic progress of Northern region was associated to the free enterprising class known as the middle class. The class thrived in the Northern region by investing in their own businesses, small and large. On the contrary, outhern society was based on slavery system. The Northerners demanded that the slavery of fugitives' slaves shall be abolished and free soil in the west was to be enforced. The essential elements that divided the Northerners and outherners were the matter of slavery. The…
Such deep was the issue of slavery that it broke down the part of Whigs during 1850s and led Republicans to replace them as a symbol of hope, prosperity, and economic progress. The main reason of elimination of Whigs from national scene was their persistence to support the slave system in south whereas its own leaders were not willing to support such oppressive practice while rest of Americas strived for economic progress. Such diverse and conflicting was the issue of slavery and the difference in Southern and Northern concepts of economic progress that 'The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854' nearly destroyed two political parties, Whigs were totally eliminated from political scene and Democrats saw their party divided on sensational lines. W.C. Pennington quoted that the slavery impacted each and every aspect of economic and thus the social life of African-Americans. He said "the being of slavery, its, and its body, lives and moves in the chattel principle, the property principle, and the bill of sale principle" (Henretta, Edwards & Self, 358). The domestic slave trade was considered to be absolutely what Republicans essentially wanted to abolish in figurative sense as well. The Republicans held the view that "Free labor meant independence from wage earning with fixed salaries, if northern person is wage earning and dependent for whole life, he is no different from southern slave" (Foner, 15). Thus, the Republican viewed dependence of a northern on the wages for whole of his life as being equal to the status of a southern slave. This figurative explanation indicates that the southern way of life and economic conduct was fundamentally conflicting with that of Republican's notion of free labor and enterprise, let alone being inconsistent with Republican ideology.
The Republican concept of free labor, as described by Zachariah Chandler, meant "that a young man goes out for service, for labor by wages and earns enough money to start his own farm and becomes employer of labor." Thus, it was contradictory to the oppressive and conservative notions of labor held by the southern slave owners. The progress of American society, according the Republican perspective, lay in the enterprising and middle class men who strived for better economic prospects. The practices of slavery and such oppressive social and economic systems were opposed to the very concept of economic justice that was held by Northerners.
Victorian New oman: Shaw's Views
Victiorian New oman
In their analysis of the 'sexualized visions of change and exchange' which mark the end of the nineteenth century (Smith, Marshall University) 1 and the uncertain formation of the twentieth, Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar read the leitmotif of the late-Victorian New oman as one fantasy among many, part of a sequence of imaginative literary extremes that reflects the changing stakes in an escalating war between the sexes. As Gilbert and Gubar understand this sequence, the New oman emerges against palette of other phantasmagoric images-most notably, the femme fatale, who, in Swinburne's words, incarnates male anxieties about that 'silent anger against God and man' which 'burns, white and repressed, through her clear features.' Like the femme fatale, the New oman is also commonly read as an image of hyperbolic female ascendancy. In fact, both images seem to answer the narrative of the…
Smith, Sherry. http://www.english.cam.ac.uk/rossetti/abstract/smit.htm
Author Unkown. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950)
Author Unkown. Major Barbara, Characters, Major Barbara
Douglass begins to regret his own existence because reading allows him to understand the horror of slavery and its seemingly "everlasting condition" (68). Douglass realizes that knowledge, while it is powerful, it is also painful. Douglass knew and understood too much. If he did not know how bad things were, he would not feel so hopeless. However, he was beginning to understand the ways of the world and the injustice of slavery.
Douglass is anxious because he knows what it is like to be treated kindly and the others knew "nothing of the kind" (72). Experiencing kind masters was a blessing but it also spoiled Douglass in that he knew that slave owners could be nice and not beat their slaves. He had no idea of what the next master might be like and it could literally go either way for him.
Auld was a slave owner without the ability…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. New York: Penguin. 1982.
In fact, African societies strongly rely on these differences that determine gender roles and are the main element which determines differentiation rather than equality as stated in the eclaration. Here, biology is the key to understanding social structure and consequently, gender roles which also vary among representatives of the same gender according to membership in groups.
In Africa, traditions are central to the group which fights to maintain its individuality. The macroeconomic situation of most African countries - with huge percentages of the population of the continent living in conditions of extreme poverty - along with a low level of education (even compared to other developing nations on other continents) are also factors which determine the very slow rate of progress made here. Women are powerless to a great extent. The best example of the power relations that exist in African society are illustrated by a common practice which relies…
Denmark, Florence L., and Karen a. Nielson. "31 United States of America." International Handbook on Gender Roles. Ed. Leonore Loeb Adler. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993. 452-465. Questia. 28 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=59441936' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Whatever happened you vanished, and neither you nor your actions were ever heard of again" (Orwell, 1949, p.168).
Principles of mass production are very clear in the novels. Huxley for instance, applied the idea of mass production in human reproduction, since the people has abandoned the natural method of reproduction. Mass production as the conventional feature of capitalism and Huxley's novel reinforces such. He talked about the requirement of the World State about constant consumption, which is considered as foundation of its stability. Huxley apparently criticizes the commercial dependence of the world towards goods. Conditioning centers teaches people to consume. Orwell similarly provides criticism to capitalism as well: "The centuries of capitalism were held to have produced nothing of any value." The Proles are the symbols of the capitalist system as they constitute the working class who work in assembly lines.
Destruction of the concept of family
Bessa, Maria de Fatima (2007). Individuation in Aldous Huxley's Brave New World and Island: Jungian and Post-Jungian Perspectives. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
Beniger, James K. (1986) the Control Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 61.
Greenberg, Martin H., Joseph D. Olander and Eric S. Robbon. No Place Else: Expectations in Utopian and Dystopian Fiction. Southern Illinois: University Press, 1983. 29-97.
Grieder, Peter. "In Defense of Totalitarianism Theory as a Tool of Historical Scholarship" Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 8.314 (September 2007) Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Grace Van Dyke Bird Library, Bakersfield, CA. 15 November 2008 ( http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct-true&db=aph&an=27009808&site=ehost-live .
Mass politics in Europe at the end of the 19th Century had turned away from the liberalism of the intellectual and capitalist elites in the direction of populist movements that described themselves as socialist, social democratic or nationalist. Frequently they rejected liberal rationalism and science as well in favor of emotion, mystical symbols, charismatic leaders and demagogues. Among these were the Christian Social Party of Karl Lueger in Austria, which Adolf Hitler admired as a young man and later imitated, and the Action Francaise in France, led by Charles Maurras, Maurice Barras and Eduard Drumont. This early fascist movement thrived in after a Jewish officer in the French Army, Alfred Dreyfus, was falsely convicted of espionage and sentenced to prison on Devil's Island. For Emile Zola and the French Left, overturning this unjust conviction was the most important cause of the era, but for the nationalist and anti-Semitic Right it…
Burns, Michael. France and the Dreyfus Affair: A Documentary History. Bedford/St. Martin's, 1999.
Schorske, Carl E. Fin-de-Siecle Vienna: Politics and Culture. NY: Vintage Books, 1981.
Representations of War in the Longest Day and Saving Private Ryan
Hollywood's depictions and interpretations of the events that transpired on D-Day have long captured the attention of audiences worldwide. Though Hollywood depictions of the events that occurred prior, during, and after the invasion of Normandy may vary, they still aim to convey a similar message, one that assures the evil forces in the world will be overthrown and the world will be a much safer place. The Longest Day and Saving Private Ryan aim to present the events that lead up to the invasion of Normandy on D-Day in an artistic and creative fashion while attempting to maintain an air of realism. The approaches taken to depict the invasion of Normandy in The Longest Day and Saving Private Ryan are a positive contribution to the combat film genre. Though creative licenses were taken in each film, the manner in…
Beevor, Anthony. D-Day: The Battle for Normandy. New York: Viking Penguin, 2009.
Churchill, Ron. "Saving Private Ryan" a real life drama." UB Reporter 30, no. 2 (September
D-Day: June 6, 1944. http://www.army.mil/d-day / (accessed May 23, 2011).
Civil War Tensions
The American Civil War was not the culmination of one specific issue, which tore North and South, but rather the culmination of a perfect storm of issues and incidents that formed together to make war between the states "inevitable" (Foote, 1958, p. 29). The issues were various and complex: among them was the primacy of "states' rights" in the Constitution, and the usurpation of those rights (so it was felt by many a Southerner) by the Central government. This feeling was directly tied to the outcome of the Mexican-American War, which resulted in the annexing of large territories to the West. Would they be slave states or free states? If one followed the Missouri Compromise line, there should be no question. Slave states were below, free above. But with John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry and the frenzy of the abolitionist caused at fever pitch, the issue…
Economy in the Civil War. (2014). The Civil War. Shmoop.
Egnal, M. (2001). The Beards Were Right: Parties in the North, 1840-1860. Civil War
History 47(1): 30-56.
Foote, S. (1958). The Civil War: Ft. Sumter to Perryville. NY: Random House.
Adrian Veidt (Ozymandias) Receives the Nobel Peace Prize
Five prizes are awarded by the Nobel committees each year, and probably the most memorable is the Nobel Peace Prize. Although the selection is sometimes controversial, the committee has specific directions from the founder himself regarding the quality of person he wished to receive this award. In devising how the specific prizes should be awarded, Nobel wrote specific language regarding each category. For the Nobel Peace Prize he said he wanted it to go "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses" (The Nobel Peace Prize). Thus, it is no wonder that the Peace Prize committee has awarded the prize to the man who is most responsible for the eradication of hostilities between the Soviet…
The American government was directly complicit in slavery and passed a number of laws that supported the institution. One of the most severe and notorious of those laws was the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. The Fugitive Slave Law highlighted the vast gulf between the slaveholding and free states of the union, leading eventually to the Civil War. However, the law also impacted the lives of countless people who attempted to escape slavery or those facilitated their passage. In her memoirs, Harriet Jacobs writes about the Fugitive Slave Law. The author calls those who enforced the law "cruel human bloodhounds" who were no better than slave owners themselves (Jacobs 68). To properly understand slavery, it becomes essential to comprehend the entirety of the system that supported it.
In Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Jacobs does not spare the North from its participation in the subjugation of…
Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. Child, Lydia Marie (Ed.). 1802-1880. Electronic edition accessed
Government Changes post-Revolution ar vs. post-Civil ar
Close examination of the reasons for and the results of the Revolutionary ar and the Civil ar forces me to disagree with McPherson's position that more radical change in government occurred due to the Civil ar than the Revolutionary ar. In order to understand how this is true, one must look at several issues, such as the causes of each of the wars, the purposes and intentions, and the ultimate results.
The Revolutionary ar was based on the struggle to become independent from Great Britain and this struggle began due to a series of taxes forced upon the citizens. So "taxation without representation" was the initial call to arms however, it grew to include other freedoms as well.
The Civil ar was utterly a different process of situation. hile claims by the South of freedom it was always an economic issue tightly woven…
Abraham Lincoln, Cooper Union Address, New York City Presidential Campaign
Confederate States of America-Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union, December 1860, South Carolina
Lincoln, Abraham. "First Inaugural Address." Washington D.C. Mar. 1861. Address.
Ordinance of 1787
The advent of World War II saw and end of the period of economic turmoil and massive unemployment known as the Great Depression, and thus was a time of increased opportunity for many of the nation's citizens and immigrants, but the experiences of some groups during and following the war were far less positive than others. Some of this was due to the different histories that different immigrant groups had in the country, as well as the different roles that various nations played in the war itself, but often the source for the treatment of different ethnic groups was all too similar and all too simple -- racism and ethnocentrism that made the white Americans "true" citizens while others were labeled as outsiders, and those that didn't belong.
The Japanese suffered the worst during World War II; even families that had been in the country for generations and many decades…
Library of Congress. (2008). "African-American odyssey." Accessed 29 October 2010. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aointro.html
Morgan, T. (1995). "Native Americans in world war II." Accessed 29 October 2010. http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/NAWWII.html
Takaki, R. (2008). A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America (Rev. ed.) Boston: Little Brown Company.
Vogel, R. (2004). "Stolen birthright: The U.S. conquest and exploitation of the Mexican people." Accessed 29 October 2010. http://www.houstonculture.org/hispanic/ conquest5.html
Feminism 19th and Early 20th Century America
riting and women's roles were unavoidably mixed in the late 1800s and early 1900s. It was a time in which many women protested their restrictions through novels, poetry, pamphlets, and speeches. By analyzing those creations, readings can begin to understand the lives of those forward-looking women. In their own time, people dismissed them as inconsequential complainers. Minority authors, like blacks and lesbians were even more ignored. However, by learning about their work, we can learn about the daily life of the social classes to which they belonged.
Many people feel that our socioeconomic status limits our understanding of others (McClish and Bacon). Because our understanding is limited by our own viewpoint from our socioeconomic status, patriarchal societies tend to limit self-expression to that which is compatible with the patriarchy. As a result, it's important to remember to ask questions based one's own experience,…
Markley, A.A. "Laughing That I May Not Weep": Mary Shelley's Short Fiction and Her Novels." Keats-Shelley Journal (1997): 97-124.
McClish, Glen and Jacqueline Bacon. "Telling the Story Her Own Way": the Role of Feminist Standpoint Theory in Rhetorical Studies." Rhetoric Society Quarterly (2002): 27-55.
Ross, Christine. "Logic, Rhetoric, and Discourse in the Literary Texts of Nineteenth-Century Women." Rhetoric Society Quarterly (2002): 85-109.
The fear that grew in France with the beginning of the war and the anxiety surrounding the development of the situation was probably one of the main causes that led people to embrace a more open radical leftist position. Many of the conservatives and those who supported the monarchy began to be seen as enemies of France and politicians who would compromise with the monarchic forces at any time. The revolution did not seem to have moved so much from the way things were in 1789 and had not brought the expected changes.
This type of environment made easy for the Jacobins, radical leftist, coagulated around Robespierre and Marat, to mobilize the population into overthrowing the monarchy and, later on, consolidating a terror reign that lasted up to 1794. The first step of the radicalization process is the assault on Tuileries, in August1792 and continued with the abolition of the…
1. Popkin, Jeremy. A History of Modern France. 3rd Edition.
white Southerner during the Black Slavery era of America's history, I may have conflicting opinions with that of my fellow Southerners in voicing out my opinion about Linda Brent's actions in the novel by Harriet Ann Jacobs entitled, "Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl." Two important events in her life are the primary reasons why I will approve of Linda's decision to be granted respect as a woman and as a black American. The first incident is Linda's resistance to her employer, Dr. Flint to engage in a sexual relationship with him. In the novel, at a young age in her teens, Linda was already seduced and 'guarded' by Dr. Flint as she blossomed into a young, beautiful woman. It is prevalent during their time in their society for white men to have black American mistresses, oftentimes their own slaves. It is remarkable that with great courage, Linda…
The divisions ere as such:
1. The highest class amongst the slave as of the slave minister; he as responsible for most of the slave transactions or trades and as also alloed to have posts on the government offices locally and on the provincial level.
2. This as folloed by the class of temple slaves; this class of slaves as normally employed in the religious organizations usually as janitors and caretakers of priestesses in the organization.
3. The third class of slaves included a range of jobs for slaves i.e. slaves ho ere appointed as land/property etc. managers ere included in this class as ell as those slaves ho ere employed as merchants or hired to help around the pastures and agricultural grounds. A majority of this class included the ordinary household slaves.
4. The last class amongst the slaves also included a range of occupations of the slaves extending…
works cited at the end.
If I were to conclude the significance of Paul's letter to Philemon and his approach to demand Onesimus' hospitality and kinship status, I can say that it was clearly his approach towards his demands that has made the letter such a major topic of discussion with regards to slavery. If Paul had taken an aggressive approach and straight away demanded the release and freedom of Onesimus, the letter would not been preserved in the history books for the generations to follow; that is a surety. I say this because it was Paul's approach and choice of language structure that caused for a large amount of debate to follow. It has been this debate, whether it has been on slavery or the various interpretations of his language structure, that has allows this letter and the relevant history to live on through the centuries. Of course, it is important to understand Philemon's role here as well, because it was his choice to treat the letter with a certain amount of respect and dignity that contributed to the letter's longevity as well. If Philemon had chosen to disregard Paul's requests and thrown away the letter as one that was not worthy of consideration, nobody would've even had the chance to debate the letter's significance in history. This again takes me back to the language structure adopted by Paul as he was able to soften his approach of the numerous demands as well that helped Philemon play his part of respecting what was demanded. Interestingly enough, Onesimus did go on to take on the duties as a bishop! To think that this line of action came about with only a choice of softening one's demands is extra-ordinary and the credit goes solely to Paul!
JM.G. Barclay, Colossians and Philemon, Sheffield Academic Press, 1997
Bartchy, S.S. (1973). First-Century Slavery and the Interpretation of 1 Corinthians 7:21 (SBLDS 11; Atlanta: Scholars Press) 175.
The hierarchical society, which characterized the new nation, was another aspect, which would soon be transformed. "The political rulers had come largely from the social elites. The churches were supported by those elites. and, in most cases, the churches had been officially sanctioned by the political structures of the states. Social, political, and religious authority had been tightly interwoven in the same small group of elite leaders." [
Ira Chernus] the Electoral voting system and the cultural changes initiated by the new political situation created a new wave of social and moral reforms.
Another major social change that started to happen was the dissolution of apartheid. Though it must be understood that racial segregation continued in existence much long after the abolition of slavery, the cause for desegregation was initiated in the 1830's. Oberlin College, started in 1833, became the first ever College in the U.S. To admit…
Howard Cincotta, "An Outline of American History," USIA, May 1994, http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1994/ch6_p4.htm
Bonnie Eisenberg & Mary Ruthsdotter, "Living the Legacy: The Women's Rights Movement 1848-1998," Accessed Sep 10th 2006, available at http://www.legacy98.org/move-hist.html
James Brewer Stewart, 'Abolitionist Movement', Accessed Sep 9th 2006, available at http://afgen.com/abmovement.html
NPS, 'National Abolitionist Movement', Accessed Sep 9th 2006, available at http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/amistad/connecticutabolitionists.htm
ace and evolution
An iconoclastic figure in the study of American History, Gary Nash, who is Director of the National Center for History in the Schools at UCLA, writes from a position of authority as he questions the history that many of us were taught during our primary and secondary educations. In ace and evolution, Nash turns his keen vision toward the matter of slavery at the time our country was founded. A collection of essays based upon his series of Merrill Jensen Lectures in Constitutional Studies at the University of Wisconsin, ace and evolution is an indictment of our country's, primarily northern, founders as they hemmed and hawed and, ultimately, declined the opportunity to create a true, free, racially diverse republic.
ather than focusing on the issue of slavery at its post-independence height, during the antebellum period in the South, ace and evolution examines the issues surrounding slavery during…
Nash, G. (1990). Race and revolution. Lanham, Maryland:
Madison House Publishers
Nash, G. (2010). Red, white, and black: the peoples of early North America (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
acism has always been a defining feature of the American criminal justice system, including racial profiling, disparities in arrests convictions and sentencing between minorities and whites, and in the use of the death penalty. acial profiling against blacks, immigrants and minorities has always existed in the American criminal justice system, as has the belief that minorities in general and blacks in particular are always more likely to commit crimes. American society and its legal system were founded on white supremacy going back to the colonial period, and critical race criminology would always consider these historical factors as well as the legal means to counter them. From the 17th Century onward, Black Codes and slave patrols were used to control the black population, and keep them confined to farms and plantations. Blacks did not have the right to trial by jury or to testify against whites, and the law…
Capital Punishment (2011). Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Cooper, S. (2006). "A Closer Look at Racial Profiling" in S.J. Muffler (ed). Racial Profiling: Issues, Data and Analyses. Nova Science Publishers, pp. 25-30.
Garland, D. (2010). Peculiar Institution: America's Death Penalty in an Age of Abolition. Harvard University Press.
Death penalty is generally conceived of as the supreme legal sanction, inflicted only against perpetrators of the most serious crimes. The human rights community has traditionally held a stance against the death penalty for a wide variety of reasons: critics argue that the death penalty is inhuman and degrading; that it is inappropriately applied and often politically motivated; and that rather than reducing crime, the viciousness of the punishment only serves as an inspiration to further violence.
Historically the death penalty has existed all around the world. Only since the beginning of the twentieth century has the death penalty been rejected by a growing number of people and states. International law discourages but does not prohibit it. Article 6 (paragraphs 2 and 5) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political ights states that "sentence of death may be imposed only for the most serious crimes in accordance with the…
Bernard, T. (1992). The cycle of juvenile justice. New York: Oxford.
Bohm, R.M. (2010). Death penalty opinions: Effects of a classroom experience and public commitment. Sociological Inquiry, 60, 285-297.
Bohm, R.M. (2003). American death penalty opinion: Past, present, and future. In J. Acker, R.M. Bohm, & C.S. Lanier (Eds.), America's experiment with capital punishment: Reflections on the past, present, and future of the ultimate penal sanction (pp. 27-54). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.
Bradizza, C.M., Collins, R.L., Vincent, P.C., & Falco, D.L. (2006). It does the job: Young adults discuss their malt liquor consumption. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 1559-1577. doi: 10.1016jaddbeh.2005.12.001
Controversial President Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln lived during very controversial times. Moreover, he was elected president in an age in which the very foundation of American social and political life was fraught with controversy. Therefore, it is not surprising that Lincoln's presidency was filled with the sort of controversy that typified the age in which he lived. In fact, many of the more controversial aspects of Lincoln's presidency had widely escape the notice of those who uphold his legacy. Lincoln famously suspended the writ of Habeas Corpus during the period directly proceeding and involving the Civil ar. This basic tenement of law enforcement and criminal proceedings is foundational to the U.S. criminal justice system, yet Lincoln did not so much as hesitate in suspending it. Additionally, he made a practice of fairly routinely throwing his opponents in jail. hat is so striking about this practice is that these were political opponents…
Dueholm, James, A. "Lincoln's Suspension of the Writ of Habeas Corpus: An Historical and Constitutional Analysis. Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association. 2008. Web. http://quod.lib.umich.edu/j/jala/2629860.0029.205/ -- lincoln-s-suspension-of-the-writ-of-habeas-corpus?rgn=main;view=fulltext
Maas, Alan. "Lincoln and the Struggle to Abolish Slavery." www.socialistworker.com 2009. Web. http://socialistworker.org/2009/02/12/lincoln-and-the-struggle-to-abolish-slavery
Neely, Jr., Mark. "The Lincoln Administration and Arbitrary Arrests: A Reconsideration." Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association. 1983. Web. http://quod.lib.umich.edu/j/jala/2629860.0005.103/ -- lincoln-administration-and-arbitrary-arrests?rgn=main;view=fulltext
Equiano demonstrated that the use of the human narrative can awaken the sympathy of others, and he used his personal narrative to impress his views of abolition upon the British. Similarly, Prince Hall within Chapter two also carried the cause of abolition. Hall also advocated the continuing fight for abolition by providing hope to the African-Americans and slaves alike. Although he could only use words to motivate those in peril, the strength of his statements rests primarily in his ability to teach foundational skills to his brethren that could help them become skilled workers rather than limited by their education. Maria Stewart was another advocate of abolition; she not only fought for the doctrine of freedom for slaves, but also for the women's rights movement. All of these advocates used nonviolent means to attempt to sway the general public to turn against slavery as well as provide hope for slaves…
The passing of time does not necessarily denote progress: women made little noticeable social and economic advancement and almost no political or legal advancements between the European settlements of Jamestown in 1607 until the end of the Reconstruction era in 1877. In fact, most Native American women lost a considerable degree of power and status due to the imposition of European social values on their traditional cultures. African women, brought to the New World against their will and in bondage, likewise did not enjoy the fruits of social progress. White women of European descent, however, did make some progress over the course of more than two centuries of early American history. Divorce laws became more favorable toward women, who over the course of these few centuries were increasingly able to extricate themselves from violent, abusive, or unsatisfying unions. However, divorce laws were one of the only legal progress…
It is the premeditated and cold-blooded killing of a human being by the state. This cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment is done in the name of justice. It violates the right to life as proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human ights. Amnesty International opposes the death penalty in all cases without exception regardless of the nature of the crime, the characteristics of the offender, or the method used by the state to kill the prisoner. (Abolish the death penalty, 2008, p. 2).
Despite these increasingly vocal protestations from at home and abroad, a majority of the states in America continue to retain the death penalty as a lawful punishment for capital offenses today. While the trend toward abolishing capital punishment was apparent in recent years, it would seem reasonable to assert that the death penalty will continue to be practiced in the United States for the foreseeable future and…
Abolish the death penalty. (2008). Amnesty International. [Online]. Available: http://www.amnesty.org/en/death-penalty .
Bird, D.G. (2003). Life on the line: Pondering the fate of a substantive due process challenge to the death penalty. American Criminal Law Review, 40(3), 1329.
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Burke, A.S. (2006). Improving prosecutorial decision making: Some lessons of cognitive science. William and Mary Law Review, 47(5), 1587-1588.