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A guard must be fixed on the spaces between the banisters in order to prevent the child from falling out from between the spaces. In addition, hardware mounted safety gates can be mounted at the top and at the bottom of the staircase so that it will remain an out of reach place for the child. Pressure mounted or accordion gates must be however, avoided, because while pressure gates are not very safe, accordion gates may end up entrapping a small child's head within its gaps.
The best safety measure of all is to warn the child and educate him about the various dangers that are involved in the misuse of a staircase, and he must be taught at a very early age to learn to use the staircase in the proper and safe manner that would prevent accidents and injuries of any sort. The best method in which to…… [Read More]
Airplane Crash Investigations
Accident investigations are very different in regards to individual crashes. This paper examines the investigation of two plane crashes, Dallas Airlines Flight 191 and United Airlines Flight 173. The Dallas investigation did have good accessibility to the crash site with multiple first responding organizations from local municipalities, but with a slow reaction time. Meanwhile, United Airlines Flight 173 was clearly caused by pilot error, as the plane ran out of fuel while the pilot was distracted by landing gear issues.
Dallas Airlines Flight 191 was a great tragedy, with many deaths. According to the research, "Delta Airlines Flight 191 was a regularly scheduled passenger flight between Fort Lauderdale, Florida and Los Angeles, California, with an en route stop at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, Texas (DFW)" (Federal Aviation Administration, 2013). The entire flight went smoothly until approaching the landing for the pit stop at Dallas. The flight…… [Read More]
Improper Ergonomics caused USAir 1493 and SkyWest 5569 Accident
Accident Investigation: Improper Ergonomics was the Cause
Ergonomics was derived from two Greek words: ergon which means work, nomoi, on the hand means natural laws, in creating a word with the meaning, the science of work and an individual's relationship to that work. Another related definition according to International Ergonomics Association describe Ergonomics as the scientific discipline that deals with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, as well as the profession that applies principles, theory, methods and data in designing as an attempt to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. Improper Ergonomics in the airport always cause a number of accident and fatalities that otherwise would have been avoided if the handling was done procedural considering the rules in addition to up-to-date facilities.
On the day of the flight accident Friday, February 1,…… [Read More]
Often times this is done to preserve the evidence and wreckage associated with a crash and in the instances where criminal investigations and evidence are pursued, these chains of command are useful in dealing with the implications surrounding the criminal acts.
A press room and actions involving journalists also take place in this headquarters area. After a crash is investigated, the NTSB prepares statements from witnesses or other pertinent parties in order to formulate a final report (NTSB, 2002). This final report is the synthesis of the entire investigation and includes a "probable cause" as well as detailed information surrounding the circumstances of the crash (NTSB, 2002). The NTSB and the FAA often make recommendations and even policy and regulatory changes after a final report is issued and inferences can be made about causes of the crash.
Recent Crash Investigation and Analysis
The recent air crash in Alaska involving former…… [Read More]
However, full flight simulators also have some limitations, which make them poor tools for research and investigations depending on the specifics of the crash and the needs for the investigators reviewing the case.
Full flight simulators do not accurately simulate severe aircraft flight attitudes and conditions. They are also not perfect modelers of reality, as they cannot model the specific conditions that the aircraft itself as well as the flight crew were under. However, since there are rarely survivors of major plane crashes, it is difficult to interview witnesses or people who were on board the aircraft in order to obtain some sort of picture of the time leading up to the crash. Full flight simulators can be used to simulate conditions without risking people or machinery in the process. They are excellent tools for "best Guess" and probable cause findings, but they should be used in conjunction with more…… [Read More]
Unless the already low accident rate in aviation is reduced even further, the increased traffic volume will lead to an average of 25 accidents per year, with over 1,000 fatalities. Because 70% to 80% of all aviation accidents are considered to involve human error, one promising avenue appears to be investments in a better understanding of, and better support for, human performance and human-machine interaction. This includes improved system and feedback design as well as new forms of pilot training to reduce the potential for errors and their catastrophic consequences . Although the need for introducing these changes is widely recognized, progress is slow and faces a number of challenges. The economic pressure and competition in the worldwide aviation industry are intense, and manufacturers and carriers are careful not to invest in proposed solutions without guaranteed safety (and financial) paybacks. In addition, the time of national standards and regulations in…… [Read More]
This veering, would place pressure on the right side of the aircraft, which would help contribute to the break up during plane after touching down. To combat this problem, the NTS recommends that all aircraft have some type of back up flight control and hydraulics system. The presence of such a system could have helped to mitigate the effects of the disaster, by giving the pilots control of the aircraft. During the initial decent, this could have proven vital in ensuring that the pilots were able to successfully reach the runway at Sioux City and it helped to safely land the plane when it was initially touching down. ("United Airlines Flight 232," 1990)
A third issue that helped contribute to the crash of United flight 232 was: problems with the manufacture of engine. During their report, the NTS found that the engine that was manufactured by GE helped contribute to…… [Read More]
.. I think he's passed off to our right." Later, the first officer is heard asking, "Are we clear of that Cessna?" The flight engineer responds with, "Supposed to be"; and the captain says, "I guess." ("CV Transcript..." n.d.).
The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigation report, referring to eyewitness accounts records that both aircrafts were proceeding in an easterly direction before the collision. The Boeing was descending and overtaking the Cessna, which was climbing. Just before impact, the Boeing banked to the right slightly, and the Cessna pitched nose-up, colliding with the right wing of Flight 182. ("Aircraft Accident eport," 1979, p.4) Also, just before the impact, the captain, probably anticipating the collision exclaimed "Whoop!" And the first officer moaned "Aghhh!" The Cockpit Voice ecorder (CV) recorded the sound of impact at 0901:47 ("CV Transcript..." n.d.). The Cessna broke up immediately on impact and exploded. Parts of…… [Read More]
Another human factor related to this is the fact that engineering tends to be a very specialized field. In general, home and business owners do not have the expertise to discern between quality and lack thereof in engineering.
Indeed, while the quality of cheap engineering may be lower, this is not necessarily to say that expensive work entails higher quality. ome inscrutable engineers may for example use cheap materials for the sake of greater financial gain. The home or business owner is therefore safest when he or she thoroughly investigates the services being used. An engineer with both a good reputation and a price that is not too low should for example provide the best service.
Other factors that play a role in workplace or home accidents are related not as much to engineering as to the specific actions and neglect perpetrated by the users of the material. The human…… [Read More]
hen an airplane catches on fire and jet fuel is the catalyst, the amount of time that the plane and the object around it will burn is dependent on many different factors. One of the primary factors is the amount of fuel that is still contained on the plane. For instance a jet that is taking a transatlantic flight will have more jet fuel than a regional flight. Investigators would need to know this type of information so that they can estimate how much time it might take for the fuel to burn off or the types of measures that need to be taken to extinguish the fire.
Investigations can also be effected by the presence of cabin fires. According to Improved Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials for Commercial Aircraft Interiors: A Proceedings, (1995) post crash Cabin fires have been extensively researched. A great deal of this research has occurred in…… [Read More]
Runway Incursions That Lead to Accidents
The objective of this study is to examine runway incursions that lead to accidents such as the Tenerife airport disaster, U.S. airways Flight 149, Madrid Runway Disaster and Madrid Runway disaster as well as Linate Airport disaster. Toward this end, this study will examine the literature in this area of inquiry which includes such as the 'Runway Incursion Joint Safety Analysis Team' (JSAT) report; the International Civil Aviation Organization 'Manual on the Prevention of Runway Incursions', as well as other pertinent and relevant studies. This study will attempt to disseminate the available information on prevention of runway incursion and to report on the same in the findings of this study.
Runway incursion accidents that involve general aviation aircraft and air carriers are reported to be a rare occurrence. Landsberg (1998) reports that in 1994 "A Cessna Conquest II taxied onto the wrong runway…… [Read More]
Radio Altimeter effectiveness and CFIT
How can technology be used to effectively diminish CFIT and ALA incidents?
Air travel is one of the safest means of traveling from one location to another in the world. Without air traffic, the business world would come to a screeching halt. Although businesses can transfer mass amounts of digital communications DATA, thus eliminating much of the demand on mail and fax transmissions of just a decade ago, businesses organizations can still not transfer products, mail, personnel, and other hard goods through electronic blips on the internet. Travel still relies on airliners and cargo air-busses which fill the skies around the world and around the clock. The experts are agreed that global commercial air traffic will grow at an average 5% per year over the next 20 years. This means that traffic will double in 15 years and will practically triple by the end of…… [Read More]
Immediate staff downtime (e.g. work activity stopped) hrs
Staff time to report and investigate incident
Meetings to discuss incident
Time Spent with HSE Inspector
Assessing/rescheduling work activities hrs
Recovering work/production (including staff costs)
Cleaning up site and disposal of waste, equipment, products, etc.
Bringing work up to standard (e.g. product reworking time/costs) hrs
Repairing any damage/faults
Hiring or purchasing tools, equipment, plant, services, etc.
Loss of product (milk)
Action to safeguard future business
Salary costs of replacement workers dys
Lost work-time (people waiting to resume work, delays, reduced productivity, effect's on other people's productivity, etc.)
Recruitment costs for new staff
Providing alternative sources of supply for customers
Sanctions and penalties
Compensation claim payments thus far
Solicitor's fees and…… [Read More]
In some cases, you may have to take equipment that has been infected with the virus offline (for maintenance) and use a flash drive to remove it / reprogram the operating system. Once this occurs, you would then connect all of the different security protocols together. The basic idea is to be able to use them, to serve as a backup system in the event that there is some kind of breach. This will give the hackers limited access to: certain areas and it will isolate them to select parts of the company's servers. (Lacey, 2009, pp. 269 -- 310)
The final part of the strategy is to ensure effective monitoring of the various systems. This will take place with the company using an outside security consultant. They will have the responsibility of helping to coordinate mock attacks. This will effectively test the strategy and identify for weaknesses. At the…… [Read More]
In addition, a growing number of countries in the region have also started strict traffic sign and signal enforcement campaigns (Martin, 2005). In addition, launched in 2009, a governmental campaign to reduce traffic accidents in the Sultanate of Oman has sought to raise awareness among Omanis concerning the need to use safety belts in general and the need to use safety seats for young children every time people take to the road. In addition, the oyal Oman Police, the Ministry of Social Development and the Ministry of Education have collaborated with the Omani Society Safety on the traffic safety initiatives as discussed further below.
Civil Society. According to ajhi (2011), there are a number of civic organizations that play an important role in promoting traffic safety and raising public awareness about the need to reduce traffic accidents. These organizations include the Omani Society for oad Safety which is dedicated to…… [Read More]
The sightseeing expedition did not report a particular flight plan. The charter was used for this flight in spite of recent reports of problems due to a shortage of available charters on the private island airport.
The island runway ascended into foggy and hazy conditions that were reportedly worsening.
Management: The pilot was not in contact with an management oversight but management did play a part in the shortcoming of certain procedures, including the allowance of the plane to fly without proper run-up procedures and the its allowance to fly in spite of carrying too much weight.
Contributing causes to the accident were pilot inexperience, which allowed the pilot to take to the air in spite of less than ideal meteorological, mechanical and experiential conditions, as well as poor procedural attention to an aircraft with clear mechanical problems. The probable cause of the accident was a mechanical…… [Read More]
On the hand, some plans may be slow to respond to the pilot's commands; complicating the piloting process, much like a sports car, for example, that under steers or a truck that over steers (Personal Communication, 2010). Bay contends that training on more than one plane of a particular model would prove to be a positive practice for airlines to implement.
Bay asserts that the following questions need to be answered regarding the cause of the crash of Flight 3407.
How much training and experience did the pilot/s have with this particular aircraft?
How many hours experience did the pilot/s have flying this particular craft?
Did a matter of pilot fatigue play a part in the incident?
Could alcohol have been a factor in the pilot's inability to "do the right thing"?
Were there any known defects with the plane?
Did any type mechanical malfunction occur?
On what date was…… [Read More]
Medical Death Investigative Systems
Past and Present Systems
Death investigation of some sort has existed in all countries for centuries, but not always performed by medical professionals (Committee, 2003 as qtd in Moldovan, 2008). The link between law and medicine traces back to the ancient Egyptian culture in 3000 .C. This was followed by the English coroner system in around the 12th century. The 194 Articles of Eyre first used the term "coroner" by the English until brought by the first colonists to the New World, America as basis for a legal investigative function. A medical examiner replaced the coroner system in 1890 then functioning in altimore. A medical examiner is a trained medical specialist in pathology. The field of death investigation became more and more sophisticated in cities and States, like New York. The Office of the Medical Examiner was established in 1918. Its main…… [Read More]
Recommendation: The training staff must ensure all participants in a "live" fire training exercise "have received the training and opportunities to properly perform the job." And this is pivotal to safety measures for recruits: A student's first experience "in a live burn exercise should not be in an acquired structure" (IIL).
Structures and Facilities (NFPA 1403 4.2 & 4.2.2): Buildings selected for structural fire training exercise must be properly prepared -- which in this case, the row house at 145 South Calverton Road, it was not properly prepared. A previous ventilation drill, which opened several upper floor walls to the outside air (and the wind which was 20 miles per hour at that time) made the building "unsuitable" for live fire training. Adding to the mistakes made in the exercise at 145 South Calverton Road was the serious question as to whether the fire department had permission to burn that…… [Read More]
oles in an Investigation
In this kind of investigation whereby the police psychologist is investigating the homicide of a high profile member of the community, the police psychologist plays several roles. One is that he or she will be involved in collecting and analyzing of psychological evidence that pertains to the homicide case. In this role, the police psychologist will be involved in a process that starts at the scene of the crime whereby he will use scientific principles and formulas to help in solving the crime. In this role, fingerprint collection and analysis of other identifiers of the crime scene is essential to solving the case. The psychologist will also be involved in analyzing of impressions of the crime scene to see what they match and also run the crime scene impressions and collected fingerprints with comparisons of others in the police database. Identification and analysis of…… [Read More]
Piper Alpha Disaster
An Environmental and Safety Management Analysis of the Disaster that Occurred on the Piper Alpha Oil Rig off the Coast of Scotland
Piper Alpha (Seconds from Disaster, 2013)
The Piper before the Explosion
Timeline of Events
Piper Alpha Mechanism
Root Causes of the Analysis
Design and Process Factor
Permit to ork System
Evacuation and Escape
Piper Alpha was a North Sea oil production platform operated by Occidental Petroleum (Caledonia) Ltd. The platform began the oil production in 1976 and then later converted to gas production as the hub of multiple networked rigs. The piper alpha platform was operated in multiple shifts by the employees who worked the whole platform to continue supply the oil and gas on a perpetual basis. The operations of the Piper Alpha platform included receiving the oil and gases…… [Read More]
Although I could not find any specific job advertisement for a fashion photographer, I found some entry-level positions in the fashion industry. A copy of these appears after the reference list. It appears that a career choice of fashion photography would be extremely rewarding in terms of the interesting situations and people the professional would come into contact with. It also appears to be a highly creative and satisfying job for a person with the right traits.
According to the "Creative Skillset" Website (2012), some colleges and universities offer courses in fashion photography, which are generally led by established photographers who act as visiting lecturers for these courses. While these courses can provide a valuable grounding knowledge of the industry, most fashion photographers begin their careers by assisting established fashion photographers. This provides not only practical experience in the industry, but also practical knowledge of the way in…… [Read More]
Pre-accident plan is a plan which contains the necessary information for all personnel that would be required in the event of a mishap, investigation of the mishap including the details needed in the process of recovering an aircraft that is involved in an accident. It includes all the duties, the responsibilities and the training programs necessary to successful manage an accident involving an airplane. The pre-accident pan is structures so as to contain all the latest notifications and the necessary contact procedures to be used to initiate a response to all the aircraft incidents. A copy of the pre-accident plan is then copied to the Chief of Fire and Aviation, The area Chief ranger and the notification set to a relevant body such as FAA (Castro,1988).
The pre-accident plan is to be coordinated with the relevant disaster control departments using a set of standard procedures that are to be exercised,…… [Read More]
The NAAP structural integrity program includes three tests including Widespread Fatigue Damage (WFD), Damage tolerance analysis (DTA) and DTA based airframe repair assessment. The supplemental inspection programs of the FAA ensure that commercial airlines fulfill the structural safety requirements. Any structural defects that are observed during the normal operation of an airplane or those that are revealed after an accident are issued as Airworthiness Directives (AD). The FAA periodically conducts certification reviews and aircrafts that report recurrent problems due to design issues will require compulsory design modifications. [FAA]
6. What is the purpose of flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders? How are they be used for accident-prevention purposes?
Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders are very useful tools that can be used to understand the events that lead to the accident. Familiarly known as the 'black boxes' these units are helpful for aircraft investigators in reconstructing the disaster.…… [Read More]
The oeing 747-300 model was designed to hold 600 passengers. ut the founder of America's Flight Safety foundation, Jerome Lederer, commented that evacuation of such numbers in the event of disaster would be troublesome. Sitting next to an emergency exit did not promise anything, as shown by this tragedy. Only a bare few escaped and only as fate had it. These were the musings of many when dead bodies were brought down by helicopters from Mount Osutaka in bright blankets (Magnuson, Aviation Safety Network, AAIC, C, C (. This disaster and others before and subsequent call for more responsive prevention measures to save lives in this era of massive global air travel.
The Safety Promotion Center was opened in 2006 to train employees and alert them to the importance of airline safety and personal responsibility for safety. The ultimate responsibility falls squarely on the shoulders of Japan Airlines…… [Read More]
Comparing aviation statistics regarding accidents in the air and on the ground is an oftentimes tedious and analytical endeavor. Experts often have to first determine the catagory in which the aircraft can be placed; since there is a wide variety of commercial aircraft and pilots who may be flying (or attempting to fly) for many different purposes. The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration defines commercial operations as " those carriers that operate aircraft in revenue service, either for the purpose of passenger or cargo transport" (U.S., 2013, p. 6).
The first item of business in analyzing data from an accident involving aircraft would likely be to ascertain who exactly would be investigating the accident. Accomplishing that objective may be a bit more complex than what one would think. As one recent study determined "aviation personnel are various groups of experts having various specializations and working in various areas of civil…… [Read More]
It is essential fo company manages, safety pactitiones and manufactuing enginees to be infomed of and gain sufficient knowledge about cuent eseach developments in this field and implement safety stategies as well as systems to minimize occupational health and safety isks. (Bie; Kuneuthe; Phimiste, 103); (Stellman, 17)
Active and pocedual isk management stategies ae impotant elements in any manufactuing unit. Active isk management efes to implementing intelocks, alams and mitigation systems that can detect a hazad and immediately shut down o set the system into a safe position. Pocedual isk management efes to implementing safety checklists, opeato taining, standad opeating pocedues and seveal such people dependent management systems. Ceating "inheently safe design stategies" in a manufactuing unit would involve fou key stategies. These ae minimizing, modeating, substituting and simplifying systems. (Bie; Kuneuthe; Phimiste, 103); (Stellman, 17)
Despite all safety guidelines, accidents still occu mainly as a esult of human complacence…… [Read More]
(2) Analyzing all accident data without regard to the type of airframe provides for an easy sampling and less potential bias toward fixed wing vs. rotary wing aircraft.
(3) Not including ground accidents into the research will allow the research to focus only on aviation accidents.
(4) Limiting the research to a four-year period; 2003 to 2006 will provide an adequate sampling of the data and not constrain the research results.
The first assumption is that accident data to be used will be an adequate sample of class a through class C accidents within the USAREUR area of operations.
The second assumption is that ARMS inspection dates derived from official USAREUR Publications and historical data files will reflect actual dates of ARMS inspections.
The third assumption is that current ARMS inspections continue to incorporate comprehensive checklist used to evaluate resource management and assist…… [Read More]
HSMS Gap Analysis and Hazard Identification Risk Assessments
Description of APM Terminals
Review of the Health and Safety Management System
Health and Welfare Hazards
Physical Hazard -- Working at Height - Scaffolding
Health & Welfare Hazard -- Noise
Action Plan 1 - Management System
Action Plan 2 -- Hazards and Risks
Barbour Checklist: BS OHSAS 18001 Audit Checklist
Occupational health and safety management has numerous benefits for business, not only an employer's duty of care, a legal and moral obligation but also critical part of business equal in importance to other business functions like finance, marketing and production. When health and safety is embedded as part of business, results would be, good company image and reputation, better employee motivation and morale, improved efficiency and ultimately increased profitability.
The implementation of a sound health, safety and environment (HSE)…… [Read More]
Also causal was the Captain's failure to detect the mistrimmed rudder before the takeoff was attempted." (National Transportation Safety Board).
Controversy soon filled the probe into the crash when a passenger told investigators that he had been out "bar-hopping" with the pilot, co-pilot and a stewardess just before the flight. The accusations were never proven, and federal investigators later pointed to a defect in the aircraft rudder as the cause of the crash. However, the rudder was subsequently redesigned.
The accident involving USAir Flight 5050 attracted the attention of the Queen's district attorney, who convened a grand jury to determine if criminal charges should be pursued. No formal charges were ever brought. However, the action of the district attorney hampered the normal course of the accident investigation, because the accident scene was declared a "crime scene." Access to the wreckage and witnesses was subjected to the control of the local…… [Read More]
There has been an accident on the production floor at Latex Paint that has injured three men. As a result, Latex Paint must deal with a number of serious issues. First, the decline in employee productivity after the accident could become a drain on company profitability. Further, the company will be required to prove that it has met its obligations in relation to health and safety rules of the Union and OSHA legislation and may face substantial financial penalties if it has not done so. Liability for the injuries to its employees and damage to the company's reputation are a real threat, particularly if this company was not in compliance with health and safety standards.
Richards needs to take a variety of immediate steps to deal with the accident. To adequately prepare for the staff meeting, he needs to understand what happened and to the best of his…… [Read More]
Human interaction with Glass Cockpit & computerized flight systems
Human interaction with computerized flight systems is viewed by many as the "Achilles heel" in modern commercial flight. hile pilots as the ultimate end-users must bear the responsibility for the systems under their control, it is the designers who must shoulder the burden for taking into account the human factors likely to cause confusion. How information is displayed has a tremendous impact on how it is interpreted. Indeed, graphical displays and glass cockpits are here to stay -- but so too are human pilots."(Krell)
The purpose of this paper is to explore an emerging technology known as the glass cockpit and to seek to explain the human factors that influence the implementation of this technology. This discourse will describe the theoretical issues of the glass cockpit technology and the human factors associated with the invention and subsequent implementation of the technology.…… [Read More]
ice and rain affect normal operations-Emphasis on Icing
There is a clear inter-relation between safe and satisfactory travel by air and weather. Most of the accidents in airplanes occur due to adverse weather, and it is one among the different causes improving towards the occurrence of the accident. It can be blamed as the reason for most of the flight delays also. All flight operations are affected by unfavorable weather. This may prevent the handling of flight totally or sometimes partially. The expenses incurred due to delays and change in route due to such weather conditions is very high. oth the passenger and the aviation industry has to bear the brunt of these situations, due to the loss of time for the passenger, the hefty hotel charges, increase in fuel consumption, and additional spending on servicing, equipment and change in crew, as also they make flying more expensive beyond plans…… [Read More]
Training programs for traffic homicide investigators usually include the following areas: speed estimates from kinetic energy, skid marks, scuffmarks and airborne situations, vehicle dynamics and motion, time, distance and motion equations, conservation of momentum calculations, diagramming vehicle damage, vehicle damage analysis explaining thrust, center of mass, overlap and collapse, vehicle lamp examination, tire damage evaluation, advanced photography and video techniques and vector sum analysis (Advanced Traffic Crash Investigation, n.d.).
All of these areas are important in order for an investigator to be successful in traffic homicide investigations.
Advanced Traffic Crash Investigation. (n.d.). etrieved September 13, 2009, from Tennessee
Traffic Safety esource Service Web site:
Byrd, Mike. (2000). Crash. etrieved September 13, 2009, from Web site: http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/crash.html… [Read More]
DISASTER RECOVERY AND ORGANIZATIONAL CONTINUITY
The governments of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States all have some form of transportation safety board for disaster response. Their duties are sometimes gathered under one agency and sometimes divided among more than one agency. However, their missions are all focused on transportation security and not on assigning blame to people or groups for accident.
Transportation Safety Boards
Australia has the Australian Transportation Safety Bureau (ATSB), which is an independent statutory agency run by a Commission and kept apart from regulators, policy makers and service providers for transportation. It is designed to increase safety and public confidence transportation by: autonomous examination -- both in Australia and abroad - of accidents and safety incidents; recording, examining and researching safety information; and encouraging safety consciousness, information and behavior (Australian Government, 2016). The ATSB investigates aviation accidents, events and insufficiencies.…… [Read More]
Flight Data ecorder
From a system viewpoint, prevention is a great deal less expensive than accidents. Two Boeing 737 accidents remain entirely unexplained at this time (Colorado Springs, 1992; Pittsburgh, 1994). Both airplanes had older digital flight data recorders that did not record control surface positions; that information might very well have led to an unambiguous finding of probable cause. In sharp contrast, the Aerospatiale AT-72 that crashed after extended flight in icing conditions ( oselawn, Indiana, 1994), was equipped with a modern digital flight data recorder whose data enabled investigators to discover, literally within days of the accident, that icing had disturbed airflow over the ailerons beyond the pilots' ability to maintain control. It has been suggested that a substantial fleet could have been equipped with modern flight data recorders for less than the costs of the two 737 accidents.
Some of the innovations discussed here are clearly needed…… [Read More]
Organizations or corporations enlisted as parties to the investigation report to the NTSB though individuals in legal positions are not permitted to be designated to the investigation.
While the enlisted agencies conduct their own investigations for enforcement, the determination of the actual cause of transportation accidents and incidents remains the sole responsibility of the Safety Board ("What is the National Transportation Safety Board?" n.d.). Through the party system, much of the background technical information is collected to be used in the factual reports by the National Transportation Safety Board. The Safety Board uses its staff to supervise all investigative activities in order to accomplish its objectives. The head of each investigative group or organization basically prepares and documents a factual report upon completion of their respective tasks. Each of the parties in the specific investigative organization or unit is requested to verify the accuracy of the factual report. After the…… [Read More]
CIVIL VITION'S SRPS
Civil viation's SRPs
Civil viation's SRPs
The primary objective of aviation security relates to airport infrastructure protection. The agencies also insist on the need to control people's access within protected areas. This essay discusses the roles and contributions of International ir Transport ssociation as well as the International Federation of ir Line Pilots' ssociations to the aviation industry.
The world's airlines have a trade association called IT. The organization hosts primarily major carriers (240 airlines) and carries about 83% of air traffic's vailable Seat Kilometers. IT is supportive of airline activities through formulation of industry standards and policies. The organization has its headquarters in Montreal, Canada. The Executive branch offices are in Geneva, Switzerland. ll industry stakeholders and IT members agree to sequential environmental goals. The members seek to improve average fuel efficiency to 1.5% each year between 2009 and 2020 (Hendrik 2008). The agency seeks…… [Read More]
Crossair Flight 3597 -- Aircraft Crash Survival Analysis
The paper focuses on the Air crash of the Crossair Flight 3597 on 24th November 2001 and various ways and actions that could have led the plane to survive the air crash. This Aircraft Crash Survival Analysis will not only be highlighting the strategies that could have helped many people survive the air crash but also provides a detailed account of the crash, the reasons the crash took place and the contribution of human error in the crash.
On the 24th of November 2001, Crossair airline's flight CX3597, aircraft AVO 146 J 100 registered as HB-IXM, left the Berlin-Tegel airport from runway 26-L at 8 p.m. UTC for Zurich. The flight was scheduled to land at the Zurich runway 14 using the ILS (Instrument Landing System) approach. This approach provides the pilots directions for landing through the radio signals from…… [Read More]
Fifteen questions used to measure willingness to AC were assembled into a questionnaire designed to examine the personality measures and items regarding employee response to various safety issues, adequacy of safety training, and attitudes toward other safety related issues. The most pertinent questions relating to AC were:
If I know a coworker is going to do a hazardous job, I am willing to remind him/her of the hazards (even if the employee is familiar with the job),
I am willing to warn my peers about working unsafely am willing to do whatever I can to improve safety, even confronting my peers about their unsafe acts.
The responses to these questions, measured on a 5-point Likert scale, were added to attain an AC score. The Likert technique presents a set of attitude statements. Subjects are asked to express agreement or disagreement of a five-point scale. Each degree of agreement is given…… [Read More]
, 2006). The ongoing investigation is being conducted by a "National Interagency Serious Accident Investigation Team," with the purpose of "determining fact surrounding the incident, identify lessons learned," and with the end result a set of "...recommendations for accident prevention purposes."
The investigation will no doubt look into the fire shelter issue, although since the firefighters are gone, the question of why shelters were not used cannot be answered. If all five men had fire shelters on board the engine, it will seem sadly ironic that those protective units were not deployed. For wildland firefighters, it is not only important for escape routes and other safety procedures to be established, but it is imperative that firefighters are in possession of the very newest, safest fire shelters; and with this in mind, the USDA / USFS "Fire & Aviation Management" eb site offers some conflicting and confusing information.
On one page…… [Read More]
history of the Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) and its achievements throughout its seventy years. Safety regulations, issues of aviation concern, and milestones in union negotiations are discussed.
THE AIR LINE PILOTS ASSOCIATION
ith the recent terrorist attacks in the United States, airline safety has been of top concern. Six months ago airport security was seldom discussed except perhaps in an article tucked in a newspaper or magazine. Now it's a top story on the evening news every night. It makes us wonder if anyone has been thinking of our safety until now.
The Airline Pilots Association has always been thinking of our safety. From metal detectors in airports to the 'fasten seat belt' signs on airliners, the APLA was responsible.
The ALPA is regarded as the leader in safety issues concerning all areas of aviation
The Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) not only helps with safety issues and…… [Read More]
Instances of violation found after examining the complaints, it will issue a determination letter ordering the employer to pay outstanding wages, reinstate and reimburse the employee for attorneys and expert witness fees and initiate other steps to provide necessary relief. Complaints lacking merit will be dismissed.
The eal Face:
Although MSHA is intended to function as a watchdog body to keep vigil on the implementation of the federal Mine Safety and Health Act, 1977, through prohibiting companies from dismissing and harassing poor miners who deny working in unsafe working conditions or report safety conditions, it has been widely reported in the sections of the press that MSH is juggling with the statistics of miners death. It has devised its own day of reporting or otherwise about the number of the death of miners while on duty. By applying its discretion, MSHA took into account death of three coal miners and…… [Read More]
Aviation Safety PO involves applying critical thinking to particular topics of aviation safety and security which are used to support a project or comprehensive research question. Aviation safety includes the analysis and evaluation of any and all safety and security concepts, techniques, procedures including SMS, airfield and other aviation facility security, accident investigation, operational safety, Federal Air Marshall Program, terrorism prevention as they influence and relate to the project or comprehensive research question. This paper will look at basic concepts in aviation safety in regards to crew resource management as it pertains to the aviation/aerospace industry.
Crew resource management involves the application of human factors skills and knowledge when it comes to conducting flight operations with the goal of using the available resources efficiently; equipment, systems and humans in order to achieve safe flight operations. CM is a combination of both individual skills and human factors knowledge together with effective…… [Read More]
He suffered permanent injuries due to the after-effects of burns and exposure to frostbite (he was exposed to extreme cold for 14 hours after the crash before being recovered). It is also evident that defendant suffered wage loss due to his injuries and suffered pain and disability.
The facts of the case indicate conclusively that the accident was caused by negligence on the part of the pilot (Pokrass) resulting in injury to the plaintiff. Hence application of Res ipsa loquitor in the case is proper. The jury award of wage loss and for pain and suffering is also fair.
PASSENGER'S DUTY to the PILOT-in-COMMAND
In normal circumstances, a passenger (or passengers) owes absolutely no duty to the pilot-in-command in the event of a plane accident due to negligence of the pilot since in most commercial aircrafts the passengers are separated from the cabin crew and would not be aware…… [Read More]
The report identifies NASA as "working with an unrealistic set of flights" (Cases Study. N.D.); timelines "which were retained and increased pressure to meet schedules by senior NASA managers" (Case Study. N.D.). The Challenger disaster was marked by the reality that
"NASA had found evidence that O-rings had allowed hot exhaust to burn through a primary seal. Since 1982 the O-rings had been designated a "Criticality 1" issue. Indeed, a January shuttle launch in cold weather just a year earlier had shown significant burn through of the O-rings. The day before the Challenger launch, engineers at orton Thiokol, a NASA contractor, raised concerns that the frigid temperatures at Cape Canaveral would cause the shuttle's rocket booster "O-rings" to fail -- which would mean catastrophe for the shuttle. Just hours before liftoff, Thiokol engineers were recommending that the launch be delayed. After hours of discussion, NASA pressed forward with the launch…… [Read More]
POLICE OFFICE EQUIE ASSOCIATES DEEGEE CIMINAL JUSTICE CLOSELY ELATED FIELD?
POLICE OFFICES, DEGEE IN CIMINAL JUSTICE, AND OTHE QUALIFICATIONS
Police Officers, Associates Degree in Criminal Justice, and Other Qualifications
Police Officers, Associates Degree in Criminal Justice, and Other Qualifications
Police officers are individuals empowered by the government to limit civil disorder, protect property, and enforce the law. They are normally charged with the detection and prevention of crime, apprehension of criminals and maintenance of law and order. The minimum training and education required in order to become a police officer mainly varies among individual agencies, departments, and states. The education requirements largely depend on the position or rank that the individual is seeking. This report endeavors to explain whether the police officer is required to have at least an Associates' degree in Criminal Justice or any other close related field. It also explains whether police officers' education level plays a…… [Read More]
decision making best exemplifies what happened on the Deepwater Horizon rig?
The basic model that was used in the Deepwater Horizon accident was the bounded rational decision making approach. This is when everyone inside the organization will be focused on selecting options that work well within their current circumstances. The problem is that these individuals are not selecting an approach, which is in the best interests of everyone. Instead, there is an obsession in meeting short-term objectives at all costs. In the case of the Deepwater Horizon, everyone was ignoring obvious signs that the well was about to explode. The biggest reason why is managers were focused on meeting the productivity goals of the company at all costs. ("What are ational Models," 2012)
Which of the decision- making biases played a potential role in the disaster?
The kind of decision making biases that were occurring prior the Deepwater Horizon incident…… [Read More]
Critical Thinking for Homeland Security
The capacity of a government to protect its citizens pivots on the ability of its leaders and high-placed specialists to think critically. Few times in history point so clearly to this principle than the 9/11 disaster. In 1941, the same year that the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred, Edward M. Glaser published a book titled, An Experiment in the Development of Critical Thinking. Glaser's practice of psychiatry was remarkable in that he dispensed with the Freudian deep dive into past events, pushing his patients to deal with problem solving in the present -- a critical thinking practice he called reality therapy. Many of Glaser's tenets were adopted by other disciplines because of their universal utility and association with positive results. Glaser defined critical thinking as, "A persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports…… [Read More]
The courts retooled by a generation of conservative judicial appointments and crazed case law now function as social abettors, in which the poor and the dark skinned are shunted off to a concrete hell with industrial efficiency. Left behind are broken families, more addiction, more disease, more illiteracy, and thus a more docile society" (Parenti, 2001).
There are different changes being made in the system to reflect new and evolving values. For example, recommendations have been made that all police interrogations be video taped, so that juries have access to the process of confession and not just a typed end-product. This way police can ensure the values of integrity in the confession process. The increasing use of DNA testing, where possible, is also a way of helping to ensure that only the guilty are punished and justice is upheld.
The main purpose of police department is to provide services to…… [Read More]
U.S. statistics indicate that 80% of aviation accidents are due to human errors with 50% due to maintenance human factor problems. Current human factor management programs have not succeeded to the degree desired. Many industries today use performance excellence frameworks such as the Baldrige National Quality Award framework to improve over-all organizational effectiveness, organizational culture and personal learning and growth. A survey administered to a sample population of senior aviation maintainers in 18 countries revealed a consistent problem with aviation human factors and the need for a more integrated framework to manage human factor problems in aviation maintenance.
Human Factors History
Current Human Factor programs in Aircraft Maintenance
Performance Excellence Framework
esearcher's Work Setting and ole
Statement of the Problem
EVIEW OF ELEVANT LITEATUE AND ESEACH
Human Factor Errors in Aircraft Maintenance Statistics
Current Human Factor Programs in Aircraft Maintenance 13
Aviation Performance Excellence Framework 12
Statement of esearch Question…… [Read More]
ritish Airways Flight 9
The Institution of Mechanical Engineers report entitled "Volcanic Ash: To Fly or Not to Fly? reports that the prediction of "ash movement and dispersal has become more sophisticated over the years. In the UK, the Met Office uses Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modeling Environment (NAME), computer model, developed after the Chernobyl accident in 1986." (2010, p.3) This model is reported to have tracked various atmospheric dispersion events and to have as its purpose the prediction of "how far and how concentrated, emitted particles will be dispersed, using a number of factors, such as wind, rainfall and particle size…" (Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 2010, p.3) On June 24, 1982 ritish Airways 747-200, Flight 9 near Jakarta Indonesia ran into trouble when the crew accidentally flew into a volcanic ash cloud from Mount Galunggung in west Java, Indonesia. The ash caused severe damage to all four engines and the aircraft…… [Read More]
Occupational Health and Safety in Catering Industry in Hong Kong
Occupational Safety and Health
The incidence rate of workplace accidents in the catering industry in Hong Kong is higher than that of other sectors, even those associated with inherently high risk to workers. Despite corrective action within the catering industry, the accident rate remains stubbornly high. This research identifies causal factors in occupational accidents in catering companies and delineates effective strategies that can be emulated by catering businesses in Hong Kong in efforts to reduce their accident rates and worker injuries.
Hong Kong is known for its international cuisine and, characteristically, a high number of restaurants -- many offering catering services -- exist in the city. Yet, the polished environments of the dining areas of world-class restaurants contrast greatly with the restaurant kitchen and backroom workspaces. The catering industry in Hong Kong attains extraordinarily high rates of accidents and has,…… [Read More]
Heat Exchanger upture Incident
Using the information in the CSB Case Study, identify probable direct causes, contributing causes, and root causes of the incident. Explain the reasoning you used to reach these causes. You may make assumptions concerning any missing investigative information as long as you clearly state your assumptions. Discuss how and where your proposed causal factors fit into the causation model on page 356 of the course textbook. For the root causes only, provide recommended corrective actions.
The United States Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) is an independent federal agency tasked with protecting workers and the public by investigating and preventing chemical accidents, and after each investigation is completed a comprehensive case study is released to detail probable causes and proposed responses. When an ammonia heat exchanger ruptured and released deadly gas inside Houston's Goodyear Tire and ubber Company plant on June 11, 2008, an incident…… [Read More]
Deception is an integral part of the police arsenal during interrogation. The tactics and techniques of deception have been finely honed, and continue to improve to allow for effective interrogation and information retrieval. Within the framework of judicious police interrogation, the techniques and tactics can be employed effectively, efficiently, and ethically. A few, like the eid Technique, have been criticized for their misuses and for their tendency to create false confessions (McKee, 2014). Other tactics and techniques do deserve to remain part of the overall law enforcement strategy, especially when the tactics and techniques preserve the integrity of the investigation. One of the most commonly used deceptive interrogation tactics is minimization. Minimization is used to engender trust and establish a bond of communication with the suspect. The law enforcement officer basically bluffs throughout the interview, downplaying the severity of the crime itself, feigning sympathy with the suspect's point-of-view, and…… [Read More]
The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 set the stage for the creation of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) whose duties include the prevention of illnesses, injuries, and deaths that are work-related. The administration has produced tangible results in reducing occupational deaths and injuries by 62% and 42% respectively. The reason behind OSHA's success is down to its regular inspection of work facilities, as well as issuance of certificates and applications of fines whenever law violation takes place. OSHA takes keen interest in warehouses bearing in mind the central role they play on business supply chain. Warehouse managers must take the safety maintenance issues very seriously (HSE, 2009).
What ole Does Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Play in Warehousing Safety?
OSHA issues warehouse certifications in areas such as electrical wiring methods, forklifts, electrical system design, hazard communication, wall openings and holes, respiratory protection, exits, lockout…… [Read More]
The results of the investigation provided information that allowed sweeping changes to be made regarding the methods by which power plants are run and monitored in the future.
Even given the fact that the investigation proved the maximum exposure that any one person had as a result of the meltdown was no more than one x-ray would create there were more than 2,000 law suits filed in court with claims that the exposure to radiation caused varying health issues for individuals (Three mile island (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/reaction/readings/tmi.html).
The court chose ten test cases on which to decide the outcome of all 2,000 cases. Those cases took 15 years to resolve and in 1996 the lawsuits were dismissed in favor of the defendants (Three mile island (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/reaction/readings/tmi.html).
It should be noted that the operators and emergency operating procedures (EOPs) did not recognize the accident as a classic LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) since…… [Read More]
In the case of the different gas spills, OSHA could have easily shut down the plant until changes were made in safe regulations. However, the fact that the OSHA continued to overlook what was taking place, meant that they would allow an unsafe work environment to exist. (lumenthal, 2007) This is important, because it shows how the lack of follow up and the ability to enforce existing environmental / work safety laws, would help to make the situation worse at the Texas City refinery.
After the accident occurred, the CA would investigate all of the various reports that were received from employees and their families about conditions at the facility. This was in contradiction with the investigation undertaken by P, which found that employee error was the cause of the accident (not a lack of safety procedures). The results of the investigation by the CA; would identify significant lapses in…… [Read More]
They also recommended that the use of punch hole rivets near the windows, to be replaced with the use of epoxy or drill riveting, to prevent air pockets from developing near the cabin. ("OAC Flight 781," 2005)
The accident changed the industry, by allowing for window designs that were more rounded. This is significant because such a design would provide greater support to the cabin during flight. As a result, these windows have become standard in all jet and propeller driven aircraft. What this shows is that the lessons learned from the accident, mainly the windows and the rivets were used to improve the overall quality of designs of aircraft for the better. ("OAC Flight 781," 2005)
Clearly, the three different incidents highlight specific issues that helped contribute to each accident. Where, all of them have helped improve designs, training and inspections standards. This is important because investigators can use…… [Read More]
Today, computer technology makes it practical to collect, edit, distribute and store data in electronic format with little or no additional manual processing necessary (Kala pp). Integrating data from various agencies is now possible, "including police crash reports, truck inspections, traffic citations, motor vehicle records, emergency medical services (EMS) run reports, emergency and long-term health care records, highway inventories, and traffic volume records" (Kala pp).
According to the American National Standard's Manual on Classification of Motor Vehicle Accidents, there are eight definitions: Transport Vehicles and Transport ays; Land ay, Land Vehicles and Uses; Injuries and Damages; Accidents; Locations;
Road vehicle Accident Types; Location of Road Vehicle Accidents; School Bus (Manual pp). There are 13 classifications: Classification of Persons by Injury Severity; Classification of Road Vehicles by Damage Severity; Accident Classification by Transport Vehicle Type; Accident Classification by Injury Severity; Accident Classification by Damage Severity; Accident Classification by Number of Vehicles;…… [Read More]