Filter By:

Sort By:

Reset Filters

Accident Investigation Essays (Examples)

Having trouble coming up with an Essay Title?

Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly

Accident Analysis United Flight 232
Words: 2927 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35161399
Read Full Paper  ❯

This veering, would place pressure on the right side of the aircraft, which would help contribute to the break up during plane after touching down. To combat this problem, the NTS recommends that all aircraft have some type of back up flight control and hydraulics system. The presence of such a system could have helped to mitigate the effects of the disaster, by giving the pilots control of the aircraft. During the initial decent, this could have proven vital in ensuring that the pilots were able to successfully reach the runway at Sioux City and it helped to safely land the plane when it was initially touching down. ("United Airlines Flight 232," 1990)

A third issue that helped contribute to the crash of United flight 232 was: problems with the manufacture of engine. During their report, the NTS found that the engine that was manufactured by GE helped contribute to…


Fatal Plane Crashes and Significant Event for DC 10. (2010. Retrieved May 1, 2010 from Airsafe website: 

United Airline Flight 232. (2005). Retrieved May 1, 2010 from State Master website:

Accident Report Pacific Southwest Airlines
Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48481088
Read Full Paper  ❯

.. I think he's passed off to our right." Later, the first officer is heard asking, "Are we clear of that Cessna?" The flight engineer responds with, "Supposed to be"; and the captain says, "I guess." ("CV Transcript..." n.d.).

The Accident

The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigation report, referring to eyewitness accounts records that both aircrafts were proceeding in an easterly direction before the collision. The Boeing was descending and overtaking the Cessna, which was climbing. Just before impact, the Boeing banked to the right slightly, and the Cessna pitched nose-up, colliding with the right wing of Flight 182. ("Aircraft Accident eport," 1979, p.4) Also, just before the impact, the captain, probably anticipating the collision exclaimed "Whoop!" And the first officer moaned "Aghhh!" The Cockpit Voice ecorder (CV) recorded the sound of impact at 0901:47 ("CV Transcript..." n.d.). The Cessna broke up immediately on impact and exploded. Parts of…


Aircraft Accident Report." (1979). National Aircraft Safety Board. Retrieved on January 25, 2008 at

CVR transcript: PSA Boeing 727." (n.d.) Retrieved on January 25, 2008 at

Shess, T. (1998). "This is it!" San Diego Magazine online. Retrieved on January 25, 2008 at

Accident Report

Accidents Engineering Accidents in
Words: 708 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32440752
Read Full Paper  ❯

Another human factor related to this is the fact that engineering tends to be a very specialized field. In general, home and business owners do not have the expertise to discern between quality and lack thereof in engineering.

Indeed, while the quality of cheap engineering may be lower, this is not necessarily to say that expensive work entails higher quality. ome inscrutable engineers may for example use cheap materials for the sake of greater financial gain. The home or business owner is therefore safest when he or she thoroughly investigates the services being used. An engineer with both a good reputation and a price that is not too low should for example provide the best service.

Other factors that play a role in workplace or home accidents are related not as much to engineering as to the specific actions and neglect perpetrated by the users of the material. The human…


Department of Materials Science and Engineering. "Learning from failure: Engineering disasters." State University of New York, 17 June, 2005.

Elsberry, Richard B. "Getting to the root causes of accidents." Electrical Apparatus, Aug. 2000. Database:

Fire Aircraft Accidents Involving Fires
Words: 2478 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 49235378
Read Full Paper  ❯

hen an airplane catches on fire and jet fuel is the catalyst, the amount of time that the plane and the object around it will burn is dependent on many different factors. One of the primary factors is the amount of fuel that is still contained on the plane. For instance a jet that is taking a transatlantic flight will have more jet fuel than a regional flight. Investigators would need to know this type of information so that they can estimate how much time it might take for the fuel to burn off or the types of measures that need to be taken to extinguish the fire.

Investigations can also be effected by the presence of cabin fires. According to Improved Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials for Commercial Aircraft Interiors: A Proceedings, (1995) post crash Cabin fires have been extensively researched. A great deal of this research has occurred in…

Works Cited

Aircraft Accident Investigations." Retrieved June 6, 2008 from; 

"Fire and Explosion Investigation." Retrieved June 6, 2008 from; 

History and Mission. Retrieved June 6, 2008 from; 

Improved Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials for Commercial Aircraft Interiors: A Proceedings, (1995). Retrieved June 6, 2008 from;

Runway Incursions Which Lead to Accidents
Words: 2359 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 93056085
Read Full Paper  ❯

Runway Incursions That Lead to Accidents

The objective of this study is to examine runway incursions that lead to accidents such as the Tenerife airport disaster, U.S. airways Flight 149, Madrid Runway Disaster and Madrid Runway disaster as well as Linate Airport disaster. Toward this end, this study will examine the literature in this area of inquiry which includes such as the 'Runway Incursion Joint Safety Analysis Team' (JSAT) report; the International Civil Aviation Organization 'Manual on the Prevention of Runway Incursions', as well as other pertinent and relevant studies. This study will attempt to disseminate the available information on prevention of runway incursion and to report on the same in the findings of this study.


Runway incursion accidents that involve general aviation aircraft and air carriers are reported to be a rare occurrence. Landsberg (1998) reports that in 1994 "A Cessna Conquest II taxied onto the wrong runway…


Landsberg, B. (1998) Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association. Runway incursions: A perfect example of the accident chain. Jan Vol. 41, No. 1. Retrieved from: 

Landsberg, B. (1998) Runway Incursions: A perfect example of the accident chain. Retrieved from:

What Needs to Be Done to Control Approach and Landing Accidents
Words: 3237 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10210073
Read Full Paper  ❯

Radio Altimeter effectiveness and CFIT

How can technology be used to effectively diminish CFIT and ALA incidents?

Air travel is one of the safest means of traveling from one location to another in the world. Without air traffic, the business world would come to a screeching halt. Although businesses can transfer mass amounts of digital communications DATA, thus eliminating much of the demand on mail and fax transmissions of just a decade ago, businesses organizations can still not transfer products, mail, personnel, and other hard goods through electronic blips on the internet. Travel still relies on airliners and cargo air-busses which fill the skies around the world and around the clock. The experts are agreed that global commercial air traffic will grow at an average 5% per year over the next 20 years. This means that traffic will double in 15 years and will practically triple by the end of…

Jensen, D. (2000, November) EGPWS: look what it can do now. Retrieved 14 November, 2003. from Avaition Today, Website: 

Matteo, Luccio. (2001, 1 Oct.) GPS and Aviation Safety. GPS World.

Unraveling the Mystery of General Aviation Controlled Flight Into Terrain Accidents Using HFACS. (2002) Retrieved 14 Nov. 2003 from Institute of Aviation. Website:

Accident Can Give Rise to
Words: 742 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96542103
Read Full Paper  ❯

00 n

Putting-out fires

Investigation hrs

Immediate staff downtime (e.g. work activity stopped) hrs

Staff time to report and investigate incident

12 hrs

Meetings to discuss incident

12 hrs

Time Spent with HSE Inspector

8 hrs

Consultant's Fees

120 hrs

Assessing/rescheduling work activities hrs

Recovering work/production (including staff costs)

12 hrs

Cleaning up site and disposal of waste, equipment, products, etc.

Bringing work up to standard (e.g. product reworking time/costs) hrs

Repairing any damage/faults

Hiring or purchasing tools, equipment, plant, services, etc.

Loss of product (milk)

950 gallons

2.75 gallon

Action to safeguard future business

Salary costs of replacement workers dys

Lost work-time (people waiting to resume work, delays, reduced productivity, effect's on other people's productivity, etc.)

16 dys

Overtime costs

24 dys

Recruitment costs for new staff

Contract penalties

Reassuring customers

Providing alternative sources of supply for customers

Sanctions and penalties

Compensation claim payments thus far

Solicitor's fees and…

Works Cited

Accident Costs. 13 Jan. 2005 ..

Accident Over the Last Several
Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 48154504
Read Full Paper  ❯

In some cases, you may have to take equipment that has been infected with the virus offline (for maintenance) and use a flash drive to remove it / reprogram the operating system. Once this occurs, you would then connect all of the different security protocols together. The basic idea is to be able to use them, to serve as a backup system in the event that there is some kind of breach. This will give the hackers limited access to: certain areas and it will isolate them to select parts of the company's servers. (Lacey, 2009, pp. 269 -- 310)

The final part of the strategy is to ensure effective monitoring of the various systems. This will take place with the company using an outside security consultant. They will have the responsibility of helping to coordinate mock attacks. This will effectively test the strategy and identify for weaknesses. At the…


Lacey, D. (2009). Managing the Human Factor. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Theriaut, C. (2011). CSIS Experts List Worst Cyber Breaches. Naked Security. Retrieved from:

Opportunities to Reduce Traffic Accidents
Words: 2611 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 58950638
Read Full Paper  ❯

In addition, a growing number of countries in the region have also started strict traffic sign and signal enforcement campaigns (Martin, 2005). In addition, launched in 2009, a governmental campaign to reduce traffic accidents in the Sultanate of Oman has sought to raise awareness among Omanis concerning the need to use safety belts in general and the need to use safety seats for young children every time people take to the road. In addition, the oyal Oman Police, the Ministry of Social Development and the Ministry of Education have collaborated with the Omani Society Safety on the traffic safety initiatives as discussed further below.

Civil Society. According to ajhi (2011), there are a number of civic organizations that play an important role in promoting traffic safety and raising public awareness about the need to reduce traffic accidents. These organizations include the Omani Society for oad Safety which is dedicated to…


Martin, J. (2005, March). Arab traffic jam: Road traffic accidents are costing Arab states billions of dollars annually, not to mention the catastrophic loss of life. The Middle East, 354, 37-


Miedema, H.M. & Oudshoorn, C.G. (2001, April). Annoyance from transportation noise:

Relationships with exposure metrics DNL and DENL and their confidence intervals.

Aircraft Accident Briefing the Accident
Words: 387 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 34300784
Read Full Paper  ❯


The sightseeing expedition did not report a particular flight plan. The charter was used for this flight in spite of recent reports of problems due to a shortage of available charters on the private island airport.


The island runway ascended into foggy and hazy conditions that were reportedly worsening.

Management: The pilot was not in contact with an management oversight but management did play a part in the shortcoming of certain procedures, including the allowance of the plane to fly without proper run-up procedures and the its allowance to fly in spite of carrying too much weight.


Contributing causes to the accident were pilot inexperience, which allowed the pilot to take to the air in spite of less than ideal meteorological, mechanical and experiential conditions, as well as poor procedural attention to an aircraft with clear mechanical problems. The probable cause of the accident was a mechanical…

Colgan Air Flight 3407 Accident
Words: 3090 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 98523956
Read Full Paper  ❯

On the hand, some plans may be slow to respond to the pilot's commands; complicating the piloting process, much like a sports car, for example, that under steers or a truck that over steers (Personal Communication, 2010). Bay contends that training on more than one plane of a particular model would prove to be a positive practice for airlines to implement.

Bay asserts that the following questions need to be answered regarding the cause of the crash of Flight 3407.

How much training and experience did the pilot/s have with this particular aircraft?

How many hours experience did the pilot/s have flying this particular craft?

Did a matter of pilot fatigue play a part in the incident?

Could alcohol have been a factor in the pilot's inability to "do the right thing"?

Were there any known defects with the plane?

Did any type mechanical malfunction occur?

On what date was…


Alcohol and Flying. (N.d.). Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved February 13, 2010


Baron, R. (2005). The Cockpit, the Cabin, and Social Psychology. Airline Retrieved February 13, 2010 from

Black, H.C.(1990). Discovery. Black's Law Dictionary West Publishing: St. Paul, MN.

Medico-Legal Investigations How Adequate Medical Death Investigative
Words: 1745 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35234598
Read Full Paper  ❯

Medico-Legal Investigations


Medical Death Investigative Systems

Past and Present Systems

Death investigation of some sort has existed in all countries for centuries, but not always performed by medical professionals (Committee, 2003 as qtd in Moldovan, 2008). The link between law and medicine traces back to the ancient Egyptian culture in 3000 .C. This was followed by the English coroner system in around the 12th century. The 194 Articles of Eyre first used the term "coroner" by the English until brought by the first colonists to the New World, America as basis for a legal investigative function. A medical examiner replaced the coroner system in 1890 then functioning in altimore. A medical examiner is a trained medical specialist in pathology. The field of death investigation became more and more sophisticated in cities and States, like New York. The Office of the Medical Examiner was established in 1918. Its main…


National Academy of Sciences (2003). Medico-legal death investigation system workshop. Committee for the Workshop on the Medico-legal Death Investigation

System. Institute of Medicine: National Academy of Sciences Press. Retrieved on October 12, 2010 from 

Moldovan, E (2008). The medico-legal death investigator. ProQuest: ProQuest LLC.

Retrieved on October 12, 2010 from

Niosh Fire Fighter Investigation
Words: 5201 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41511616
Read Full Paper  ❯

Recommendation: The training staff must ensure all participants in a "live" fire training exercise "have received the training and opportunities to properly perform the job." And this is pivotal to safety measures for recruits: A student's first experience "in a live burn exercise should not be in an acquired structure" (IIL).

Structures and Facilities (NFPA 1403 4.2 & 4.2.2): Buildings selected for structural fire training exercise must be properly prepared -- which in this case, the row house at 145 South Calverton Road, it was not properly prepared. A previous ventilation drill, which opened several upper floor walls to the outside air (and the wind which was 20 miles per hour at that time) made the building "unsuitable" for live fire training. Adding to the mistakes made in the exercise at 145 South Calverton Road was the serious question as to whether the fire department had permission to burn that…

Works Cited

BCFD Preliminary Investigation Into The Line Of Duty Death Of Recruit Racheal M. Wilson

On February 9, 2007. (2007). Retrieved November 12, 2009, from

Goodrich, Art. (2007). Baptism by Fire or Death by Diversity? Retrieved November 12,

2009, from

Roles in an Investigation
Words: 2192 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62121472
Read Full Paper  ❯

Police Psychologist

oles in an Investigation

In this kind of investigation whereby the police psychologist is investigating the homicide of a high profile member of the community, the police psychologist plays several roles. One is that he or she will be involved in collecting and analyzing of psychological evidence that pertains to the homicide case. In this role, the police psychologist will be involved in a process that starts at the scene of the crime whereby he will use scientific principles and formulas to help in solving the crime. In this role, fingerprint collection and analysis of other identifiers of the crime scene is essential to solving the case. The psychologist will also be involved in analyzing of impressions of the crime scene to see what they match and also run the crime scene impressions and collected fingerprints with comparisons of others in the police database. Identification and analysis of…


Durand & Barlow. (2007). Essentials of Abnormal Psychology. Mason, Ohio.: Cengage Learning.

Feldman, F. (2013). A PSYCHOLOGIST'S ADVENTURES, PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL. The American Journal of Psychology, 126(1), 119-124. doi: 10.5406/amerjpsyc.126.1.0119

Hansen, M. (2000). Suicidal Missions: Psychological autopsies to uncover motivation in suspicious deaths are themselves now suspect. ABA Journal, 86(3), 28-29. doi: 10.2307/27841067

Hartwig, M., Granhag, P.A., Stromwall, L.A., & Kronkvist, O. (2006). Strategic Use of Evidence during Police Interviews: When Training to Detect Deception Works. Law and Human Behavior, 30(5), 603-619. doi: 10.2307/4499497

Work a Investigation Project Piper Alpha Disaster Content
Words: 4208 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32608613
Read Full Paper  ❯

Piper Alpha Disaster

An Environmental and Safety Management Analysis of the Disaster that Occurred on the Piper Alpha Oil Rig off the Coast of Scotland

Piper Alpha (Seconds from Disaster, 2013)

The Incident

The Piper before the Explosion

Timeline of Events

Piper Alpha Mechanism

Root Causes of the Analysis

Human Factors

Design and Process Factor

Financial Consequences

Permit to ork System

Safety Training

Fire alls

Temporary Refuge

Evacuation and Escape

The Incident

Piper Alpha was a North Sea oil production platform operated by Occidental Petroleum (Caledonia) Ltd. The platform began the oil production in 1976 and then later converted to gas production as the hub of multiple networked rigs. The piper alpha platform was operated in multiple shifts by the employees who worked the whole platform to continue supply the oil and gas on a perpetual basis. The operations of the Piper Alpha platform included receiving the oil and gases…

Works Cited

Allen, B., 2008. Lest we forget: Piper Alpha. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 19 April 2013].

Centre of Risk, N.d.. Piper Alpha Accident. [Online]

Career Investigation
Words: 767 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 66088702
Read Full Paper  ❯

Fashion Photographer

Although I could not find any specific job advertisement for a fashion photographer, I found some entry-level positions in the fashion industry. A copy of these appears after the reference list. It appears that a career choice of fashion photography would be extremely rewarding in terms of the interesting situations and people the professional would come into contact with. It also appears to be a highly creative and satisfying job for a person with the right traits.

According to the "Creative Skillset" Website (2012), some colleges and universities offer courses in fashion photography, which are generally led by established photographers who act as visiting lecturers for these courses. While these courses can provide a valuable grounding knowledge of the industry, most fashion photographers begin their careers by assisting established fashion photographers. This provides not only practical experience in the industry, but also practical knowledge of the way in…


Agarwal, A. (2008). Fashion Photography -- 4 Requirements To Become A Successful Fashion Photographer. Retrieved from: 

Careers in Photography. (2012). Fashion Photography. Retrieved from: 

Creative Skillset. (2012). Fashion Photographer. Retrieved from:

Job Classifieds:

System Safety
Words: 2300 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65306312
Read Full Paper  ❯

Pre-accident plan is a plan which contains the necessary information for all personnel that would be required in the event of a mishap, investigation of the mishap including the details needed in the process of recovering an aircraft that is involved in an accident. It includes all the duties, the responsibilities and the training programs necessary to successful manage an accident involving an airplane. The pre-accident pan is structures so as to contain all the latest notifications and the necessary contact procedures to be used to initiate a response to all the aircraft incidents. A copy of the pre-accident plan is then copied to the Chief of Fire and Aviation, The area Chief ranger and the notification set to a relevant body such as FAA (Castro,1988).

The pre-accident plan is to be coordinated with the relevant disaster control departments using a set of standard procedures that are to be exercised,…


Alaska Interagency Coordination Center Aircraft (2009)Pre-Accident Plan

Castro, R (1988).Emergency and Pre-Accident Plans . Flight Safety Digest.<>

Department of the Army (2007)Army Aviation Accident Prevention Program

National Transportation Safety Board (2007) .Air Methods Corporation Safety Manua.< >

Air Safety What Are the
Words: 2643 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 57242654
Read Full Paper  ❯

The NAAP structural integrity program includes three tests including Widespread Fatigue Damage (WFD), Damage tolerance analysis (DTA) and DTA based airframe repair assessment. The supplemental inspection programs of the FAA ensure that commercial airlines fulfill the structural safety requirements. Any structural defects that are observed during the normal operation of an airplane or those that are revealed after an accident are issued as Airworthiness Directives (AD). The FAA periodically conducts certification reviews and aircrafts that report recurrent problems due to design issues will require compulsory design modifications. [FAA]

6. What is the purpose of flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders? How are they be used for accident-prevention purposes?

Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders are very useful tools that can be used to understand the events that lead to the accident. Familiarly known as the 'black boxes' these units are helpful for aircraft investigators in reconstructing the disaster.…


1) Alexander T. wells, Clarence C. Rodriguez, (2003) 'Commercial Aviation Safety', Fourth Edition, McGraw Hill.

2) NASA, 'Aviation Safety Reporting System', retrieved Apr 6th 2010, from, 

3) NBAA, 'Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS)' retrieved Apr 6th 2010, from,

4) NTSB (2002) 'National Transportation Safety Board: Aviation investigation manual Major team investigations', retrieved Apr 6th 2010 from,

Crash of Japan Airlines Flight
Words: 2193 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 79987957
Read Full Paper  ❯

The oeing 747-300 model was designed to hold 600 passengers. ut the founder of America's Flight Safety foundation, Jerome Lederer, commented that evacuation of such numbers in the event of disaster would be troublesome. Sitting next to an emergency exit did not promise anything, as shown by this tragedy. Only a bare few escaped and only as fate had it. These were the musings of many when dead bodies were brought down by helicopters from Mount Osutaka in bright blankets (Magnuson, Aviation Safety Network, AAIC, C, C (. This disaster and others before and subsequent call for more responsive prevention measures to save lives in this era of massive global air travel.

VII. Recommendations

The Safety Promotion Center was opened in 2006 to train employees and alert them to the importance of airline safety and personal responsibility for safety. The ultimate responsibility falls squarely on the shoulders of Japan Airlines…


AAIC (2002). JA8254. Aircraft Accident Investigation Report. Aircraft Accident

Investigation Commission. Retrieved on January 30,

2012 from 

- (1985).

FAA Investigates
Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53255126
Read Full Paper  ❯


Comparing aviation statistics regarding accidents in the air and on the ground is an oftentimes tedious and analytical endeavor. Experts often have to first determine the catagory in which the aircraft can be placed; since there is a wide variety of commercial aircraft and pilots who may be flying (or attempting to fly) for many different purposes. The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration defines commercial operations as " those carriers that operate aircraft in revenue service, either for the purpose of passenger or cargo transport" (U.S., 2013, p. 6).

The first item of business in analyzing data from an accident involving aircraft would likely be to ascertain who exactly would be investigating the accident. Accomplishing that objective may be a bit more complex than what one would think. As one recent study determined "aviation personnel are various groups of experts having various specializations and working in various areas of civil…

Works Cited

Future of the U.S. aviation system: Federal Aviation Administration vision for 2025, (2013) Congressional Digest, Vol. 92, Issue 6, pp. 8-32

Trifonov-Bogdanov, P.; Vinogradov, L.; Shestakov, V.; (2013) Civil aviation accidents and incidents classified according to groups of aviation specialists, Aviation, Vol. 17, Issue 2, pp. 76-79

U.S. civil aviation accidents: Review of aircraft accident data, (2013) Congressional Digest, Vol. 92, Issue 6, pp. 6-7.

Management of Health and Safety
Words: 2541 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66513500
Read Full Paper  ❯

It is essential fo company manages, safety pactitiones and manufactuing enginees to be infomed of and gain sufficient knowledge about cuent eseach developments in this field and implement safety stategies as well as systems to minimize occupational health and safety isks. (Bie; Kuneuthe; Phimiste, 103); (Stellman, 17)

Active and pocedual isk management stategies ae impotant elements in any manufactuing unit. Active isk management efes to implementing intelocks, alams and mitigation systems that can detect a hazad and immediately shut down o set the system into a safe position. Pocedual isk management efes to implementing safety checklists, opeato taining, standad opeating pocedues and seveal such people dependent management systems. Ceating "inheently safe design stategies" in a manufactuing unit would involve fou key stategies. These ae minimizing, modeating, substituting and simplifying systems. (Bie; Kuneuthe; Phimiste, 103); (Stellman, 17)

Despite all safety guidelines, accidents still occu mainly as a esult of human complacence…

references and further reading you must purchase this article.

Ellacott, Michael V; Reed, Sue. Review: Development of Robust Indoor Air Quality Models for the Estimation of Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in Buildings. Indoor and Built Environment, vol. 8, no. 6, 1999. pp: 345-360.

Falzon, Pierre. Enabling safety: issues in design and continuous design. Cognition, Technology & Work, vol.10, no. 1, Jan 2008, pp: 7-14.

Fleming, Mary Louise; Parker, Elizabeth. 2007. Health promotion: principles and practice in the Australian context. Ligare Book Printer, Sydney.

International Labour Organization. Occupational safety & health. 2009. Retrieved 12 November, 2009 from

Aviation Resource Management Survey Inspections
Words: 5220 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 57454992
Read Full Paper  ❯

(2) Analyzing all accident data without regard to the type of airframe provides for an easy sampling and less potential bias toward fixed wing vs. rotary wing aircraft.

(3) Not including ground accidents into the research will allow the research to focus only on aviation accidents.

(4) Limiting the research to a four-year period; 2003 to 2006 will provide an adequate sampling of the data and not constrain the research results.


First Assumption

The first assumption is that accident data to be used will be an adequate sample of class a through class C accidents within the USAREUR area of operations.

Second Assumption

The second assumption is that ARMS inspection dates derived from official USAREUR Publications and historical data files will reflect actual dates of ARMS inspections.

Third Assumption

The third assumption is that current ARMS inspections continue to incorporate comprehensive checklist used to evaluate resource management and assist…

HSMS Gap analysis Hazard identification and Risk assessments
Words: 14774 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45172476
Read Full Paper  ❯

HSMS Gap Analysis and Hazard Identification Risk Assessments

Description of APM Terminals

Legal Environment

Review of the Health and Safety Management System


Gap Analysis

Hazard Identification

Physical Hazards

Health and Welfare Hazards

Risk Assessment

Physical Hazard -- Working at Height - Scaffolding

Health & Welfare Hazard -- Noise

Action Plans

Action Plan 1 - Management System

Action Plan 2 -- Hazards and Risks

Barbour Checklist: BS OHSAS 18001 Audit Checklist

Occupational health and safety management has numerous benefits for business, not only an employer's duty of care, a legal and moral obligation but also critical part of business equal in importance to other business functions like finance, marketing and production. When health and safety is embedded as part of business, results would be, good company image and reputation, better employee motivation and morale, improved efficiency and ultimately increased profitability.

The implementation of a sound health, safety and environment (HSE)…

Crash of Usair Flight 5050
Words: 1029 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91342698
Read Full Paper  ❯

Also causal was the Captain's failure to detect the mistrimmed rudder before the takeoff was attempted." (National Transportation Safety Board).

Controversy soon filled the probe into the crash when a passenger told investigators that he had been out "bar-hopping" with the pilot, co-pilot and a stewardess just before the flight. The accusations were never proven, and federal investigators later pointed to a defect in the aircraft rudder as the cause of the crash. However, the rudder was subsequently redesigned.

The accident involving USAir Flight 5050 attracted the attention of the Queen's district attorney, who convened a grand jury to determine if criminal charges should be pursued. No formal charges were ever brought. However, the action of the district attorney hampered the normal course of the accident investigation, because the accident scene was declared a "crime scene." Access to the wreckage and witnesses was subjected to the control of the local…


Federal Aviation Administration. February 12, 2005. 

McCarthy, P. (July 27, 2000). Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure Aviation Subcommittee, U.S. House of Representatives, February 12, 2005. 

National Transportation Safety Board Accident Database and Synopses. February 12, 2005.

Case Summary of Latex Paint Company
Words: 1145 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13877974
Read Full Paper  ❯

Paint Company

There has been an accident on the production floor at Latex Paint that has injured three men. As a result, Latex Paint must deal with a number of serious issues. First, the decline in employee productivity after the accident could become a drain on company profitability. Further, the company will be required to prove that it has met its obligations in relation to health and safety rules of the Union and OSHA legislation and may face substantial financial penalties if it has not done so. Liability for the injuries to its employees and damage to the company's reputation are a real threat, particularly if this company was not in compliance with health and safety standards.

Richards needs to take a variety of immediate steps to deal with the accident. To adequately prepare for the staff meeting, he needs to understand what happened and to the best of his…


Management styles. Retrieved June 11, 2005 from Web site:

Glass Cockpits
Words: 2859 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27218742
Read Full Paper  ❯

Human interaction with Glass Cockpit & computerized flight systems

Human interaction with computerized flight systems is viewed by many as the "Achilles heel" in modern commercial flight. hile pilots as the ultimate end-users must bear the responsibility for the systems under their control, it is the designers who must shoulder the burden for taking into account the human factors likely to cause confusion. How information is displayed has a tremendous impact on how it is interpreted. Indeed, graphical displays and glass cockpits are here to stay -- but so too are human pilots."(Krell)

The purpose of this paper is to explore an emerging technology known as the glass cockpit and to seek to explain the human factors that influence the implementation of this technology. This discourse will describe the theoretical issues of the glass cockpit technology and the human factors associated with the invention and subsequent implementation of the technology.…

Works Cited

Future Video Aircraft Recorder.

Incident and Accident Review. 

Krell, Tim.

Perils of the Glass Cockpit.

How ICE and Rain Affect Normal Operations Focusing on Icing
Words: 3763 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15663040
Read Full Paper  ❯

ice and rain affect normal operations-Emphasis on Icing

There is a clear inter-relation between safe and satisfactory travel by air and weather. Most of the accidents in airplanes occur due to adverse weather, and it is one among the different causes improving towards the occurrence of the accident. It can be blamed as the reason for most of the flight delays also. All flight operations are affected by unfavorable weather. This may prevent the handling of flight totally or sometimes partially. The expenses incurred due to delays and change in route due to such weather conditions is very high. oth the passenger and the aviation industry has to bear the brunt of these situations, due to the loss of time for the passenger, the hefty hotel charges, increase in fuel consumption, and additional spending on servicing, equipment and change in crew, as also they make flying more expensive beyond plans…


Bernstein, B.C., Omeron, T.A. McDonough, F. And Politovich, M.K. 1997: The relationship between aircraft icing and synoptic-scale weather conditions. Weather & Forecasting, 12, 742-762.

Lankford, T.T., 2000: Aircraft Icing: A pilot's guide to supercooled drizzle droplets, icing accident case studies and cold weather techniques. Practical Flying Series, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., pp.336 pp.

Rasmussen, R., M. Politovich, J. Marwitz, W.R. Sand, J. McGinley, J. Smart, R. Pielke, S. Rutledge, D. Wesley, G. Stossmeister, B. Bernstein, K. Elmore, N. Powell, E. Westwater, B. Boba Stankov, and Burrows, D. 1992: Winter Icing and Storms Project (WISP). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 73, 951-974.

Sand, W.R., Cooper, W.A. Politovich, M. K and Veal, D.L. 1984: Icing conditions encountered by a research aircraft. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 23, 1427-1440.

Law Enforcement Traffic Homicide What
Words: 324 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 793062
Read Full Paper  ❯


Training programs for traffic homicide investigators usually include the following areas: speed estimates from kinetic energy, skid marks, scuffmarks and airborne situations, vehicle dynamics and motion, time, distance and motion equations, conservation of momentum calculations, diagramming vehicle damage, vehicle damage analysis explaining thrust, center of mass, overlap and collapse, vehicle lamp examination, tire damage evaluation, advanced photography and video techniques and vector sum analysis (Advanced Traffic Crash Investigation, n.d.).

All of these areas are important in order for an investigator to be successful in traffic homicide investigations.


Advanced Traffic Crash Investigation. (n.d.). etrieved September 13, 2009, from Tennessee

Traffic Safety esource Service Web site:

Byrd, Mike. (2000). Crash. etrieved September 13, 2009, from Web site:


Advanced Traffic Crash Investigation. (n.d.). Retrieved September 13, 2009, from Tennessee

Traffic Safety Resource Service Web site: 

Byrd, Mike. (2000). Crash. Retrieved September 13, 2009, from Web site:

Transportation Safety in 5 Major Nations
Words: 1370 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68632525
Read Full Paper  ❯



The governments of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States all have some form of transportation safety board for disaster response. Their duties are sometimes gathered under one agency and sometimes divided among more than one agency. However, their missions are all focused on transportation security and not on assigning blame to people or groups for accident.

Transportation Safety Boards


Australia has the Australian Transportation Safety Bureau (ATSB), which is an independent statutory agency run by a Commission and kept apart from regulators, policy makers and service providers for transportation. It is designed to increase safety and public confidence transportation by: autonomous examination -- both in Australia and abroad - of accidents and safety incidents; recording, examining and researching safety information; and encouraging safety consciousness, information and behavior (Australian Government, 2016). The ATSB investigates aviation accidents, events and insufficiencies.…

Works Cited

Australian Government. (2016). About ATSB. Retrieved from 

Australian Government. (2016). Aviation. Retrieved from 

Australian Government. (2016). Marine. Retrieved from 

Australian Government. (2016). Rail. Retrieved from

Flight Data Recorder
Words: 3362 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 42429284
Read Full Paper  ❯

Flight Data ecorder

From a system viewpoint, prevention is a great deal less expensive than accidents. Two Boeing 737 accidents remain entirely unexplained at this time (Colorado Springs, 1992; Pittsburgh, 1994). Both airplanes had older digital flight data recorders that did not record control surface positions; that information might very well have led to an unambiguous finding of probable cause. In sharp contrast, the Aerospatiale AT-72 that crashed after extended flight in icing conditions ( oselawn, Indiana, 1994), was equipped with a modern digital flight data recorder whose data enabled investigators to discover, literally within days of the accident, that icing had disturbed airflow over the ailerons beyond the pilots' ability to maintain control. It has been suggested that a substantial fleet could have been equipped with modern flight data recorders for less than the costs of the two 737 accidents.

Some of the innovations discussed here are clearly needed…


Ashford, Peter. (2010) Flight Data Recorders: Built, Tested to Remain Intact After a Crash. Parts I & II. Technically Speaking. Avionics News.

Hopkin V.D. (2004). "Human factors in air traffic system automation." In R. Parasuraman & M. Mouloua (Eds.), Human performance in automated systems: Current research and trends (pp. 319-336). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hopkin V.D. (2007). "Situational awareness in air traffic control." In, R.D. Gilson, D.J. Garland, & J.M. Koonce (Eds.), Situational awareness in complex systems (pp. 171-178) Daytona Beach, FL: Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Press.

Hughes J.A., Randall D., & Shapiro D. (2002). Faltering from ethnography toward design. CSCW 92 Proceedings.

National Transportation Safety Board
Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58180770
Read Full Paper  ❯

Organizations or corporations enlisted as parties to the investigation report to the NTSB though individuals in legal positions are not permitted to be designated to the investigation.

While the enlisted agencies conduct their own investigations for enforcement, the determination of the actual cause of transportation accidents and incidents remains the sole responsibility of the Safety Board ("What is the National Transportation Safety Board?" n.d.). Through the party system, much of the background technical information is collected to be used in the factual reports by the National Transportation Safety Board. The Safety Board uses its staff to supervise all investigative activities in order to accomplish its objectives. The head of each investigative group or organization basically prepares and documents a factual report upon completion of their respective tasks. Each of the parties in the specific investigative organization or unit is requested to verify the accuracy of the factual report. After the…


"The Investigative Process at NTSB." (n.d.). Accident Investigations. Retrieved from National

Transportation Safety Board website:

"What is the National Transportation Safety Board?" (n.d.). National Transportation Safety

Board. The Washington Post. Retrieved April 5, 2014, from

Crossair Flight 3597
Words: 1987 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 29785472
Read Full Paper  ❯

Crossair Flight 3597 -- Aircraft Crash Survival Analysis

Crossair Flight

The paper focuses on the Air crash of the Crossair Flight 3597 on 24th November 2001 and various ways and actions that could have led the plane to survive the air crash. This Aircraft Crash Survival Analysis will not only be highlighting the strategies that could have helped many people survive the air crash but also provides a detailed account of the crash, the reasons the crash took place and the contribution of human error in the crash.

On the 24th of November 2001, Crossair airline's flight CX3597, aircraft AVO 146 J 100 registered as HB-IXM, left the Berlin-Tegel airport from runway 26-L at 8 p.m. UTC for Zurich. The flight was scheduled to land at the Zurich runway 14 using the ILS (Instrument Landing System) approach. This approach provides the pilots directions for landing through the radio signals from…


Aircraft Accident Investigation Bureau & Swiss Confederation, SKYbrary Bookshelf. (2004). Final Report No. 1793 by the Aircraft Accident Investigation Bureau concerning the accident to the aircraft AVRO 146-RJ100, HB-IXM, operated by Crossair under flight number CRX 3597, on 24 November 2001 near Bassersdorf/ZH. Retrieved 22nd August, 2012 from 

Aviation Safety Network, Flight Safety Foundation. (2004). Accident Description. Retrieved 22nd August, 2012 from 

Simula, Inc. (1989, December). Aircraft Crash Survival Design Guide-Volume 1: Design Criteria and Checklists. Arizona, Pheonix: U.S. Department of Commerce-National Technical Information Service.

SyedN07. (2011, April 22). Brand NEW! 2011 - Air Crash Investigations - Cockpit Failure - Crossair LX Flight 3597 [Video File]. Retrieved 21st August, 2012 from .

Behavior-Based Safety
Words: 7492 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34264550
Read Full Paper  ❯

Fifteen questions used to measure willingness to AC were assembled into a questionnaire designed to examine the personality measures and items regarding employee response to various safety issues, adequacy of safety training, and attitudes toward other safety related issues. The most pertinent questions relating to AC were:

If I know a coworker is going to do a hazardous job, I am willing to remind him/her of the hazards (even if the employee is familiar with the job),

I am willing to warn my peers about working unsafely am willing to do whatever I can to improve safety, even confronting my peers about their unsafe acts.

The responses to these questions, measured on a 5-point Likert scale, were added to attain an AC score. The Likert technique presents a set of attitude statements. Subjects are asked to express agreement or disagreement of a five-point scale. Each degree of agreement is given…

Works Cited

Asfahl, C.R. (1999) Industrial safety and health management, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco: Freeman.

Curtis, S.L., (1995) "Safety and total quality management," Professional Safety, Jan., pp.18-20

DiPadova, L.N., and Faerman, S.R. (1993). "Using the competing values framework to facilitate managerial understanding across levels of organizational hierarchy," Human Resource Management, 32(1), 143-174

Firefighter Safety the Job of
Words: 4904 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94657794
Read Full Paper  ❯

, 2006). The ongoing investigation is being conducted by a "National Interagency Serious Accident Investigation Team," with the purpose of "determining fact surrounding the incident, identify lessons learned," and with the end result a set of "...recommendations for accident prevention purposes."

The investigation will no doubt look into the fire shelter issue, although since the firefighters are gone, the question of why shelters were not used cannot be answered. If all five men had fire shelters on board the engine, it will seem sadly ironic that those protective units were not deployed. For wildland firefighters, it is not only important for escape routes and other safety procedures to be established, but it is imperative that firefighters are in possession of the very newest, safest fire shelters; and with this in mind, the USDA / USFS "Fire & Aviation Management" eb site offers some conflicting and confusing information.

On one page…

Works Cited

Golway, Terry. (2005). Firefighters. American Heritage Magazine. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 at .

Fire Chief. (2006). Near-Miss Report Total Reaches 1,000. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 at . (2005) VFIS's Operation Safe Arrival: Don't

Become a Statistic. Retrieved 29 Oct. 2006 at

Airline Pilots Association
Words: 1798 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99383905
Read Full Paper  ❯

history of the Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) and its achievements throughout its seventy years. Safety regulations, issues of aviation concern, and milestones in union negotiations are discussed.


ith the recent terrorist attacks in the United States, airline safety has been of top concern. Six months ago airport security was seldom discussed except perhaps in an article tucked in a newspaper or magazine. Now it's a top story on the evening news every night. It makes us wonder if anyone has been thinking of our safety until now.

The Airline Pilots Association has always been thinking of our safety. From metal detectors in airports to the 'fasten seat belt' signs on airliners, the APLA was responsible.

The ALPA is regarded as the leader in safety issues concerning all areas of aviation


The Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) not only helps with safety issues and…


Air Line Pilots Association:

Unlawful Discrimination of Coal Miners
Words: 2502 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50993859
Read Full Paper  ❯

Instances of violation found after examining the complaints, it will issue a determination letter ordering the employer to pay outstanding wages, reinstate and reimburse the employee for attorneys and expert witness fees and initiate other steps to provide necessary relief. Complaints lacking merit will be dismissed.

The eal Face:

Although MSHA is intended to function as a watchdog body to keep vigil on the implementation of the federal Mine Safety and Health Act, 1977, through prohibiting companies from dismissing and harassing poor miners who deny working in unsafe working conditions or report safety conditions, it has been widely reported in the sections of the press that MSH is juggling with the statistics of miners death. It has devised its own day of reporting or otherwise about the number of the death of miners while on duty. By applying its discretion, MSHA took into account death of three coal miners and…


Addington, Wes. 2005. MSHA manipulates fatality figures. January, 31. Retrieved from Accessed on 25 May, 2005

Discrimination Cases Filed on Behalf of Local Miners Against Coal Company. 2004. 14 December. Retrieved at . Accessed on 25 May, 2005

Mine Safety and Health. U.S. Department of Labor Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy. Retrieved from . Accessed on 25 May, 2005

U.S. files discrimination complains in miner findings. Retrieved from  on 25 May, 2005

Newberger V Pokrass 1967 the
Words: 538 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15680404
Read Full Paper  ❯

He suffered permanent injuries due to the after-effects of burns and exposure to frostbite (he was exposed to extreme cold for 14 hours after the crash before being recovered). It is also evident that defendant suffered wage loss due to his injuries and suffered pain and disability.


The facts of the case indicate conclusively that the accident was caused by negligence on the part of the pilot (Pokrass) resulting in injury to the plaintiff. Hence application of Res ipsa loquitor in the case is proper. The jury award of wage loss and for pain and suffering is also fair.


In normal circumstances, a passenger (or passengers) owes absolutely no duty to the pilot-in-command in the event of a plane accident due to negligence of the pilot since in most commercial aircrafts the passengers are separated from the cabin crew and would not be aware…


Gesell, Laurence E. And Dempsey, Paul S. (2005). Aviation and the Law, 4e, Coast Aire Publishers (pp 72-73)

Case Brief

U S Space Shuttle Disaster Analysis
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 20899388
Read Full Paper  ❯

The report identifies NASA as "working with an unrealistic set of flights" (Cases Study. N.D.); timelines "which were retained and increased pressure to meet schedules by senior NASA managers" (Case Study. N.D.). The Challenger disaster was marked by the reality that

"NASA had found evidence that O-rings had allowed hot exhaust to burn through a primary seal. Since 1982 the O-rings had been designated a "Criticality 1" issue. Indeed, a January shuttle launch in cold weather just a year earlier had shown significant burn through of the O-rings. The day before the Challenger launch, engineers at orton Thiokol, a NASA contractor, raised concerns that the frigid temperatures at Cape Canaveral would cause the shuttle's rocket booster "O-rings" to fail -- which would mean catastrophe for the shuttle. Just hours before liftoff, Thiokol engineers were recommending that the launch be delayed. After hours of discussion, NASA pressed forward with the launch…

Much like the Challenger incident the CAIB report finds "NASA management practices to be as much a cause of the accident as the foam that struck the left wing 81 sec into flight. These practices included: allowing the shuttle to fly with known flaws, blocking the flow of critical information up the hierarchy, and inadequate safety monitoring" (O'Leary, J. June 2, 2010). As with the O-ring on Challenger, a seemingly minor technical issue was the problem. "Foam had been falling off the tank since the very first shuttle flight, and NASA had long been trying to fix it. But in each case, NASA decided it was okay to keep flying. Over time, this led to a significant understating or a collective ignoring of an actual risk" (O'Leary, J. June 2, 2010).

Clearly, there were systemic organizational issues which confronted NASA over the course of several decades which led to the two disasters however, what specifically went wrong and more importantly how could these areas have been addressed?

At the core of both of these incidents was an organizational inertia "reflecting missed opportunities, blocked or ineffective communication channels, flawed analysis, and ineffective leadership" (Case Study. N.D.). After the Challenger flight the Rogers report's "recommendations included that NASA restructure its management to tighten control, and set a group dedicated to finding and tracking hazards in regard to shuttle safety" (Case Study. N.D.). Yet, after the Columbia disaster, the CAIB report found that "though NASA underwent many management reforms in the wake of the Challenger accident…the agency's powerful human space flight culture remained intact, as did many practices…such as inadequate concern over

Value of Educating Police Officers
Words: 1077 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85552772
Read Full Paper  ❯



Police Officers, Associates Degree in Criminal Justice, and Other Qualifications

Police Officers, Associates Degree in Criminal Justice, and Other Qualifications

Police officers are individuals empowered by the government to limit civil disorder, protect property, and enforce the law. They are normally charged with the detection and prevention of crime, apprehension of criminals and maintenance of law and order. The minimum training and education required in order to become a police officer mainly varies among individual agencies, departments, and states. The education requirements largely depend on the position or rank that the individual is seeking. This report endeavors to explain whether the police officer is required to have at least an Associates' degree in Criminal Justice or any other close related field. It also explains whether police officers' education level plays a…


Bottoms, A.E., & McClean, J.D. (2013). "Defendants in the criminal process." Hoboken: Taylor and Francis

Carter, D.L., & Jamieson, J.D. (1978). "Issues and trends in criminal justice education." Huntsville, Tex.: Institute of Contemporary Corrections and the Behavioral Sciences, Sam Houston State University

Cryderman, B.K. (1986). "Police, race and ethnicity: a guide for law enforcement officers." Toronto: Butterworths

Nemeth, C.P. (1989). "A status report on contemporary criminal justice education: a definition of the discipline and an assessment of its curricula, faculty, and program characteristics." Lewiston, NY, USA: E. Mellen Press.

Decision Making Best Exemplifies What Happened on
Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34589393
Read Full Paper  ❯

decision making best exemplifies what happened on the Deepwater Horizon rig?

The basic model that was used in the Deepwater Horizon accident was the bounded rational decision making approach. This is when everyone inside the organization will be focused on selecting options that work well within their current circumstances. The problem is that these individuals are not selecting an approach, which is in the best interests of everyone. Instead, there is an obsession in meeting short-term objectives at all costs. In the case of the Deepwater Horizon, everyone was ignoring obvious signs that the well was about to explode. The biggest reason why is managers were focused on meeting the productivity goals of the company at all costs. ("What are ational Models," 2012)

Which of the decision- making biases played a potential role in the disaster?

The kind of decision making biases that were occurring prior the Deepwater Horizon incident…


An Intuitive Decision Making Model. (2008). Rapid Business Intelligence. Retrieved from: 

Was Poor Decision Making a Cause of the Deepwater Horizon Disaster. (n.d.).

What are Rational Models. (2012). Decision Making. Retrieved from: 

Bly, M. (2011). Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation. Washington D.C.U.S. Government Printing Offices.

Critical Thinking in the Aftermath of 9 11
Words: 1479 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83127852
Read Full Paper  ❯

Critical Thinking for Homeland Security

The capacity of a government to protect its citizens pivots on the ability of its leaders and high-placed specialists to think critically. Few times in history point so clearly to this principle than the 9/11 disaster. In 1941, the same year that the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred, Edward M. Glaser published a book titled, An Experiment in the Development of Critical Thinking. Glaser's practice of psychiatry was remarkable in that he dispensed with the Freudian deep dive into past events, pushing his patients to deal with problem solving in the present -- a critical thinking practice he called reality therapy. Many of Glaser's tenets were adopted by other disciplines because of their universal utility and association with positive results. Glaser defined critical thinking as, "A persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports…


Albert Einstein. Brainy Quotes. Retrieved from 

Chow, D. (2011, January 25). Space Shuttle Challenger disaster FAQ: What went wrong? Retrieved from 

Eichorn, R. (2012). Developing thinking skills: Critical thinking at the Army Management Staff College. Fort Belvoir, VA: Strategic Systems Department. [Webpage, last modified: 4 2012 January.] Retreived from

Glaser, E.M. (1941). An experiment in the development of critical thinking. New York, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University.

Values in Justice System Organizations
Words: 2521 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77204422
Read Full Paper  ❯

The courts retooled by a generation of conservative judicial appointments and crazed case law now function as social abettors, in which the poor and the dark skinned are shunted off to a concrete hell with industrial efficiency. Left behind are broken families, more addiction, more disease, more illiteracy, and thus a more docile society" (Parenti, 2001).

There are different changes being made in the system to reflect new and evolving values. For example, recommendations have been made that all police interrogations be video taped, so that juries have access to the process of confession and not just a typed end-product. This way police can ensure the values of integrity in the confession process. The increasing use of DNA testing, where possible, is also a way of helping to ensure that only the guilty are punished and justice is upheld.

The main purpose of police department is to provide services to…


Parenti, C. (July 2001). The "New" Criminal Justice System: State Repression from 1968 to 2001. Monthly Review. 539(3): 19.

Platt, a. (2001). Social Insecurity: The Transformation of American Criminal Justice, 1965 -- 2000. Social Justice. 28(1): 138.

Wright, K. (1999). Leadership Is the Key to Ethical Practice in Criminal Justice Agencies. Criminal Justice Ethics. 18(2): 2.

Townsend, P. (September 2005). Detention Redemption: In One California County, Progressive Leaders and Law-Enforcement Officials Are Transforming a Troubled Juvenile-Justice System. The American Prospect. 16(9): 20+.

Aviation Maintenance Resource Management Mrm and Its Impact on U S Commercial Aviation Safety
Words: 8329 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 75270940
Read Full Paper  ❯

U.S. statistics indicate that 80% of aviation accidents are due to human errors with 50% due to maintenance human factor problems. Current human factor management programs have not succeeded to the degree desired. Many industries today use performance excellence frameworks such as the Baldrige National Quality Award framework to improve over-all organizational effectiveness, organizational culture and personal learning and growth. A survey administered to a sample population of senior aviation maintainers in 18 countries revealed a consistent problem with aviation human factors and the need for a more integrated framework to manage human factor problems in aviation maintenance.

Human Factors History

Current Human Factor programs in Aircraft Maintenance

Performance Excellence Framework

esearcher's Work Setting and ole

Statement of the Problem


Human Factor Errors in Aircraft Maintenance Statistics

Current Human Factor Programs in Aircraft Maintenance 13

Aviation Performance Excellence Framework 12

Statement of esearch Question…


Boeing. (1993). Accident Prevention Strategies. Commercial Jet Aircraft Accidents

World Wide Operations 1982-1991. Retrieved 11 Nov, 2004 from  / Portal/HFTimeline.aspx

Boeing. (1994). Field test of the MEDA process. Retrieved 17 Dec, 2004 from William L.

Rankin, Ph.D.

British Airways Flight 9
Words: 2886 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40331397
Read Full Paper  ❯

ritish Airways Flight 9

The Institution of Mechanical Engineers report entitled "Volcanic Ash: To Fly or Not to Fly? reports that the prediction of "ash movement and dispersal has become more sophisticated over the years. In the UK, the Met Office uses Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modeling Environment (NAME), computer model, developed after the Chernobyl accident in 1986." (2010, p.3) This model is reported to have tracked various atmospheric dispersion events and to have as its purpose the prediction of "how far and how concentrated, emitted particles will be dispersed, using a number of factors, such as wind, rainfall and particle size…" (Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 2010, p.3) On June 24, 1982 ritish Airways 747-200, Flight 9 near Jakarta Indonesia ran into trouble when the crew accidentally flew into a volcanic ash cloud from Mount Galunggung in west Java, Indonesia. The ash caused severe damage to all four engines and the aircraft…


Guidance for Flight Crews and Controllers (nd) Retrieved from:

Marks, Paul (2010) Engine Stripdowns Establish Safe Volcanic Ash Levels. 10 Apr 2010. Retrieved from:

Moody, Eric (1986) Down to a Sunless Sea: Anatomy of An Incident. The Log, April 1986. Retrieved from: 

Volcanic Ash: To Fly or Not to Fly? Institution of Mechanical Engineers -- The Background Science of Engineering. October 2010. Retrieved from:

Heat Exchanger Rupture Incident Using the Information
Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 125699
Read Full Paper  ❯

Heat Exchanger upture Incident

Using the information in the CSB Case Study, identify probable direct causes, contributing causes, and root causes of the incident. Explain the reasoning you used to reach these causes. You may make assumptions concerning any missing investigative information as long as you clearly state your assumptions. Discuss how and where your proposed causal factors fit into the causation model on page 356 of the course textbook. For the root causes only, provide recommended corrective actions.

The United States Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) is an independent federal agency tasked with protecting workers and the public by investigating and preventing chemical accidents, and after each investigation is completed a comprehensive case study is released to detail probable causes and proposed responses. When an ammonia heat exchanger ruptured and released deadly gas inside Houston's Goodyear Tire and ubber Company plant on June 11, 2008, an incident…


American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section

VIII, Division I, 2004

USCSB. U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, (2011). Case study: Heat exchanger rupture and ammonia release in houston, texas (one killed, six injured) (2008- 06-I-TX). Retrieved from Government Printing Office website:

Deceptive Techniques Used by Cops
Words: 1270 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81178982
Read Full Paper  ❯


Deception is an integral part of the police arsenal during interrogation. The tactics and techniques of deception have been finely honed, and continue to improve to allow for effective interrogation and information retrieval. Within the framework of judicious police interrogation, the techniques and tactics can be employed effectively, efficiently, and ethically. A few, like the eid Technique, have been criticized for their misuses and for their tendency to create false confessions (McKee, 2014). Other tactics and techniques do deserve to remain part of the overall law enforcement strategy, especially when the tactics and techniques preserve the integrity of the investigation. One of the most commonly used deceptive interrogation tactics is minimization. Minimization is used to engender trust and establish a bond of communication with the suspect. The law enforcement officer basically bluffs throughout the interview, downplaying the severity of the crime itself, feigning sympathy with the suspect's point-of-view, and…


Bell, R. (n.d.). Coerced false confessions during police investigations. Crime Library. Retrieved online:

McKee, E. (2014). The line between deception and fabrication. Temple Law Review. 14 Nov, 2012. Retrieved online: 

Redlich, A.D. & Meissner, C. (n.d.). Techniques and controversies in the interrogation of suspects. In Skeem, J.L., K. Douglas & S. Lilienfeld (Eds.) Psychological Science in the Courtroom. Retrieved online: 

Rutledge, D. (2007). The lawful use of deception. Police. Jan 1, 2007. Retrieved online:

Mile Island Meltdown of 1979
Words: 2038 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56780217
Read Full Paper  ❯

The results of the investigation provided information that allowed sweeping changes to be made regarding the methods by which power plants are run and monitored in the future.

Even given the fact that the investigation proved the maximum exposure that any one person had as a result of the meltdown was no more than one x-ray would create there were more than 2,000 law suits filed in court with claims that the exposure to radiation caused varying health issues for individuals (Three mile island (

The court chose ten test cases on which to decide the outcome of all 2,000 cases. Those cases took 15 years to resolve and in 1996 the lawsuits were dismissed in favor of the defendants (Three mile island (

It should be noted that the operators and emergency operating procedures (EOPs) did not recognize the accident as a classic LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) since…


Three mile island (accessed 5-20-06) 

Fact Sheet on the Accident at Three Mile Island (accessed 5-20-06)

BP Explosion in 2005 Type
Words: 2190 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 76033544
Read Full Paper  ❯

In the case of the different gas spills, OSHA could have easily shut down the plant until changes were made in safe regulations. However, the fact that the OSHA continued to overlook what was taking place, meant that they would allow an unsafe work environment to exist. (lumenthal, 2007) This is important, because it shows how the lack of follow up and the ability to enforce existing environmental / work safety laws, would help to make the situation worse at the Texas City refinery.

After the accident occurred, the CA would investigate all of the various reports that were received from employees and their families about conditions at the facility. This was in contradiction with the investigation undertaken by P, which found that employee error was the cause of the accident (not a lack of safety procedures). The results of the investigation by the CA; would identify significant lapses in…


Its Deja Vu All Over Again. (2010). Loon Canada. Retrieved from:

Strategic Plan FY 2004 -- 2008. (2004). U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Board Investigation.

Blumenthal, R. (2007). Safety Group Blames Deadly BP Explosion on all Levels. New York Times. Retrieved from: 

Schorn, D. (2006). The Explosion at Texas City. CBS News. Retrieved from:;contentBody

Manufacturing as a Result of
Words: 1772 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 87515065
Read Full Paper  ❯

They also recommended that the use of punch hole rivets near the windows, to be replaced with the use of epoxy or drill riveting, to prevent air pockets from developing near the cabin. ("OAC Flight 781," 2005)

The accident changed the industry, by allowing for window designs that were more rounded. This is significant because such a design would provide greater support to the cabin during flight. As a result, these windows have become standard in all jet and propeller driven aircraft. What this shows is that the lessons learned from the accident, mainly the windows and the rivets were used to improve the overall quality of designs of aircraft for the better. ("OAC Flight 781," 2005)

Clearly, the three different incidents highlight specific issues that helped contribute to each accident. Where, all of them have helped improve designs, training and inspections standards. This is important because investigators can use…


Aloha Airline Flight 243. (1988). Retrieved May 13, 2010 from NTSB website:

American Airlines Flight 587. (2002). Retrieved May 13, 2010 from NTSB website:

Fleet Safety There Are Significant
Words: 1473 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63291482
Read Full Paper  ❯

Today, computer technology makes it practical to collect, edit, distribute and store data in electronic format with little or no additional manual processing necessary (Kala pp). Integrating data from various agencies is now possible, "including police crash reports, truck inspections, traffic citations, motor vehicle records, emergency medical services (EMS) run reports, emergency and long-term health care records, highway inventories, and traffic volume records" (Kala pp).

According to the American National Standard's Manual on Classification of Motor Vehicle Accidents, there are eight definitions: Transport Vehicles and Transport ays; Land ay, Land Vehicles and Uses; Injuries and Damages; Accidents; Locations;

Road vehicle Accident Types; Location of Road Vehicle Accidents; School Bus (Manual pp). There are 13 classifications: Classification of Persons by Injury Severity; Classification of Road Vehicles by Damage Severity; Accident Classification by Transport Vehicle Type; Accident Classification by Injury Severity; Accident Classification by Damage Severity; Accident Classification by Number of Vehicles;…

Works Cited

Della-Giustina, Daniel. Motor Fleet Safety and Security Management. Retrieved September 26, 2005 at

Eckhardt, Bob. (1999 May 01). Measuring incidents under new ANSI standard.

Concrete Products. Retrieved September 26, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Fleet1 management & maintenance. (1996 April 15). Public Works. Retrieved September

Challenger Launch Decision
Words: 2891 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61117226
Read Full Paper  ❯

Challenger Launch Decision


On January 28, 1986, the Challenger, one of the reusable space shuttle by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or NASA, was launched off at the John F. Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida but exploded 72 seconds after liftoff. The launch was approved and ordered by the management of the Morton Thiokol, Inc., an aerospace company, that manufactures solid propellant rocket motors for big clients, including the NASA, and per NASA's urging despite the objection of Morton Thiokol's engineers that the 30-degree F. temperature was inclement to the shuttle's boosters. The launch was a publicized event as NASA's 25th mission and had a selected teacher, Christa McAulifee and six astronauts on board. All these passengers perished (Jennings 1996).

The launch was repeatedly postponed because the engineers of Thiokol notes the failure of an O. ring assembly in the…


Benner, L. (1996). The Challenger Launch Decision by Diane Vaughan. Book Review, International Society of Air Safety Investigators: ISASI Forum.

Jennings, MM. (1996). Summary of the "Challenger" Episode. Case Studies in Business Ethics, second edition. West Publishing. 

Stubley, G. (1998). Engineers and Integrity. The Objectivist Center.

Vaughan, D. (1996). The Challenger Launch Decision: Risky Technology, Culture and Deviance at NASA.. Paperback. University of Chicago Press.

Flight Crew Resource Management
Words: 4295 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18349321
Read Full Paper  ❯


Flight crew resource management is the science of training flight crews to interact and communicate in a highly authoritarian environment while at the same time making use of the intelligence and professional resources of all the members of a flight crew. In the cockpit, the captain is in unquestionable control of the airplane because he is ultimately responsible for all aspects of the flight, including hardware, equipment and personnel on board. However, Each member of the crew can make important contributions, especially during in flight crises, and their input can be thwarted because of the highly authoritarian command culture. This paper examines the issues of fright crew resource management, and seeks to expand the definition of crew resource management to include personal communication style in order to further facilitate professional, accurate and open communication between the flight staff and commander.


According to Wilson (2001) aviation accidents and mishaps…


Alkov, R.A. (1991). U.S. Navy aircrew coordination training -- A progress report. In R.S. Jensen (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th international Symposium on Aviation Psychology (pp. 368-371). Columbus: Ohio State University.

Alliger, G.M., Tannenbaum, S.I., Bennett, W., Jr., & Traver, H. (1997). A meta-analysis of the relations among training criteria. Personnel Psychology, 50, 341-358.

Baker, D.P., Prince, C., Shrestha, L., Oser, R., & Salas, E. (1993). Aviation computer games for crew resource management training. international Journal of Aviation Psychology, 3, 143-156.

Butler, R.E. (1993). LOFT: Full mission simulation as crew resource management training. In E.L. Wiener, B.G., Kanki, & R.L. Helmreich (Eds.), Cockpit resource management (pp. 231-259). San Diego, CA: Academic.

Aircraft Safety Design Aircraft Safety
Words: 1936 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 932043
Read Full Paper  ❯

Examples include gyroscopic blind-flying instruments, which enabled flight even in low visibility conditions. At the same time, radio navigation and approach systems help pilots land safety even during low visibility. These instruments later developed to include radar technology in combination with radio. De-icing and anti-icing systems were also implemented in order to minimize the dangers of ace accretion. Weather radars were implemented in order to serve as a warning of poor weather conditions, and autopilots were implemented to automatically maintain the flight course and altitude of the craft..

Electronic and technological advances have also served airline safety well during the late twentieth century. In f1990, for example, an airliner was introduced with a new digital flight control system; the lack of necessity for a flight engineer on the deck was therefore eliminated, along with the cost involved as well as the danger of the human factor. Another new concept is…


Bristow, John W. & Irving, P.E. (2007, Apr). Safety factors in civil aircraft design requirements. ScienceDirect. 

EPSRC (2008) Self-Repairing Aircraft coul Revolutionise Aviation Safety. {25638C36-4CA5-4003-808D-ABD09B34ADD0}&titlePH=phdefTitle&mainPH=phdefMain

The Engineer (2008, 14 July). Simulated safety. Centaur Media PLC

Wells, Alexander T. & Rodrigues, Clarence C. (2003). Commercial Aviation Safety. McGraw-Hill professional.

Human Factors in Aviation Safety
Words: 1458 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 46624101
Read Full Paper  ❯

The mechanic must have adequate knowledge, training, data for assigned task, tools and equipment, be mentally and physically prepared, take safety precautions, have adequate resources, and have researched FAR, Federal Aviation Regulations, to ensure compliance. The task must be performed with a committed attitude, in accordance with appropriate data and acceptable methods, techniques, and practices that are industry acceptable. The mechanic must perform without pressures, stresses, and distractions, re-inspect work, properly record work performed, and perform operational checks. The mechanic must also be willing to sign for work performed and be willing to fly in the aircraft upon approval for return to service.


In spite of having measures in place to mitigate human error in aviation, there is still a major amount of incidents that involve human error. A Quantas plane flew from Darwin to risbane with a rag over a power generator, left on the generator during a…


Administration, F.A. (2009). Aircraft Inspection and Repair: Acceptable Methods, Techniques, and Practices. New York, NY: Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.

Airline worker killed at N.C. airport. (Aug, 9, 2007). Aviation Human Factors Industry News, Vol III Issue 28, Retrieved from

Aviation operators cut corners at espense of safety. (Oct. 9, 2007). Aviation Human Factors Industry News, Retrieved from .

Higgins, C. & . (n.d.). Human factors in improving aviation safety. Retrieved from Boeing: