384 results for “Accident Investigation”.
A guard must be fixed on the spaces between the banisters in order to prevent the child from falling out from between the spaces. In addition, hardware mounted safety gates can be mounted at the top and at the bottom of the staircase so that it will remain an out of reach place for the child. Pressure mounted or accordion gates must be however, avoided, because while pressure gates are not very safe, accordion gates may end up entrapping a small child's head within its gaps.
The best safety measure of all is to warn the child and educate him about the various dangers that are involved in the misuse of a staircase, and he must be taught at a very early age to learn to use the staircase in the proper and safe manner that would prevent accidents and injuries of any sort. The best method in which to…
Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents. Retrieved at http://kidshealth.org/parent/firstaid_safe/home/childproof.html . Accessed on 11 January, 2005
How Many Children are injured in Accidents? Retrieved at http://www.capt.org.uk/pdfs/factsheet%20accident%20facts.pdf . Accessed on 11 January, 2005
Airplane Crash Investigations
Accident investigations are very different in regards to individual crashes. This paper examines the investigation of two plane crashes, Dallas Airlines Flight 191 and United Airlines Flight 173. The Dallas investigation did have good accessibility to the crash site with multiple first responding organizations from local municipalities, but with a slow reaction time. Meanwhile, United Airlines Flight 173 was clearly caused by pilot error, as the plane ran out of fuel while the pilot was distracted by landing gear issues.
Dallas Airlines Flight 191 was a great tragedy, with many deaths. According to the research, "Delta Airlines Flight 191 was a regularly scheduled passenger flight between Fort Lauderdale, Florida and Los Angeles, California, with an en route stop at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, Texas (DFW)" (Federal Aviation Administration, 2013). The entire flight went smoothly until approaching the landing for the pit stop at Dallas. The flight…
Air Disasters. (2013). Investigation United Airlines Flight 173. Investigations. Web. http://www.airdisaster.com/investigations/ua173.shtml
Dickson, Gordon. (2010). After 25 years, D/FW Airport unveils memorial to Delta Flight 191. Star Telegram. Web. http://www.star-telegram.com/2010/08/01/2376304/after-25-years-dfw-airport-to.html
Federal Aviation Administration. (2013). History of Flight 101. Accident Overview. Web. http://lessonslearned.faa.gov/ll_main.cfm?TabID=1&LLID=32&LLTypeID=2
Flannigan, Pat. (2011). When full-thrust isn't enough: A sobering look at Delta Flight 191. Aviation Chatter. Web. http://www.aviationchatter.com/2011/05/when-full-thrust-isnt-enough-a-sobering-look-at-delta-flight-191/
Improper Ergonomics caused USAir 1493 and SkyWest 5569 Accident
Accident Investigation: Improper Ergonomics was the Cause
Ergonomics was derived from two Greek words: ergon which means work, nomoi, on the hand means natural laws, in creating a word with the meaning, the science of work and an individual's relationship to that work. Another related definition according to International Ergonomics Association describe Ergonomics as the scientific discipline that deals with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, as well as the profession that applies principles, theory, methods and data in designing as an attempt to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. Improper Ergonomics in the airport always cause a number of accident and fatalities that otherwise would have been avoided if the handling was done procedural considering the rules in addition to up-to-date facilities.
On the day of the flight accident Friday, February 1,…
Carroll, James. (1991) "FAA releases tower tapes of crash on L.A. runway." Baltimore Sun. Retrieved February 17, 2014. http://articles.baltimoresun.com/1991-03-26/news/1991085042_1_skywest-plane-down-the-runway
Chris Kilroy (2013) Special Report: USAir Flight 1493. Retrieved February 17, 2014. http://www.airdisaster.com/special/special-us1493.shtml
Eben Harrell (2009) Surviving Crashes: How Airlines Prepare for the Worst. TIME. Retrieved February 17, 2014. http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1881758,00.html#ixzz2toknt6rk
Eric Malnic and Tracy Wood (1991) Controller Says She Confused Similar Planes Retrieved February 17, 2014. http://articles.latimes.com/1991-02-08/news/mn-633_1_taxiway
Often times this is done to preserve the evidence and wreckage associated with a crash and in the instances where criminal investigations and evidence are pursued, these chains of command are useful in dealing with the implications surrounding the criminal acts.
A press room and actions involving journalists also take place in this headquarters area. After a crash is investigated, the NTSB prepares statements from witnesses or other pertinent parties in order to formulate a final report (NTSB, 2002). This final report is the synthesis of the entire investigation and includes a "probable cause" as well as detailed information surrounding the circumstances of the crash (NTSB, 2002). The NTSB and the FAA often make recommendations and even policy and regulatory changes after a final report is issued and inferences can be made about causes of the crash.
Recent Crash Investigation and Analysis
The recent air crash in Alaska involving former…
Office of Technology Assessment, United States Congress. (1988). Safe Skies for Tomorrow:
Aviation Safety in a Competitive Environment. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington D.C.
Faith, Nicholas. (1997). Black Box: The Air-Crash Detectives: Why Air Safety is
No Accident. Macmillan: London.
However, full flight simulators also have some limitations, which make them poor tools for research and investigations depending on the specifics of the crash and the needs for the investigators reviewing the case.
Full flight simulators do not accurately simulate severe aircraft flight attitudes and conditions. They are also not perfect modelers of reality, as they cannot model the specific conditions that the aircraft itself as well as the flight crew were under. However, since there are rarely survivors of major plane crashes, it is difficult to interview witnesses or people who were on board the aircraft in order to obtain some sort of picture of the time leading up to the crash. Full flight simulators can be used to simulate conditions without risking people or machinery in the process. They are excellent tools for "best Guess" and probable cause findings, but they should be used in conjunction with more…
Anders, G. (2001). "Pilot's Attention Allocation During Approach and Landing." Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics. Berlin.
Levin, Alan. (2010). "Simulator training flaws tied to air crashes." USA Today. Website accessed 15 Oct. 2010 at: http://travel.usatoday.com/flights/2010-08-31-1Acockpits31_ST_N.htm .
National Transportation Safety Board. (2010). "Cockpit Voice Recorders and Flight Data
Recorders." NTSB Website accessed 15 Oct. 2010 at: http://www.ntsb.gov/aviation/cvr_fdr.htm.
Unless the already low accident rate in aviation is reduced even further, the increased traffic volume will lead to an average of 25 accidents per year, with over 1,000 fatalities. Because 70% to 80% of all aviation accidents are considered to involve human error, one promising avenue appears to be investments in a better understanding of, and better support for, human performance and human-machine interaction. This includes improved system and feedback design as well as new forms of pilot training to reduce the potential for errors and their catastrophic consequences . Although the need for introducing these changes is widely recognized, progress is slow and faces a number of challenges. The economic pressure and competition in the worldwide aviation industry are intense, and manufacturers and carriers are careful not to invest in proposed solutions without guaranteed safety (and financial) paybacks. In addition, the time of national standards and regulations in…
This veering, would place pressure on the right side of the aircraft, which would help contribute to the break up during plane after touching down. To combat this problem, the NTS recommends that all aircraft have some type of back up flight control and hydraulics system. The presence of such a system could have helped to mitigate the effects of the disaster, by giving the pilots control of the aircraft. During the initial decent, this could have proven vital in ensuring that the pilots were able to successfully reach the runway at Sioux City and it helped to safely land the plane when it was initially touching down. ("United Airlines Flight 232," 1990)
A third issue that helped contribute to the crash of United flight 232 was: problems with the manufacture of engine. During their report, the NTS found that the engine that was manufactured by GE helped contribute to…
Fatal Plane Crashes and Significant Event for DC 10. (2010. Retrieved May 1, 2010 from Airsafe website:
United Airline Flight 232. (2005). Retrieved May 1, 2010 from State Master website:
.. I think he's passed off to our right." Later, the first officer is heard asking, "Are we clear of that Cessna?" The flight engineer responds with, "Supposed to be"; and the captain says, "I guess." ("CV Transcript..." n.d.).
The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigation report, referring to eyewitness accounts records that both aircrafts were proceeding in an easterly direction before the collision. The Boeing was descending and overtaking the Cessna, which was climbing. Just before impact, the Boeing banked to the right slightly, and the Cessna pitched nose-up, colliding with the right wing of Flight 182. ("Aircraft Accident eport," 1979, p.4) Also, just before the impact, the captain, probably anticipating the collision exclaimed "Whoop!" And the first officer moaned "Aghhh!" The Cockpit Voice ecorder (CV) recorded the sound of impact at 0901:47 ("CV Transcript..." n.d.). The Cessna broke up immediately on impact and exploded. Parts of…
Aircraft Accident Report." (1979). National Aircraft Safety Board. Retrieved on January 25, 2008 at http://www.psa-history.org/museum/NTSBAAR7905.pdf
CVR transcript: PSA Boeing 727." (n.d.) dnausers.net. Retrieved on January 25, 2008 at http://dnausers.d-n-a.net/dnetGOjg/250978.htm
Shess, T. (1998). "This is it!" San Diego Magazine online. Retrieved on January 25, 2008 at http://www.sandiegomagazine.com/media/San-Diego-Magazine/August-1998/This-is-it/
Another human factor related to this is the fact that engineering tends to be a very specialized field. In general, home and business owners do not have the expertise to discern between quality and lack thereof in engineering.
Indeed, while the quality of cheap engineering may be lower, this is not necessarily to say that expensive work entails higher quality. ome inscrutable engineers may for example use cheap materials for the sake of greater financial gain. The home or business owner is therefore safest when he or she thoroughly investigates the services being used. An engineer with both a good reputation and a price that is not too low should for example provide the best service.
Other factors that play a role in workplace or home accidents are related not as much to engineering as to the specific actions and neglect perpetrated by the users of the material. The human…
Department of Materials Science and Engineering. "Learning from failure: Engineering disasters." State University of New York, 17 June, 2005. http://www.matscieng.sunysb.edu/disaster/
Elsberry, Richard B. "Getting to the root causes of accidents." Electrical Apparatus, Aug. 2000. Database: FindArticles.com
hen an airplane catches on fire and jet fuel is the catalyst, the amount of time that the plane and the object around it will burn is dependent on many different factors. One of the primary factors is the amount of fuel that is still contained on the plane. For instance a jet that is taking a transatlantic flight will have more jet fuel than a regional flight. Investigators would need to know this type of information so that they can estimate how much time it might take for the fuel to burn off or the types of measures that need to be taken to extinguish the fire.
Investigations can also be effected by the presence of cabin fires. According to Improved Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials for Commercial Aircraft Interiors: A Proceedings, (1995) post crash Cabin fires have been extensively researched. A great deal of this research has occurred in…
Aircraft Accident Investigations." Retrieved June 6, 2008 from; http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/aircraft-accident-investigations
"Fire and Explosion Investigation." Retrieved June 6, 2008 from; http://www.scsi-inc.com/FEI.html
History and Mission. Retrieved June 6, 2008 from; http://www.ntsb.gov/Abt_NTSB/history.htm
Improved Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials for Commercial Aircraft Interiors: A Proceedings, (1995). Retrieved June 6, 2008 from; http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=4970#toc
Runway Incursions That Lead to Accidents
The objective of this study is to examine runway incursions that lead to accidents such as the Tenerife airport disaster, U.S. airways Flight 149, Madrid Runway Disaster and Madrid Runway disaster as well as Linate Airport disaster. Toward this end, this study will examine the literature in this area of inquiry which includes such as the 'Runway Incursion Joint Safety Analysis Team' (JSAT) report; the International Civil Aviation Organization 'Manual on the Prevention of Runway Incursions', as well as other pertinent and relevant studies. This study will attempt to disseminate the available information on prevention of runway incursion and to report on the same in the findings of this study.
Runway incursion accidents that involve general aviation aircraft and air carriers are reported to be a rare occurrence. Landsberg (1998) reports that in 1994 "A Cessna Conquest II taxied onto the wrong runway…
Landsberg, B. (1998) Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association. Runway incursions: A perfect example of the accident chain. Jan Vol. 41, No. 1. Retrieved from: http://www.aopa.org/asf/asfarticles/sp9801.html
Landsberg, B. (1998) Runway Incursions: A perfect example of the accident chain. Retrieved from:
Radio Altimeter effectiveness and CFIT
How can technology be used to effectively diminish CFIT and ALA incidents?
Air travel is one of the safest means of traveling from one location to another in the world. Without air traffic, the business world would come to a screeching halt. Although businesses can transfer mass amounts of digital communications DATA, thus eliminating much of the demand on mail and fax transmissions of just a decade ago, businesses organizations can still not transfer products, mail, personnel, and other hard goods through electronic blips on the internet. Travel still relies on airliners and cargo air-busses which fill the skies around the world and around the clock. The experts are agreed that global commercial air traffic will grow at an average 5% per year over the next 20 years. This means that traffic will double in 15 years and will practically triple by the end of…
Jensen, D. (2000, November) EGPWS: look what it can do now. Retrieved 14 November, 2003. from Avaition Today, Website: http://www.aviationtoday.com/cgi/av/show_mag.cgi?pub=av&mon=1100&file=coverstory.htm
Matteo, Luccio. (2001, 1 Oct.) GPS and Aviation Safety. GPS World.
Unraveling the Mystery of General Aviation Controlled Flight Into Terrain Accidents Using HFACS. (2002) Retrieved 14 Nov. 2003 from Institute of Aviation. Website: http://www.aviation.uiuc.edu/new/html/ARL/conference/shappellwiegavpsy01.pdf
Immediate staff downtime (e.g. work activity stopped) hrs
Staff time to report and investigate incident
Meetings to discuss incident
Time Spent with HSE Inspector
Assessing/rescheduling work activities hrs
Recovering work/production (including staff costs)
Cleaning up site and disposal of waste, equipment, products, etc.
Bringing work up to standard (e.g. product reworking time/costs) hrs
Repairing any damage/faults
Hiring or purchasing tools, equipment, plant, services, etc.
Loss of product (milk)
Action to safeguard future business
Salary costs of replacement workers dys
Lost work-time (people waiting to resume work, delays, reduced productivity, effect's on other people's productivity, etc.)
Recruitment costs for new staff
Providing alternative sources of supply for customers
Sanctions and penalties
Compensation claim payments thus far
Solicitor's fees and…
Accident Costs. 13 Jan. 2005 http://www.hse.gov.uk/costs_of_injury/costs_of_injury.asp ..
In some cases, you may have to take equipment that has been infected with the virus offline (for maintenance) and use a flash drive to remove it / reprogram the operating system. Once this occurs, you would then connect all of the different security protocols together. The basic idea is to be able to use them, to serve as a backup system in the event that there is some kind of breach. This will give the hackers limited access to: certain areas and it will isolate them to select parts of the company's servers. (Lacey, 2009, pp. 269 -- 310)
The final part of the strategy is to ensure effective monitoring of the various systems. This will take place with the company using an outside security consultant. They will have the responsibility of helping to coordinate mock attacks. This will effectively test the strategy and identify for weaknesses. At the…
Lacey, D. (2009). Managing the Human Factor. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Theriaut, C. (2011). CSIS Experts List Worst Cyber Breaches. Naked Security. Retrieved from: http://nakedsecurity.sophos.com/2011/03/21/worst-security-breaches-2010/
In addition, a growing number of countries in the region have also started strict traffic sign and signal enforcement campaigns (Martin, 2005). In addition, launched in 2009, a governmental campaign to reduce traffic accidents in the Sultanate of Oman has sought to raise awareness among Omanis concerning the need to use safety belts in general and the need to use safety seats for young children every time people take to the road. In addition, the oyal Oman Police, the Ministry of Social Development and the Ministry of Education have collaborated with the Omani Society Safety on the traffic safety initiatives as discussed further below.
Civil Society. According to ajhi (2011), there are a number of civic organizations that play an important role in promoting traffic safety and raising public awareness about the need to reduce traffic accidents. These organizations include the Omani Society for oad Safety which is dedicated to…
Martin, J. (2005, March). Arab traffic jam: Road traffic accidents are costing Arab states billions of dollars annually, not to mention the catastrophic loss of life. The Middle East, 354, 37-
Miedema, H.M. & Oudshoorn, C.G. (2001, April). Annoyance from transportation noise:
Relationships with exposure metrics DNL and DENL and their confidence intervals.
On the hand, some plans may be slow to respond to the pilot's commands; complicating the piloting process, much like a sports car, for example, that under steers or a truck that over steers (Personal Communication, 2010). Bay contends that training on more than one plane of a particular model would prove to be a positive practice for airlines to implement.
Bay asserts that the following questions need to be answered regarding the cause of the crash of Flight 3407.
How much training and experience did the pilot/s have with this particular aircraft?
How many hours experience did the pilot/s have flying this particular craft?
Did a matter of pilot fatigue play a part in the incident?
Could alcohol have been a factor in the pilot's inability to "do the right thing"?
Were there any known defects with the plane?
Did any type mechanical malfunction occur?
On what date was…
Alcohol and Flying. (N.d.). Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved February 13, 2010
Baron, R. (2005). The Cockpit, the Cabin, and Social Psychology. Airline Safety.com. Retrieved February 13, 2010 from http://airlinesafety.com/editorials/CockpitCabinPsychology.htm
Black, H.C.(1990). Discovery. Black's Law Dictionary West Publishing: St. Paul, MN.
Piper Alpha Disaster
An Environmental and Safety Management Analysis of the Disaster that Occurred on the Piper Alpha Oil Rig off the Coast of Scotland
Piper Alpha (Seconds from Disaster, 2013)
The Piper before the Explosion
Timeline of Events
Piper Alpha Mechanism
Root Causes of the Analysis
Design and Process Factor
Permit to ork System
Evacuation and Escape
Piper Alpha was a North Sea oil production platform operated by Occidental Petroleum (Caledonia) Ltd. The platform began the oil production in 1976 and then later converted to gas production as the hub of multiple networked rigs. The piper alpha platform was operated in multiple shifts by the employees who worked the whole platform to continue supply the oil and gas on a perpetual basis. The operations of the Piper Alpha platform included receiving the oil and gases…
Allen, B., 2008. Lest we forget: Piper Alpha. [Online]
Available at: http://www.beckyallen.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Lest-We-Forget-Piper-Alpha.pdf
[Accessed 19 April 2013].
Centre of Risk, N.d.. Piper Alpha Accident. [Online]
Although I could not find any specific job advertisement for a fashion photographer, I found some entry-level positions in the fashion industry. A copy of these appears after the reference list. It appears that a career choice of fashion photography would be extremely rewarding in terms of the interesting situations and people the professional would come into contact with. It also appears to be a highly creative and satisfying job for a person with the right traits.
According to the "Creative Skillset" Website (2012), some colleges and universities offer courses in fashion photography, which are generally led by established photographers who act as visiting lecturers for these courses. While these courses can provide a valuable grounding knowledge of the industry, most fashion photographers begin their careers by assisting established fashion photographers. This provides not only practical experience in the industry, but also practical knowledge of the way in…
Agarwal, A. (2008). Fashion Photography -- 4 Requirements To Become A Successful Fashion Photographer. Retrieved from: http://ezinearticles.com/?Fashion-Photography-4-Requirements-To-Become-A-Successful-Fashion-Photographer&id=1662089
Careers in Photography. (2012). Fashion Photography. Retrieved from: http://jazzminad.webs.com/
Creative Skillset. (2012). Fashion Photographer. Retrieved from: http://www.creativeskillset.org/photo/careers/photographers/article_3274_1.asp
Pre-accident plan is a plan which contains the necessary information for all personnel that would be required in the event of a mishap, investigation of the mishap including the details needed in the process of recovering an aircraft that is involved in an accident. It includes all the duties, the responsibilities and the training programs necessary to successful manage an accident involving an airplane. The pre-accident pan is structures so as to contain all the latest notifications and the necessary contact procedures to be used to initiate a response to all the aircraft incidents. A copy of the pre-accident plan is then copied to the Chief of Fire and Aviation, The area Chief ranger and the notification set to a relevant body such as FAA (Castro,1988).
The pre-accident plan is to be coordinated with the relevant disaster control departments using a set of standard procedures that are to be exercised,…
Alaska Interagency Coordination Center Aircraft (2009)Pre-Accident Plan
Castro, R (1988).Emergency and Pre-Accident Plans . Flight Safety Digest.< www.flightsafety.org/fsd/fsd_may88.pdf>
Department of the Army (2007)Army Aviation Accident Prevention Program
National Transportation Safety Board (2007) .Air Methods Corporation Safety Manua.< http://www.ntsb.gov/Dockets/Aviation/DCA09SH001/410568.pdf >
The NAAP structural integrity program includes three tests including Widespread Fatigue Damage (WFD), Damage tolerance analysis (DTA) and DTA based airframe repair assessment. The supplemental inspection programs of the FAA ensure that commercial airlines fulfill the structural safety requirements. Any structural defects that are observed during the normal operation of an airplane or those that are revealed after an accident are issued as Airworthiness Directives (AD). The FAA periodically conducts certification reviews and aircrafts that report recurrent problems due to design issues will require compulsory design modifications. [FAA]
6. What is the purpose of flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders? How are they be used for accident-prevention purposes?
Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders are very useful tools that can be used to understand the events that lead to the accident. Familiarly known as the 'black boxes' these units are helpful for aircraft investigators in reconstructing the disaster.…
1) Alexander T. wells, Clarence C. Rodriguez, (2003) 'Commercial Aviation Safety', Fourth Edition, McGraw Hill.
2) NASA, 'Aviation Safety Reporting System', retrieved Apr 6th 2010, from, http://asrs.arc.nasa.gov/overview/summary.html
3) NBAA, 'Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS)' retrieved Apr 6th 2010, from, http://www.nbaa.org/ops/safety/asrs/
4) NTSB (2002) 'National Transportation Safety Board: Aviation investigation manual Major team investigations', retrieved Apr 6th 2010 from, http://www.ntsb.gov/Aviation/Manuals/MajorInvestigationsManual.pdf
The oeing 747-300 model was designed to hold 600 passengers. ut the founder of America's Flight Safety foundation, Jerome Lederer, commented that evacuation of such numbers in the event of disaster would be troublesome. Sitting next to an emergency exit did not promise anything, as shown by this tragedy. Only a bare few escaped and only as fate had it. These were the musings of many when dead bodies were brought down by helicopters from Mount Osutaka in bright blankets (Magnuson, Aviation Safety Network, AAIC, C, C (. This disaster and others before and subsequent call for more responsive prevention measures to save lives in this era of massive global air travel.
The Safety Promotion Center was opened in 2006 to train employees and alert them to the importance of airline safety and personal responsibility for safety. The ultimate responsibility falls squarely on the shoulders of Japan Airlines…
AAIC (2002). JA8254. Aircraft Accident Investigation Report. Aircraft Accident
Investigation Commission. Retrieved on January 30,
2012 from http://www.mlit.go.jp/jtsb/eng-air_report/JA8254.pdf
- (1985). http://www.mlit.go.jp/jtsb/eng-air_report/JA8119.pdf
Comparing aviation statistics regarding accidents in the air and on the ground is an oftentimes tedious and analytical endeavor. Experts often have to first determine the catagory in which the aircraft can be placed; since there is a wide variety of commercial aircraft and pilots who may be flying (or attempting to fly) for many different purposes. The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration defines commercial operations as " those carriers that operate aircraft in revenue service, either for the purpose of passenger or cargo transport" (U.S., 2013, p. 6).
The first item of business in analyzing data from an accident involving aircraft would likely be to ascertain who exactly would be investigating the accident. Accomplishing that objective may be a bit more complex than what one would think. As one recent study determined "aviation personnel are various groups of experts having various specializations and working in various areas of civil…
Future of the U.S. aviation system: Federal Aviation Administration vision for 2025, (2013) Congressional Digest, Vol. 92, Issue 6, pp. 8-32
Trifonov-Bogdanov, P.; Vinogradov, L.; Shestakov, V.; (2013) Civil aviation accidents and incidents classified according to groups of aviation specialists, Aviation, Vol. 17, Issue 2, pp. 76-79
U.S. civil aviation accidents: Review of aircraft accident data, (2013) Congressional Digest, Vol. 92, Issue 6, pp. 6-7.
It is essential fo company manages, safety pactitiones and manufactuing enginees to be infomed of and gain sufficient knowledge about cuent eseach developments in this field and implement safety stategies as well as systems to minimize occupational health and safety isks. (Bie; Kuneuthe; Phimiste, 103); (Stellman, 17)
Active and pocedual isk management stategies ae impotant elements in any manufactuing unit. Active isk management efes to implementing intelocks, alams and mitigation systems that can detect a hazad and immediately shut down o set the system into a safe position. Pocedual isk management efes to implementing safety checklists, opeato taining, standad opeating pocedues and seveal such people dependent management systems. Ceating "inheently safe design stategies" in a manufactuing unit would involve fou key stategies. These ae minimizing, modeating, substituting and simplifying systems. (Bie; Kuneuthe; Phimiste, 103); (Stellman, 17)
Despite all safety guidelines, accidents still occu mainly as a esult of human complacence…
references and further reading you must purchase this article.
Ellacott, Michael V; Reed, Sue. Review: Development of Robust Indoor Air Quality Models for the Estimation of Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in Buildings. Indoor and Built Environment, vol. 8, no. 6, 1999. pp: 345-360.
Falzon, Pierre. Enabling safety: issues in design and continuous design. Cognition, Technology & Work, vol.10, no. 1, Jan 2008, pp: 7-14.
Fleming, Mary Louise; Parker, Elizabeth. 2007. Health promotion: principles and practice in the Australian context. Ligare Book Printer, Sydney.
International Labour Organization. Occupational safety & health. 2009. Retrieved 12 November, 2009 from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/sectors/mee/safety.htm
(2) Analyzing all accident data without regard to the type of airframe provides for an easy sampling and less potential bias toward fixed wing vs. rotary wing aircraft.
(3) Not including ground accidents into the research will allow the research to focus only on aviation accidents.
(4) Limiting the research to a four-year period; 2003 to 2006 will provide an adequate sampling of the data and not constrain the research results.
The first assumption is that accident data to be used will be an adequate sample of class a through class C accidents within the USAREUR area of operations.
The second assumption is that ARMS inspection dates derived from official USAREUR Publications and historical data files will reflect actual dates of ARMS inspections.
The third assumption is that current ARMS inspections continue to incorporate comprehensive checklist used to evaluate resource management and assist…
HSMS Gap Analysis and Hazard Identification Risk Assessments
Description of APM Terminals
Review of the Health and Safety Management System
Health and Welfare Hazards
Physical Hazard -- Working at Height - Scaffolding
Health & Welfare Hazard -- Noise
Action Plan 1 - Management System
Action Plan 2 -- Hazards and Risks
Barbour Checklist: BS OHSAS 18001 Audit Checklist
Occupational health and safety management has numerous benefits for business, not only an employer's duty of care, a legal and moral obligation but also critical part of business equal in importance to other business functions like finance, marketing and production. When health and safety is embedded as part of business, results would be, good company image and reputation, better employee motivation and morale, improved efficiency and ultimately increased profitability.
The implementation of a sound health, safety and environment (HSE)…
Also causal was the Captain's failure to detect the mistrimmed rudder before the takeoff was attempted." (National Transportation Safety Board).
Controversy soon filled the probe into the crash when a passenger told investigators that he had been out "bar-hopping" with the pilot, co-pilot and a stewardess just before the flight. The accusations were never proven, and federal investigators later pointed to a defect in the aircraft rudder as the cause of the crash. However, the rudder was subsequently redesigned.
The accident involving USAir Flight 5050 attracted the attention of the Queen's district attorney, who convened a grand jury to determine if criminal charges should be pursued. No formal charges were ever brought. However, the action of the district attorney hampered the normal course of the accident investigation, because the accident scene was declared a "crime scene." Access to the wreckage and witnesses was subjected to the control of the local…
Federal Aviation Administration. February 12, 2005. http://www.ntsb.gov/ntsb/query.asp
McCarthy, P. (July 27, 2000). Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure Aviation Subcommittee, U.S. House of Representatives, February 12, 2005. http://www.house.gov/transportation/aviation/hearing/07-27-00/mccarthy.html
National Transportation Safety Board Accident Database and Synopses. February 12, 2005. http://www.ntsb.gov/ntsb/brief.asp?ev_id=20001213X29335&key=1
There has been an accident on the production floor at Latex Paint that has injured three men. As a result, Latex Paint must deal with a number of serious issues. First, the decline in employee productivity after the accident could become a drain on company profitability. Further, the company will be required to prove that it has met its obligations in relation to health and safety rules of the Union and OSHA legislation and may face substantial financial penalties if it has not done so. Liability for the injuries to its employees and damage to the company's reputation are a real threat, particularly if this company was not in compliance with health and safety standards.
Richards needs to take a variety of immediate steps to deal with the accident. To adequately prepare for the staff meeting, he needs to understand what happened and to the best of his…
Management styles. Retrieved June 11, 2005 from Web site: http://www.aloa.co.uk/members/downloads/resources/management_styles.htm
Human interaction with Glass Cockpit & computerized flight systems
Human interaction with computerized flight systems is viewed by many as the "Achilles heel" in modern commercial flight. hile pilots as the ultimate end-users must bear the responsibility for the systems under their control, it is the designers who must shoulder the burden for taking into account the human factors likely to cause confusion. How information is displayed has a tremendous impact on how it is interpreted. Indeed, graphical displays and glass cockpits are here to stay -- but so too are human pilots."(Krell)
The purpose of this paper is to explore an emerging technology known as the glass cockpit and to seek to explain the human factors that influence the implementation of this technology. This discourse will describe the theoretical issues of the glass cockpit technology and the human factors associated with the invention and subsequent implementation of the technology.…
Future Video Aircraft Recorder. http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:WAx8zvYMdJcC:www.ntsb.gov/events/symp_rec/proceedings/authors/horne.pdf+benefits+of+the+glass+cockpits&hl=en&ie=UTF-8
Incident and Accident Review. http://www.nlr.nl/public/hosted-sites/ecottris/incacc.htm
Perils of the Glass Cockpit. http://www.npl.com/~tkrell/writings/aviation/glass-cockpit.html
ice and rain affect normal operations-Emphasis on Icing
There is a clear inter-relation between safe and satisfactory travel by air and weather. Most of the accidents in airplanes occur due to adverse weather, and it is one among the different causes improving towards the occurrence of the accident. It can be blamed as the reason for most of the flight delays also. All flight operations are affected by unfavorable weather. This may prevent the handling of flight totally or sometimes partially. The expenses incurred due to delays and change in route due to such weather conditions is very high. oth the passenger and the aviation industry has to bear the brunt of these situations, due to the loss of time for the passenger, the hefty hotel charges, increase in fuel consumption, and additional spending on servicing, equipment and change in crew, as also they make flying more expensive beyond plans…
Bernstein, B.C., Omeron, T.A. McDonough, F. And Politovich, M.K. 1997: The relationship between aircraft icing and synoptic-scale weather conditions. Weather & Forecasting, 12, 742-762.
Lankford, T.T., 2000: Aircraft Icing: A pilot's guide to supercooled drizzle droplets, icing accident case studies and cold weather techniques. Practical Flying Series, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., pp.336 pp.
Rasmussen, R., M. Politovich, J. Marwitz, W.R. Sand, J. McGinley, J. Smart, R. Pielke, S. Rutledge, D. Wesley, G. Stossmeister, B. Bernstein, K. Elmore, N. Powell, E. Westwater, B. Boba Stankov, and Burrows, D. 1992: Winter Icing and Storms Project (WISP). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 73, 951-974.
Sand, W.R., Cooper, W.A. Politovich, M. K and Veal, D.L. 1984: Icing conditions encountered by a research aircraft. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 23, 1427-1440.
Training programs for traffic homicide investigators usually include the following areas: speed estimates from kinetic energy, skid marks, scuffmarks and airborne situations, vehicle dynamics and motion, time, distance and motion equations, conservation of momentum calculations, diagramming vehicle damage, vehicle damage analysis explaining thrust, center of mass, overlap and collapse, vehicle lamp examination, tire damage evaluation, advanced photography and video techniques and vector sum analysis (Advanced Traffic Crash Investigation, n.d.).
All of these areas are important in order for an investigator to be successful in traffic homicide investigations.
Advanced Traffic Crash Investigation. (n.d.). etrieved September 13, 2009, from Tennessee
Traffic Safety esource Service Web site:
Byrd, Mike. (2000). Crash. etrieved September 13, 2009, from Web site: http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/crash.html
Advanced Traffic Crash Investigation. (n.d.). Retrieved September 13, 2009, from Tennessee
Traffic Safety Resource Service Web site:
Byrd, Mike. (2000). Crash. Retrieved September 13, 2009, from Web site: http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/crash.html
DISASTER RECOVERY AND ORGANIZATIONAL CONTINUITY
The governments of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States all have some form of transportation safety board for disaster response. Their duties are sometimes gathered under one agency and sometimes divided among more than one agency. However, their missions are all focused on transportation security and not on assigning blame to people or groups for accident.
Transportation Safety Boards
Australia has the Australian Transportation Safety Bureau (ATSB), which is an independent statutory agency run by a Commission and kept apart from regulators, policy makers and service providers for transportation. It is designed to increase safety and public confidence transportation by: autonomous examination -- both in Australia and abroad - of accidents and safety incidents; recording, examining and researching safety information; and encouraging safety consciousness, information and behavior (Australian Government, 2016). The ATSB investigates aviation accidents, events and insufficiencies.…
Australian Government. (2016). About ATSB. Retrieved from www.atsb.gov.au: https://www.atsb.gov.au/about_atsb/overview/
Australian Government. (2016). Aviation. Retrieved from www.atsb.gov.au: https://www.atsb.gov.au/aviation/aviation-safety/
Australian Government. (2016). Marine. Retrieved from www.gov.au: https://www.atsb.gov.au/marine/marine-safety/
Australian Government. (2016). Rail. Retrieved from www.atsb.gov.au: https://www.atsb.gov.au/rail/rail-safety/
Flight Data ecorder
From a system viewpoint, prevention is a great deal less expensive than accidents. Two Boeing 737 accidents remain entirely unexplained at this time (Colorado Springs, 1992; Pittsburgh, 1994). Both airplanes had older digital flight data recorders that did not record control surface positions; that information might very well have led to an unambiguous finding of probable cause. In sharp contrast, the Aerospatiale AT-72 that crashed after extended flight in icing conditions ( oselawn, Indiana, 1994), was equipped with a modern digital flight data recorder whose data enabled investigators to discover, literally within days of the accident, that icing had disturbed airflow over the ailerons beyond the pilots' ability to maintain control. It has been suggested that a substantial fleet could have been equipped with modern flight data recorders for less than the costs of the two 737 accidents.
Some of the innovations discussed here are clearly needed…
Ashford, Peter. (2010) Flight Data Recorders: Built, Tested to Remain Intact After a Crash. Parts I & II. Technically Speaking. Avionics News.
Hopkin V.D. (2004). "Human factors in air traffic system automation." In R. Parasuraman & M. Mouloua (Eds.), Human performance in automated systems: Current research and trends (pp. 319-336). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hopkin V.D. (2007). "Situational awareness in air traffic control." In, R.D. Gilson, D.J. Garland, & J.M. Koonce (Eds.), Situational awareness in complex systems (pp. 171-178) Daytona Beach, FL: Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Press.
Hughes J.A., Randall D., & Shapiro D. (2002). Faltering from ethnography toward design. CSCW 92 Proceedings.
Organizations or corporations enlisted as parties to the investigation report to the NTSB though individuals in legal positions are not permitted to be designated to the investigation.
While the enlisted agencies conduct their own investigations for enforcement, the determination of the actual cause of transportation accidents and incidents remains the sole responsibility of the Safety Board ("What is the National Transportation Safety Board?" n.d.). Through the party system, much of the background technical information is collected to be used in the factual reports by the National Transportation Safety Board. The Safety Board uses its staff to supervise all investigative activities in order to accomplish its objectives. The head of each investigative group or organization basically prepares and documents a factual report upon completion of their respective tasks. Each of the parties in the specific investigative organization or unit is requested to verify the accuracy of the factual report. After the…
"The Investigative Process at NTSB." (n.d.). Accident Investigations. Retrieved from National
Transportation Safety Board website: https://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/process.html
"What is the National Transportation Safety Board?" (n.d.). National Transportation Safety
Board. The Washington Post. Retrieved April 5, 2014, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/metro/documents/whatisntsb0091710.pdf
Crossair Flight 3597 -- Aircraft Crash Survival Analysis
The paper focuses on the Air crash of the Crossair Flight 3597 on 24th November 2001 and various ways and actions that could have led the plane to survive the air crash. This Aircraft Crash Survival Analysis will not only be highlighting the strategies that could have helped many people survive the air crash but also provides a detailed account of the crash, the reasons the crash took place and the contribution of human error in the crash.
On the 24th of November 2001, Crossair airline's flight CX3597, aircraft AVO 146 J 100 registered as HB-IXM, left the Berlin-Tegel airport from runway 26-L at 8 p.m. UTC for Zurich. The flight was scheduled to land at the Zurich runway 14 using the ILS (Instrument Landing System) approach. This approach provides the pilots directions for landing through the radio signals from…
Aircraft Accident Investigation Bureau & Swiss Confederation, SKYbrary Bookshelf. (2004). Final Report No. 1793 by the Aircraft Accident Investigation Bureau concerning the accident to the aircraft AVRO 146-RJ100, HB-IXM, operated by Crossair under flight number CRX 3597, on 24 November 2001 near Bassersdorf/ZH. Retrieved 22nd August, 2012 from http://www.skybrary.aero/bookshelf/books/989.pdf
Aviation Safety Network, Flight Safety Foundation. (2004). Accident Description. Retrieved 22nd August, 2012 from http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20011124-0
Simula, Inc. (1989, December). Aircraft Crash Survival Design Guide-Volume 1: Design Criteria and Checklists. Arizona, Pheonix: U.S. Department of Commerce-National Technical Information Service.
SyedN07. (2011, April 22). Brand NEW! 2011 - Air Crash Investigations - Cockpit Failure - Crossair LX Flight 3597 [Video File]. Retrieved 21st August, 2012 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oYDXQ-fCSyU .
Fifteen questions used to measure willingness to AC were assembled into a questionnaire designed to examine the personality measures and items regarding employee response to various safety issues, adequacy of safety training, and attitudes toward other safety related issues. The most pertinent questions relating to AC were:
If I know a coworker is going to do a hazardous job, I am willing to remind him/her of the hazards (even if the employee is familiar with the job),
I am willing to warn my peers about working unsafely am willing to do whatever I can to improve safety, even confronting my peers about their unsafe acts.
The responses to these questions, measured on a 5-point Likert scale, were added to attain an AC score. The Likert technique presents a set of attitude statements. Subjects are asked to express agreement or disagreement of a five-point scale. Each degree of agreement is given…
Asfahl, C.R. (1999) Industrial safety and health management, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco: Freeman.
Curtis, S.L., (1995) "Safety and total quality management," Professional Safety, Jan., pp.18-20
DiPadova, L.N., and Faerman, S.R. (1993). "Using the competing values framework to facilitate managerial understanding across levels of organizational hierarchy," Human Resource Management, 32(1), 143-174
, 2006). The ongoing investigation is being conducted by a "National Interagency Serious Accident Investigation Team," with the purpose of "determining fact surrounding the incident, identify lessons learned," and with the end result a set of "...recommendations for accident prevention purposes."
The investigation will no doubt look into the fire shelter issue, although since the firefighters are gone, the question of why shelters were not used cannot be answered. If all five men had fire shelters on board the engine, it will seem sadly ironic that those protective units were not deployed. For wildland firefighters, it is not only important for escape routes and other safety procedures to be established, but it is imperative that firefighters are in possession of the very newest, safest fire shelters; and with this in mind, the USDA / USFS "Fire & Aviation Management" eb site offers some conflicting and confusing information.
On one page…
Golway, Terry. (2005). Firefighters. American Heritage Magazine. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 at http://www.americanheritage.com .
Fire Chief. (2006). Near-Miss Report Total Reaches 1,000. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 at http://www.firechief.com/news/1000_near_miss10242006/index.html .
Firehouse.com. (2005) VFIS's Operation Safe Arrival: Don't
Become a Statistic. Retrieved 29 Oct. 2006 at http://cms.firehouse.com/content/article/printer/jsp?id=50236.
Instances of violation found after examining the complaints, it will issue a determination letter ordering the employer to pay outstanding wages, reinstate and reimburse the employee for attorneys and expert witness fees and initiate other steps to provide necessary relief. Complaints lacking merit will be dismissed.
The eal Face:
Although MSHA is intended to function as a watchdog body to keep vigil on the implementation of the federal Mine Safety and Health Act, 1977, through prohibiting companies from dismissing and harassing poor miners who deny working in unsafe working conditions or report safety conditions, it has been widely reported in the sections of the press that MSH is juggling with the statistics of miners death. It has devised its own day of reporting or otherwise about the number of the death of miners while on duty. By applying its discretion, MSHA took into account death of three coal miners and…
Addington, Wes. 2005. MSHA manipulates fatality figures. January, 31. Retrieved from http://www.kentucky.com/mld/kentucky/news/editorial/10764746.htm. Accessed on 25 May, 2005
Discrimination Cases Filed on Behalf of Local Miners Against Coal Company. 2004. 14 December. Retrieved at http://www.appalachianlawcenter.org/currentcases.htm . Accessed on 25 May, 2005
Mine Safety and Health. U.S. Department of Labor Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy. Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/asp/programs/guide/msha.htm . Accessed on 25 May, 2005
U.S. files discrimination complains in miner findings. Retrieved from http://www.wkyt.com/global/story.asp?s=2809240&ClientType=PrintableAccessed on 25 May, 2005
He suffered permanent injuries due to the after-effects of burns and exposure to frostbite (he was exposed to extreme cold for 14 hours after the crash before being recovered). It is also evident that defendant suffered wage loss due to his injuries and suffered pain and disability.
The facts of the case indicate conclusively that the accident was caused by negligence on the part of the pilot (Pokrass) resulting in injury to the plaintiff. Hence application of Res ipsa loquitor in the case is proper. The jury award of wage loss and for pain and suffering is also fair.
PASSENGER'S DUTY to the PILOT-in-COMMAND
In normal circumstances, a passenger (or passengers) owes absolutely no duty to the pilot-in-command in the event of a plane accident due to negligence of the pilot since in most commercial aircrafts the passengers are separated from the cabin crew and would not be aware…
Gesell, Laurence E. And Dempsey, Paul S. (2005). Aviation and the Law, 4e, Coast Aire Publishers (pp 72-73)
The report identifies NASA as "working with an unrealistic set of flights" (Cases Study. N.D.); timelines "which were retained and increased pressure to meet schedules by senior NASA managers" (Case Study. N.D.). The Challenger disaster was marked by the reality that
"NASA had found evidence that O-rings had allowed hot exhaust to burn through a primary seal. Since 1982 the O-rings had been designated a "Criticality 1" issue. Indeed, a January shuttle launch in cold weather just a year earlier had shown significant burn through of the O-rings. The day before the Challenger launch, engineers at orton Thiokol, a NASA contractor, raised concerns that the frigid temperatures at Cape Canaveral would cause the shuttle's rocket booster "O-rings" to fail -- which would mean catastrophe for the shuttle. Just hours before liftoff, Thiokol engineers were recommending that the launch be delayed. After hours of discussion, NASA pressed forward with the launch…
Much like the Challenger incident the CAIB report finds "NASA management practices to be as much a cause of the accident as the foam that struck the left wing 81 sec into flight. These practices included: allowing the shuttle to fly with known flaws, blocking the flow of critical information up the hierarchy, and inadequate safety monitoring" (O'Leary, J. June 2, 2010). As with the O-ring on Challenger, a seemingly minor technical issue was the problem. "Foam had been falling off the tank since the very first shuttle flight, and NASA had long been trying to fix it. But in each case, NASA decided it was okay to keep flying. Over time, this led to a significant understating or a collective ignoring of an actual risk" (O'Leary, J. June 2, 2010).
Clearly, there were systemic organizational issues which confronted NASA over the course of several decades which led to the two disasters however, what specifically went wrong and more importantly how could these areas have been addressed?
At the core of both of these incidents was an organizational inertia "reflecting missed opportunities, blocked or ineffective communication channels, flawed analysis, and ineffective leadership" (Case Study. N.D.). After the Challenger flight the Rogers report's "recommendations included that NASA restructure its management to tighten control, and set a group dedicated to finding and tracking hazards in regard to shuttle safety" (Case Study. N.D.). Yet, after the Columbia disaster, the CAIB report found that "though NASA underwent many management reforms in the wake of the Challenger accident…the agency's powerful human space flight culture remained intact, as did many practices…such as inadequate concern over
POLICE OFFICE EQUIE ASSOCIATES DEEGEE CIMINAL JUSTICE CLOSELY ELATED FIELD?
POLICE OFFICES, DEGEE IN CIMINAL JUSTICE, AND OTHE QUALIFICATIONS
Police Officers, Associates Degree in Criminal Justice, and Other Qualifications
Police Officers, Associates Degree in Criminal Justice, and Other Qualifications
Police officers are individuals empowered by the government to limit civil disorder, protect property, and enforce the law. They are normally charged with the detection and prevention of crime, apprehension of criminals and maintenance of law and order. The minimum training and education required in order to become a police officer mainly varies among individual agencies, departments, and states. The education requirements largely depend on the position or rank that the individual is seeking. This report endeavors to explain whether the police officer is required to have at least an Associates' degree in Criminal Justice or any other close related field. It also explains whether police officers' education level plays a…
Bottoms, A.E., & McClean, J.D. (2013). "Defendants in the criminal process." Hoboken: Taylor and Francis
Carter, D.L., & Jamieson, J.D. (1978). "Issues and trends in criminal justice education." Huntsville, Tex.: Institute of Contemporary Corrections and the Behavioral Sciences, Sam Houston State University
Cryderman, B.K. (1986). "Police, race and ethnicity: a guide for law enforcement officers." Toronto: Butterworths
Nemeth, C.P. (1989). "A status report on contemporary criminal justice education: a definition of the discipline and an assessment of its curricula, faculty, and program characteristics." Lewiston, NY, USA: E. Mellen Press.
decision making best exemplifies what happened on the Deepwater Horizon rig?
The basic model that was used in the Deepwater Horizon accident was the bounded rational decision making approach. This is when everyone inside the organization will be focused on selecting options that work well within their current circumstances. The problem is that these individuals are not selecting an approach, which is in the best interests of everyone. Instead, there is an obsession in meeting short-term objectives at all costs. In the case of the Deepwater Horizon, everyone was ignoring obvious signs that the well was about to explode. The biggest reason why is managers were focused on meeting the productivity goals of the company at all costs. ("What are ational Models," 2012)
Which of the decision- making biases played a potential role in the disaster?
The kind of decision making biases that were occurring prior the Deepwater Horizon incident…
An Intuitive Decision Making Model. (2008). Rapid Business Intelligence. Retrieved from: http://www.rapid-business-intelligence-success.com/intuitive-decision-making.html
Was Poor Decision Making a Cause of the Deepwater Horizon Disaster. (n.d.).
What are Rational Models. (2012). Decision Making. Retrieved from: http://www.decision-making-confidence.com/rational-decision-making-models.html
Bly, M. (2011). Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation. Washington D.C.U.S. Government Printing Offices.
Critical Thinking for Homeland Security
The capacity of a government to protect its citizens pivots on the ability of its leaders and high-placed specialists to think critically. Few times in history point so clearly to this principle than the 9/11 disaster. In 1941, the same year that the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred, Edward M. Glaser published a book titled, An Experiment in the Development of Critical Thinking. Glaser's practice of psychiatry was remarkable in that he dispensed with the Freudian deep dive into past events, pushing his patients to deal with problem solving in the present -- a critical thinking practice he called reality therapy. Many of Glaser's tenets were adopted by other disciplines because of their universal utility and association with positive results. Glaser defined critical thinking as, "A persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports…
Albert Einstein. Brainy Quotes. Retrieved from http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/a/albert_einstein.html
Chow, D. (2011, January 25). Space Shuttle Challenger disaster FAQ: What went wrong? www.SPACE.com. Retrieved from http://www.space.com/10677-challenger-tragedy-overview.html
Eichorn, R. (2012). Developing thinking skills: Critical thinking at the Army Management Staff College. Fort Belvoir, VA: Strategic Systems Department. [Webpage, last modified: 4 2012 January.] Retreived from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army/critical/roy.htm
Glaser, E.M. (1941). An experiment in the development of critical thinking. New York, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University.
The courts retooled by a generation of conservative judicial appointments and crazed case law now function as social abettors, in which the poor and the dark skinned are shunted off to a concrete hell with industrial efficiency. Left behind are broken families, more addiction, more disease, more illiteracy, and thus a more docile society" (Parenti, 2001).
There are different changes being made in the system to reflect new and evolving values. For example, recommendations have been made that all police interrogations be video taped, so that juries have access to the process of confession and not just a typed end-product. This way police can ensure the values of integrity in the confession process. The increasing use of DNA testing, where possible, is also a way of helping to ensure that only the guilty are punished and justice is upheld.
The main purpose of police department is to provide services to…
Parenti, C. (July 2001). The "New" Criminal Justice System: State Repression from 1968 to 2001. Monthly Review. 539(3): 19.
Platt, a. (2001). Social Insecurity: The Transformation of American Criminal Justice, 1965 -- 2000. Social Justice. 28(1): 138.
Wright, K. (1999). Leadership Is the Key to Ethical Practice in Criminal Justice Agencies. Criminal Justice Ethics. 18(2): 2.
Townsend, P. (September 2005). Detention Redemption: In One California County, Progressive Leaders and Law-Enforcement Officials Are Transforming a Troubled Juvenile-Justice System. The American Prospect. 16(9): 20+.
U.S. statistics indicate that 80% of aviation accidents are due to human errors with 50% due to maintenance human factor problems. Current human factor management programs have not succeeded to the degree desired. Many industries today use performance excellence frameworks such as the Baldrige National Quality Award framework to improve over-all organizational effectiveness, organizational culture and personal learning and growth. A survey administered to a sample population of senior aviation maintainers in 18 countries revealed a consistent problem with aviation human factors and the need for a more integrated framework to manage human factor problems in aviation maintenance.
Human Factors History
Current Human Factor programs in Aircraft Maintenance
Performance Excellence Framework
esearcher's Work Setting and ole
Statement of the Problem
EVIEW OF ELEVANT LITEATUE AND ESEACH
Human Factor Errors in Aircraft Maintenance Statistics
Current Human Factor Programs in Aircraft Maintenance 13
Aviation Performance Excellence Framework 12
Statement of esearch Question…
Boeing. (1993). Accident Prevention Strategies. Commercial Jet Aircraft Accidents
World Wide Operations 1982-1991. Retrieved 11 Nov, 2004 from http://www.hf.faa.gov / Portal/HFTimeline.aspx
Boeing. (1994). Field test of the MEDA process. Retrieved 17 Dec, 2004 from William L.
ritish Airways Flight 9
The Institution of Mechanical Engineers report entitled "Volcanic Ash: To Fly or Not to Fly? reports that the prediction of "ash movement and dispersal has become more sophisticated over the years. In the UK, the Met Office uses Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modeling Environment (NAME), computer model, developed after the Chernobyl accident in 1986." (2010, p.3) This model is reported to have tracked various atmospheric dispersion events and to have as its purpose the prediction of "how far and how concentrated, emitted particles will be dispersed, using a number of factors, such as wind, rainfall and particle size…" (Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 2010, p.3) On June 24, 1982 ritish Airways 747-200, Flight 9 near Jakarta Indonesia ran into trouble when the crew accidentally flew into a volcanic ash cloud from Mount Galunggung in west Java, Indonesia. The ash caused severe damage to all four engines and the aircraft…
Guidance for Flight Crews and Controllers (nd) Retrieved from: www.skybrary.aero/index.php/Volcanic_Ash
Marks, Paul (2010) Engine Stripdowns Establish Safe Volcanic Ash Levels. 10 Apr 2010. Retrieved from: www.newscientist.com/article/dn18802-enginestripdowns-establish-safe-volcanic-ash-levels.html
Moody, Eric (1986) Down to a Sunless Sea: Anatomy of An Incident. The Log, April 1986. Retrieved from: http://www.ericmoody.com/Page1.pdf
Volcanic Ash: To Fly or Not to Fly? Institution of Mechanical Engineers -- The Background Science of Engineering. October 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.imeche.org/Libraries/IMechE_Report_Library/IMechE_Volcanic_Ash_Report.sflb.ashx
Heat Exchanger upture Incident
Using the information in the CSB Case Study, identify probable direct causes, contributing causes, and root causes of the incident. Explain the reasoning you used to reach these causes. You may make assumptions concerning any missing investigative information as long as you clearly state your assumptions. Discuss how and where your proposed causal factors fit into the causation model on page 356 of the course textbook. For the root causes only, provide recommended corrective actions.
The United States Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) is an independent federal agency tasked with protecting workers and the public by investigating and preventing chemical accidents, and after each investigation is completed a comprehensive case study is released to detail probable causes and proposed responses. When an ammonia heat exchanger ruptured and released deadly gas inside Houston's Goodyear Tire and ubber Company plant on June 11, 2008, an incident…
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section
VIII, Division I, 2004
USCSB. U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, (2011). Case study: Heat exchanger rupture and ammonia release in houston, texas (one killed, six injured) (2008- 06-I-TX). Retrieved from Government Printing Office website: http://www.csb.gov/assets/document/Case_Study.pdf
Deception is an integral part of the police arsenal during interrogation. The tactics and techniques of deception have been finely honed, and continue to improve to allow for effective interrogation and information retrieval. Within the framework of judicious police interrogation, the techniques and tactics can be employed effectively, efficiently, and ethically. A few, like the eid Technique, have been criticized for their misuses and for their tendency to create false confessions (McKee, 2014). Other tactics and techniques do deserve to remain part of the overall law enforcement strategy, especially when the tactics and techniques preserve the integrity of the investigation. One of the most commonly used deceptive interrogation tactics is minimization. Minimization is used to engender trust and establish a bond of communication with the suspect. The law enforcement officer basically bluffs throughout the interview, downplaying the severity of the crime itself, feigning sympathy with the suspect's point-of-view, and…
Bell, R. (n.d.). Coerced false confessions during police investigations. Crime Library. Retrieved online: http://www.crimelibrary.com/notorious_murders/not_guilty/coerced_confessions/2.html
McKee, E. (2014). The line between deception and fabrication. Temple Law Review. 14 Nov, 2012. Retrieved online: http://sites.temple.edu/lawreview/2012/11/14/the-use-of-deception-and-other-ethical-implications-in-interrogation-methods/
Redlich, A.D. & Meissner, C. (n.d.). Techniques and controversies in the interrogation of suspects. In Skeem, J.L., K. Douglas & S. Lilienfeld (Eds.) Psychological Science in the Courtroom. Retrieved online: http://digitalcommons.utep.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1036&context=christian_meissner
Rutledge, D. (2007). The lawful use of deception. Police. Jan 1, 2007. Retrieved online: http://www.policemag.com/channel/patrol/articles/2007/01/point-of-law.aspx
The results of the investigation provided information that allowed sweeping changes to be made regarding the methods by which power plants are run and monitored in the future.
Even given the fact that the investigation proved the maximum exposure that any one person had as a result of the meltdown was no more than one x-ray would create there were more than 2,000 law suits filed in court with claims that the exposure to radiation caused varying health issues for individuals (Three mile island (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/reaction/readings/tmi.html).
The court chose ten test cases on which to decide the outcome of all 2,000 cases. Those cases took 15 years to resolve and in 1996 the lawsuits were dismissed in favor of the defendants (Three mile island (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/reaction/readings/tmi.html).
It should be noted that the operators and emergency operating procedures (EOPs) did not recognize the accident as a classic LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) since…
Three mile island (accessed 5-20-06)
Fact Sheet on the Accident at Three Mile Island (accessed 5-20-06)
In the case of the different gas spills, OSHA could have easily shut down the plant until changes were made in safe regulations. However, the fact that the OSHA continued to overlook what was taking place, meant that they would allow an unsafe work environment to exist. (lumenthal, 2007) This is important, because it shows how the lack of follow up and the ability to enforce existing environmental / work safety laws, would help to make the situation worse at the Texas City refinery.
After the accident occurred, the CA would investigate all of the various reports that were received from employees and their families about conditions at the facility. This was in contradiction with the investigation undertaken by P, which found that employee error was the cause of the accident (not a lack of safety procedures). The results of the investigation by the CA; would identify significant lapses in…
Its Deja Vu All Over Again. (2010). Loon Canada. Retrieved from: http://looncanada.com/2010/05/20/its-deja-vu-all-over-again-bp-texas-city-plant-explosion-in-2005-killed-fifteen/
Strategic Plan FY 2004 -- 2008. (2004). U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Board Investigation.
Blumenthal, R. (2007). Safety Group Blames Deadly BP Explosion on all Levels. New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/20/business/worldbusiness/20iht-bp.4972070.html
Schorn, D. (2006). The Explosion at Texas City. CBS News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/10/26/60minutes/main2126509_page2.shtml?tag=contentMain;contentBody
They also recommended that the use of punch hole rivets near the windows, to be replaced with the use of epoxy or drill riveting, to prevent air pockets from developing near the cabin. ("OAC Flight 781," 2005)
The accident changed the industry, by allowing for window designs that were more rounded. This is significant because such a design would provide greater support to the cabin during flight. As a result, these windows have become standard in all jet and propeller driven aircraft. What this shows is that the lessons learned from the accident, mainly the windows and the rivets were used to improve the overall quality of designs of aircraft for the better. ("OAC Flight 781," 2005)
Clearly, the three different incidents highlight specific issues that helped contribute to each accident. Where, all of them have helped improve designs, training and inspections standards. This is important because investigators can use…
Aloha Airline Flight 243. (1988). Retrieved May 13, 2010 from NTSB website:
American Airlines Flight 587. (2002). Retrieved May 13, 2010 from NTSB website:
Today, computer technology makes it practical to collect, edit, distribute and store data in electronic format with little or no additional manual processing necessary (Kala pp). Integrating data from various agencies is now possible, "including police crash reports, truck inspections, traffic citations, motor vehicle records, emergency medical services (EMS) run reports, emergency and long-term health care records, highway inventories, and traffic volume records" (Kala pp).
According to the American National Standard's Manual on Classification of Motor Vehicle Accidents, there are eight definitions: Transport Vehicles and Transport ays; Land ay, Land Vehicles and Uses; Injuries and Damages; Accidents; Locations;
Road vehicle Accident Types; Location of Road Vehicle Accidents; School Bus (Manual pp). There are 13 classifications: Classification of Persons by Injury Severity; Classification of Road Vehicles by Damage Severity; Accident Classification by Transport Vehicle Type; Accident Classification by Injury Severity; Accident Classification by Damage Severity; Accident Classification by Number of Vehicles;…
Della-Giustina, Daniel. Motor Fleet Safety and Security Management. Retrieved September 26, 2005 at http://print.google.com/print?id=lEH4LetE5p8C&lpg=PA1&pg=PA2&sig=u7a-j_jQdGzTYW59S8iQKg9CQkc
Eckhardt, Bob. (1999 May 01). Measuring incidents under new ANSI standard.
Concrete Products. Retrieved September 26, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Fleet1 management & maintenance. (1996 April 15). Public Works. Retrieved September
Challenger Launch Decision
JOE KILMINSTE'S ACCOUNTABILITY IN THE CHALLENGE DISASTE
On January 28, 1986, the Challenger, one of the reusable space shuttle by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or NASA, was launched off at the John F. Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida but exploded 72 seconds after liftoff. The launch was approved and ordered by the management of the Morton Thiokol, Inc., an aerospace company, that manufactures solid propellant rocket motors for big clients, including the NASA, and per NASA's urging despite the objection of Morton Thiokol's engineers that the 30-degree F. temperature was inclement to the shuttle's boosters. The launch was a publicized event as NASA's 25th mission and had a selected teacher, Christa McAulifee and six astronauts on board. All these passengers perished (Jennings 1996).
The launch was repeatedly postponed because the engineers of Thiokol notes the failure of an O. ring assembly in the…
Benner, L. (1996). The Challenger Launch Decision by Diane Vaughan. Book Review, International Society of Air Safety Investigators: ISASI Forum. http://www.ipri.org/Reviews/Vaughan.html
Jennings, MM. (1996). Summary of the "Challenger" Episode. Case Studies in Business Ethics, second edition. West Publishing. http://www.calbaptist.edu/dskubik/nasa.htm
Stubley, G. (1998). Engineers and Integrity. The Objectivist Center. http://www.ios.org/tex/gstubley_engineers-integrity.asp
Vaughan, D. (1996). The Challenger Launch Decision: Risky Technology, Culture and Deviance at NASA.. Paperback. University of Chicago Press.
Flight crew resource management is the science of training flight crews to interact and communicate in a highly authoritarian environment while at the same time making use of the intelligence and professional resources of all the members of a flight crew. In the cockpit, the captain is in unquestionable control of the airplane because he is ultimately responsible for all aspects of the flight, including hardware, equipment and personnel on board. However, Each member of the crew can make important contributions, especially during in flight crises, and their input can be thwarted because of the highly authoritarian command culture. This paper examines the issues of fright crew resource management, and seeks to expand the definition of crew resource management to include personal communication style in order to further facilitate professional, accurate and open communication between the flight staff and commander.
According to Wilson (2001) aviation accidents and mishaps…
Alkov, R.A. (1991). U.S. Navy aircrew coordination training -- A progress report. In R.S. Jensen (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th international Symposium on Aviation Psychology (pp. 368-371). Columbus: Ohio State University.
Alliger, G.M., Tannenbaum, S.I., Bennett, W., Jr., & Traver, H. (1997). A meta-analysis of the relations among training criteria. Personnel Psychology, 50, 341-358.
Baker, D.P., Prince, C., Shrestha, L., Oser, R., & Salas, E. (1993). Aviation computer games for crew resource management training. international Journal of Aviation Psychology, 3, 143-156.
Butler, R.E. (1993). LOFT: Full mission simulation as crew resource management training. In E.L. Wiener, B.G., Kanki, & R.L. Helmreich (Eds.), Cockpit resource management (pp. 231-259). San Diego, CA: Academic.
The mechanic must have adequate knowledge, training, data for assigned task, tools and equipment, be mentally and physically prepared, take safety precautions, have adequate resources, and have researched FAR, Federal Aviation Regulations, to ensure compliance. The task must be performed with a committed attitude, in accordance with appropriate data and acceptable methods, techniques, and practices that are industry acceptable. The mechanic must perform without pressures, stresses, and distractions, re-inspect work, properly record work performed, and perform operational checks. The mechanic must also be willing to sign for work performed and be willing to fly in the aircraft upon approval for return to service.
In spite of having measures in place to mitigate human error in aviation, there is still a major amount of incidents that involve human error. A Quantas plane flew from Darwin to risbane with a rag over a power generator, left on the generator during a…
Administration, F.A. (2009). Aircraft Inspection and Repair: Acceptable Methods, Techniques, and Practices. New York, NY: Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.
Airline worker killed at N.C. airport. (Aug, 9, 2007). Aviation Human Factors Industry News, Vol III Issue 28, Retrieved from http://www.system-safety.com/...n%20HF%20News/AVIATION%20...
Aviation operators cut corners at espense of safety. (Oct. 9, 2007). Aviation Human Factors Industry News, Retrieved from http://www.system-safety.com/Aviation%20HF%20News%203707%20.pdf .
Higgins, C. & . (n.d.). Human factors in improving aviation safety. Retrieved from Boeing: http://www.boeing.com/commercial/aeromagazine/aero_08/human.pdf
Whatever the needed equipment is the company should provide the best possible so that the employees have a reduced chance of accident.
In addition, when a company provides the best possible equipment to the employees it sends them a strong message about the importance of a safety culture at work.
Modeling this way of thinking from management down to the employees will help to promote the safety culture the companies' desire.
Having a team effort to promote the safety culture of any company can only serve to boost the employee moral, save money on workman's compensation claims and reduce the number of accidents within that workplace environment.
For many years, employers were not to concerned with the safety factor of their employees and employees, by human nature would use risk taking behaviors to get their jobs done. This combination of human high risk behavior and lack of company care…
Goodman, Fay (1999) Business: Small Talk - Way to avoid accidents caused by too much bottle.(News) the Birmingham Post (England)
Lanoi, Paul (1992) Safety regulation and the risk of workplace accidents in Quebec.
Southern Economic Journal
Ware, Brandy (2005) Selecting healthy hand tools: choosing the right hand tool for a job can protect workers from painful injuries and improve productivity at the same time.(Prevention of workplace accidents) Occupational Hazards
Human Error and isk Taking
When a new ship is built and has a lot of imagination built into it, the quality that is ascribed to the ship is that it is unsinkable. This was said of the Titanic: "The captain can, by simply moving an electric switch, instantly close the doors throughout, practically making the vessel unsinkable." (They Said It. Some Memorable Lines) This was reported in Irish News and Belfast Morning News, June 1st, 1911, on the incomplete Titanic. (They Said It. Some Memorable Lines)
It is very difficult to say why accidents are found to occur as the definition of accidents itself is that they are events out of the ordinary and dictionary alternatives for accident are considered to be disaster, catastrophe, misfortune, calamity, mishap and mistake. At the same time, it is to be understood that people have their own minds and have their judgments, and…
"Accidents and the lessons learned" Retrieved from http://www.plimsoll.org/WrecksAndAccidents/ImprovingSafety/Accidents/HeraldOfFreeEnterprise.asp Accessed 14 September, 2005
'Corporate Manslaughter-Reforming the Law" Retrieved from http://www.freedomtocare.org/page165.htm Accessed 14 September, 2005
Ellwell, Dennis. "An astrological warning of trouble at sea" Retrieved from http://www.skyscript.co.uk/shipelwell.html Accessed 14 September, 2005
"Herald of Free Enterprise." Shipwreck Data Office. Retrieved from http://www.hypnos.co.uk/wrecks/hofe.html Accessed 14 September, 2005
P's Macondo low-Out: Gulf Mexico
The objective of this study is to describe the background setting, water depth. Type of rig, depth of reservoir and unusual characteristics of the P Operation in the Gulf of Mexico.
On April 22, it is reported that an explosion "ripped the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in Macondo Exploration Well/Canyon 252 lock 41 miles off the Louisiana coast. A fire raged for about 36 hours before a second blast sank the rig. The well's blowout preventer failed to activate, resulting in the largest oil leak in history." (Gulf, Oil, and Gas, 2011) The Macondo Exploration Well/Canyon 252 lock is located in the U.S. sector of the Gulf of Mexico, approximately 41 miles off the coast of Louisiana. The depth is approximately 5,000 feet and the well drilling depth is 18,000 feet (5,500 m) below the sea level. Reports state that the plans were that the…
Calkins, Laurel B (2012) BP Seeks Recovery of All Gulf Spill Costs From Halliburton. Bloomberg. 3 Jan 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-01-02/bp-seeks-recovery-of-at-least-20-billion-spill-damages-from-halliburton.html
Final Report on the Investigation of the Macondo Well Blowout (2011) Deepwater Horizon Group Study 1 Mar 2011. Retrieved from: http://ccrm.berkeley.edu/pdfs_papers/bea_pdfs/DHSGFinalReport-March2011-tag.pdf
Griggs, John Wyeth (2011) BP GULF OF MEXICO OIL SPILL. Energy Law Journal Vol. 32. Issue 37. Retrieved from: http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2011/ph240/mina1/docs/14_57_bp_gulf_of_mexico.pdf
Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico -- Special Report (2011) Gulf, Oil, and Gas. Retrieved from: http://www.gulfoilandgas.com/webpro1/projects/3dreport.asp?id=102868
Intelligence seeks to illuminate the unknown. y definition, intelligence analysis deals with highly ambiguous situations. Despite maximum striving for objectivity, the intelligence analyst's own preconceptions are likely to exert a greater impact on the analytical product than in other fields where an analyst is working with less ambiguous and less discordant information.[footnoteRef:1] [1: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/psych-intel/art5.html ]
In this specific case, CityPlus Insurance has approached with a number of suspicious automobile accident claims. It has gathered and obtained all the relevant information: injured parties, witnesses, vehicle descriptions, license plates, Vehicle Identification Numbers and registered owners, and dates and locations of the incidents.
The injured parties are all claiming soft tissue injuries and filing medical claims through a select group of chiropractors. There also seems to be a particular group of attorneys involved in this process acting on behalf of the injured parties.
In the above situation, to know about the…
Artis, M., M. Ayso, and M. Guillen, 1999. Modeling Different Types of Automobile Insurance Fraud Behavior in Spanish Market, Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, 24(1-2): 67-81.
Brockett, P.L., Xia, X., and Derrig, R.A., 1998. Using Kohonen's Self-Organizing Feature Map to Uncover Automobile Bodily Injury Claims Fraud, Journal of Risk and Insurance, 65: 2.
Clark, M., 1990. The control of Insurance Fraud: A Comparative View, The British Journal of Criminoilogy, 30: 1-23.
Hans Wendt, a staff photographer with the San Diego County's public relations office, who was covering an outdoor press event in North Park at the time of the accident, took two dramatic post collision still color photographs of the falling Boeing-727 trailing blue-and-white smoke streaking from its right wing while plunging towards the ground. They appeared in several publications around the world including the cover of Time magazine. Another television cameraman, covering the same event in North Park, also managed to capture footage of the falling Cessna wreckage.
Cause of the Crash
Probable Cause: According to the official majority findings of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the probable cause of the accident was:
the failure of the flightcrew of Flight 182 to comply with the provisions of a maintain-visual-separation clearance, including the requirement to inform the controller when they no longer had the other aircraft in sight. ("Aircraft Accident…
Aircraft Accident Report." (1979). National Aircraft Safety Board. Retrieved on July 25, 2006 at http://www.psa-history.org/museum/NTSBAAR7905.pdf
CVR transcript: PSA Boeing 727." (n.d.) dnausers.net. Retrieved on July 25, 2006 at http://dnausers.d-n-a.net/dnetGOjg/250978.htm
Shess, T. (1998). "This is it!" San Diego Magazine online. Retrieved on July 25, 2006 at http://www.sandiegomag.com/issues/august98/psa.shtml
Stich, R. (2005). Unfriendly Skies: 20th and 21st Centuries. Reno, Nevada: Diablo Western Press
Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude Oil/Natural Gas Exploration, Transportation, Refining and Storage
Ever since crude oil was first successfully drilled in the U.S. In Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859, the demand for oil has only been increasing over the years in countries all over the world. (Camden, 1883) Crude oil, from which various petroleum products are obtained, is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon component found trapped in rocks below the earth. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth." Natural gas is another form of hydrocarbon that is also found in nature. oth crude oil and natural gas have excellent combustibility and are good sources of energy. Crude oil is not used in the extracted form; but it is refined to obtained products such as gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, kerosene, gas-oil and fuel oil. Secondary products during the purification of crude oil are obtained are…
Associated-Press, and Reuters. World's Biggest Oil Rig Sinks. 2001. CNN. Available:
http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/americas/03/20/brazil.rig.02/.August 2, 2004.
AWMA. Oil Spills - a Fact Sheet. 2000. Air & Waste Management Association. Available:
http://www.awma.org/education/oilspills.htm . August 1, 2004.
A guard must be fixed on the spaces between the banisters in order to prevent the child from falling out from between the spaces. In addition, hardware mounted safety…Read Full Paper ❯
Airplane Crash Investigations Accident investigations are very different in regards to individual crashes. This paper examines the investigation of two plane crashes, Dallas Airlines Flight 191 and United Airlines…Read Full Paper ❯
Improper Ergonomics caused USAir 1493 and SkyWest 5569 Accident Accident Investigation: Improper Ergonomics was the Cause Ergonomics was derived from two Greek words: ergon which means work, nomoi, on…Read Full Paper ❯
Often times this is done to preserve the evidence and wreckage associated with a crash and in the instances where criminal investigations and evidence are pursued, these chains of…Read Full Paper ❯
However, full flight simulators also have some limitations, which make them poor tools for research and investigations depending on the specifics of the crash and the needs for the…Read Full Paper ❯
Unless the already low accident rate in aviation is reduced even further, the increased traffic volume will lead to an average of 25 accidents per year, with over 1,000…Read Full Paper ❯
This veering, would place pressure on the right side of the aircraft, which would help contribute to the break up during plane after touching down. To combat this problem,…Read Full Paper ❯
.. I think he's passed off to our right." Later, the first officer is heard asking, "Are we clear of that Cessna?" The flight engineer responds with, "Supposed to…Read Full Paper ❯
Another human factor related to this is the fact that engineering tends to be a very specialized field. In general, home and business owners do not have the expertise…Read Full Paper ❯
hen an airplane catches on fire and jet fuel is the catalyst, the amount of time that the plane and the object around it will burn is dependent on…Read Full Paper ❯
Runway Incursions That Lead to Accidents The objective of this study is to examine runway incursions that lead to accidents such as the Tenerife airport disaster, U.S. airways Flight…Read Full Paper ❯
Radio Altimeter effectiveness and CFIT How can technology be used to effectively diminish CFIT and ALA incidents? Air travel is one of the safest means of traveling from one…Read Full Paper ❯
00 n Putting-out fires Investigation hrs Immediate staff downtime (e.g. work activity stopped) hrs Staff time to report and investigate incident 12 hrs Meetings to discuss incident 12 hrs…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Computers
In some cases, you may have to take equipment that has been infected with the virus offline (for maintenance) and use a flash drive to remove it / reprogram…Read Full Paper ❯
In addition, a growing number of countries in the region have also started strict traffic sign and signal enforcement campaigns (Martin, 2005). In addition, launched in 2009, a governmental…Read Full Paper ❯
On the hand, some plans may be slow to respond to the pilot's commands; complicating the piloting process, much like a sports car, for example, that under steers or…Read Full Paper ❯
Piper Alpha Disaster An Environmental and Safety Management Analysis of the Disaster that Occurred on the Piper Alpha Oil Rig off the Coast of Scotland Piper Alpha (Seconds from…Read Full Paper ❯
Fashion Photographer Although I could not find any specific job advertisement for a fashion photographer, I found some entry-level positions in the fashion industry. A copy of these appears…Read Full Paper ❯
Pre-accident plan is a plan which contains the necessary information for all personnel that would be required in the event of a mishap, investigation of the mishap including the…Read Full Paper ❯
The NAAP structural integrity program includes three tests including Widespread Fatigue Damage (WFD), Damage tolerance analysis (DTA) and DTA based airframe repair assessment. The supplemental inspection programs of the…Read Full Paper ❯
The oeing 747-300 model was designed to hold 600 passengers. ut the founder of America's Flight Safety foundation, Jerome Lederer, commented that evacuation of such numbers in the event…Read Full Paper ❯
Aviation Comparing aviation statistics regarding accidents in the air and on the ground is an oftentimes tedious and analytical endeavor. Experts often have to first determine the catagory in…Read Full Paper ❯
It is essential fo company manages, safety pactitiones and manufactuing enginees to be infomed of and gain sufficient knowledge about cuent eseach developments in this field and implement safety…Read Full Paper ❯
(2) Analyzing all accident data without regard to the type of airframe provides for an easy sampling and less potential bias toward fixed wing vs. rotary wing aircraft. (3)…Read Full Paper ❯
HSMS Gap Analysis and Hazard Identification Risk Assessments Description of APM Terminals Legal Environment Review of the Health and Safety Management System Description Gap Analysis Hazard Identification Physical Hazards…Read Full Paper ❯
Also causal was the Captain's failure to detect the mistrimmed rudder before the takeoff was attempted." (National Transportation Safety Board). Controversy soon filled the probe into the crash when…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Paint Company There has been an accident on the production floor at Latex Paint that has injured three men. As a result, Latex Paint must deal with a number…Read Full Paper ❯
Human interaction with Glass Cockpit & computerized flight systems Human interaction with computerized flight systems is viewed by many as the "Achilles heel" in modern commercial flight. hile pilots…Read Full Paper ❯
ice and rain affect normal operations-Emphasis on Icing There is a clear inter-relation between safe and satisfactory travel by air and weather. Most of the accidents in airplanes occur…Read Full Paper ❯
d.). Training programs for traffic homicide investigators usually include the following areas: speed estimates from kinetic energy, skid marks, scuffmarks and airborne situations, vehicle dynamics and motion, time, distance…Read Full Paper ❯
Transportation DISASTER RECOVERY AND ORGANIZATIONAL CONTINUITY The governments of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States all have some form of transportation safety board for…Read Full Paper ❯
Flight Data ecorder From a system viewpoint, prevention is a great deal less expensive than accidents. Two Boeing 737 accidents remain entirely unexplained at this time (Colorado Springs, 1992;…Read Full Paper ❯
Organizations or corporations enlisted as parties to the investigation report to the NTSB though individuals in legal positions are not permitted to be designated to the investigation. While the…Read Full Paper ❯
Crossair Flight 3597 -- Aircraft Crash Survival Analysis Crossair Flight The paper focuses on the Air crash of the Crossair Flight 3597 on 24th November 2001 and various ways…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Fifteen questions used to measure willingness to AC were assembled into a questionnaire designed to examine the personality measures and items regarding employee response to various safety issues, adequacy…Read Full Paper ❯
, 2006). The ongoing investigation is being conducted by a "National Interagency Serious Accident Investigation Team," with the purpose of "determining fact surrounding the incident, identify lessons learned," and…Read Full Paper ❯
Instances of violation found after examining the complaints, it will issue a determination letter ordering the employer to pay outstanding wages, reinstate and reimburse the employee for attorneys and…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
He suffered permanent injuries due to the after-effects of burns and exposure to frostbite (he was exposed to extreme cold for 14 hours after the crash before being recovered).…Read Full Paper ❯
The report identifies NASA as "working with an unrealistic set of flights" (Cases Study. N.D.); timelines "which were retained and increased pressure to meet schedules by senior NASA managers"…Read Full Paper ❯
POLICE OFFICE EQUIE ASSOCIATES DEEGEE CIMINAL JUSTICE CLOSELY ELATED FIELD? POLICE OFFICES, DEGEE IN CIMINAL JUSTICE, AND OTHE QUALIFICATIONS Police Officers, Associates Degree in Criminal Justice, and Other Qualifications…Read Full Paper ❯
decision making best exemplifies what happened on the Deepwater Horizon rig? The basic model that was used in the Deepwater Horizon accident was the bounded rational decision making approach.…Read Full Paper ❯
Critical Thinking for Homeland Security The capacity of a government to protect its citizens pivots on the ability of its leaders and high-placed specialists to think critically. Few times…Read Full Paper ❯
The courts retooled by a generation of conservative judicial appointments and crazed case law now function as social abettors, in which the poor and the dark skinned are shunted…Read Full Paper ❯
U.S. statistics indicate that 80% of aviation accidents are due to human errors with 50% due to maintenance human factor problems. Current human factor management programs have not succeeded…Read Full Paper ❯
ritish Airways Flight 9 The Institution of Mechanical Engineers report entitled "Volcanic Ash: To Fly or Not to Fly? reports that the prediction of "ash movement and dispersal has…Read Full Paper ❯
Heat Exchanger upture Incident Using the information in the CSB Case Study, identify probable direct causes, contributing causes, and root causes of the incident. Explain the reasoning you used…Read Full Paper ❯
Police Deception is an integral part of the police arsenal during interrogation. The tactics and techniques of deception have been finely honed, and continue to improve to allow for…Read Full Paper ❯
The results of the investigation provided information that allowed sweeping changes to be made regarding the methods by which power plants are run and monitored in the future. Even…Read Full Paper ❯
In the case of the different gas spills, OSHA could have easily shut down the plant until changes were made in safe regulations. However, the fact that the OSHA…Read Full Paper ❯
They also recommended that the use of punch hole rivets near the windows, to be replaced with the use of epoxy or drill riveting, to prevent air pockets from…Read Full Paper ❯
Today, computer technology makes it practical to collect, edit, distribute and store data in electronic format with little or no additional manual processing necessary (Kala pp). Integrating data from…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Challenger Launch Decision JOE KILMINSTE'S ACCOUNTABILITY IN THE CHALLENGE DISASTE On January 28, 1986, the Challenger, one of the reusable space shuttle by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration…Read Full Paper ❯
CRM Flight crew resource management is the science of training flight crews to interact and communicate in a highly authoritarian environment while at the same time making use of…Read Full Paper ❯
The mechanic must have adequate knowledge, training, data for assigned task, tools and equipment, be mentally and physically prepared, take safety precautions, have adequate resources, and have researched FAR,…Read Full Paper ❯
Whatever the needed equipment is the company should provide the best possible so that the employees have a reduced chance of accident. In addition, when a company provides the…Read Full Paper ❯
Human Error and isk Taking When a new ship is built and has a lot of imagination built into it, the quality that is ascribed to the ship is…Read Full Paper ❯
P's Macondo low-Out: Gulf Mexico The objective of this study is to describe the background setting, water depth. Type of rig, depth of reservoir and unusual characteristics of the…Read Full Paper ❯
CityPlus Insurance Intelligence seeks to illuminate the unknown. y definition, intelligence analysis deals with highly ambiguous situations. Despite maximum striving for objectivity, the intelligence analyst's own preconceptions are likely…Read Full Paper ❯
Hans Wendt, a staff photographer with the San Diego County's public relations office, who was covering an outdoor press event in North Park at the time of the accident,…Read Full Paper ❯
Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude Oil/Natural Gas Exploration, Transportation, Refining and Storage Ever since crude oil was first successfully drilled in the U.S. In Titusville, Pennsylvania, in…Read Full Paper ❯