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The statistics about imprisoned Americans in jails of local, state, and federal prisons and juvenile detention centers reveals a growth from 1,319,000 numbers in 2002 to 2,166,260 in 2002. During the year 2003 has seen the fastest rate of growth of imprisonment over the period of recent four years. The rate of growth of prisoners in state prisons is estimated to 1.8% while that in federal prisons is 7.1% and in local jails in 3.9%. Contrast to a growth rate of 2.7% among the male prisoners in the state and federal prisons, the prisoners the female prisoners grew by 5%. It is noticed that even though the growth rate of the female prisoners are than that of male prisoners, yet the male prisoners in terms of absolute numbers are much higher than the female prisoners who are only 100,102 in comparison to the male prisoners of 1.36 million…
Butterfield, Fox. Study Finds 2.6% Increase in U.S. Prison Population. The New York Times. July 28, 2003, pp: 6-7
Cass, Connie. Report: 1 of Every 75 U.S. Men in Prison. May 28, 2004. Associated Press. Retrieved at http://www.worldrevolution.org/article/1383
Chaddock, Gail Russell. U.S. notches world's highest incarceration rate. The Christian Science Monitor. Domestic Edition. August 18, 2003, pp: 7-8
Dan Parkin, U.S. inmates top 2 million. International Socialist Review, January-February 2002; p69
American corrections history
The prisons or the correction units have been for long a part and parcel of the American history. These institutions have existed as far back as the slave trade era. Later on, under the watch of the colonialists, jails became the first public institutions that were built to act as holding places fro the wayward emigrants and later or bondage system. Each state was required to have a prison facility that was built at the expense of the citizens, notably each new facility being made more secure and permanent than the previous one with iron bars, bricks and stone making them more impervious than the previous model. During these times, there were more prisons than schools and hospitals in the U.S.A., they were as many as churches and taverns combined. These institutions were even used by Puritans in several areas including Massachusetts to confine those…
Cheung, A., (2004). Prison Privatization and the Use of Incarceration. The Sentencing Project. Retrieved September 30, 2013 from http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/inc_prisonprivatization.pdf
Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, (1950). Antecedents of Thomas Mott Osborne's
"Mutual Welfare League" in Michigan. Retrieved September 30, 2013 from http://www.jstor.org/pss/1137849
Norman Johnston, (2011). Prison Reform in Pennsylvania. Retrieved September 30, 2013 from http://www.prisonsociety.org/about/history.shtml
correctional law? Explain why.
The most important source of correctional law is the bill of rights (Bartollas,2002).This is because the basic rights of the citizens including those in incarceration are derived from it.
• Which Amendment in the Bill of ights do you feel is the most important with regard to the rights of incarcerated individuals? Explain your reasoning.
The 5th Amendment
This is because it categorically states that no individual shall be held to answer for either a capital offense or an infamous crime unless ion an indictment or presentment of a grand jury with the exception of cases that arise in the land or of naval forces
Discuss the major constitutional Amendments that protect inmate rights.
The 4th Amendment and the 8th Amendment are the major constitutional Amendments that protect inmate rights. The 4th amendment has several provisions on searches and seizures which protects the rights of the…
Bartollas, Clemens (2002).Invitation to Corrections_ Allyn & Bacon, A Pearson
Prisoners' rights under law - fourth amendment. (2011, April 23). Retrieved from http://www.libraryindex.com/pages/2561/Prisoners-Rights-Under-Law-FOURTH-AMENDMENT.html
Rold WJ (2006). Legal considerations in the delivery of health care services in prisons and jails. In: Puisis M. Clinical Practice in Correctional Medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby-Elsevier; 2006:520-528.
Us constitution bill of rights. (2011, April 24). Retrieved from http://www.ratical.org/co-globalize/BillOfRights.html#5
Survival of Racist Customs and Mores Into the 21st Century: Analysis of the American Correction and Sentencing Trends
Increasing awareness of the US's unsuccessful mass imprisonment experimentation has effected federal and state level modifications aimed at decreasing the nation's detention scale. Experts and policymakers have been suggesting "smart on crime" public safety strategies which support alternatives to imprisonment and decrease re-offense chances[footnoteRef:1]. Despite simultaneous fruitful bipartite dialogues on the subject of decreasing jail populations and bringing improvements to crime justice policies, the nation still struggles with disturbing racial frictions. The latest concern concentrates on frequent reports of law enforcement violence inflicted on non-Whites, some cases ending in fatalities of African-American males at the hands of law enforcers, with scant to no evident provocation. In this paper, the many fields in which racist values and traditions continue in the current era will be examined, with particular emphasis to the American corrective…
The intergenerational and racial components to familiar crime, as viewed through the American criminal justice system or Not a iseguy -- the text of Henry Hill, "American Me" and Clear and Cole's Chapter 19 on "Race and Punishment"
It is often alleged that the criminal justice system has unjustly persecuted individuals whom are members of minority groups, based solely upon their minority status. Advocates of this point-of-view, according to Chapter 19 of T.R. Clear and Cole's textbook American Corrections, cite jury's disproportionate tendency to convict minorities, as well as to impose more lengthy and weighty sentences upon defendants who are minorities. This presumption often suggests that the defendant in question must be innocent, or is only a cog in the wheel of a much larger crime machine. But what transpires when indeed a defendant is guilty and is indeed a member of a gang or crime family? Does…
American Me." 1992. Directed by and starring Edward James Olmos.
Clear, T.R. And Cole. (2000). American Corrections. Chapter 19: Race and Punishment. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Press.
Pileggi, Nicholas. (1990) Wiseguy. New York: Pocket books.
American Meat Packing Corp., 362F.3d 418 (7th Cir. 2004).
On November 15, 2001, 350 workers at the American Meat Packing Corporation (AMPC) showed up for work and were told they had been terminated. Because they were not notified 60 days prior to termination, the Worker Adjustment and etraining Notification Act, U.S.C. § 2101-2109, the WAN Act, did not apply. The purpose of the 1989 WAN Act was to create a buffer for workers who anticipate mass layoffs or plant closings that have been unanticipated. Under the WAN Act, the 60 day notice of plant closings or any mass layoffs may be waived or reduced if a business closure is "caused by some sudden, dramatic, and unexpected action or condition outside the employer's control." 20 C.F.. § 639.9(b)(1).
The fundamental issue of this case is that of foreseeability. Business situations that are likely to cripple or close a firm may be…
partnerships (8th ED), Thomson Retrieved http://esl.rutgers.edu / graduate_writing_program courses/academic_writing_II/media/b_paper.pdf
Internet sources assessed.
In addition to a lightened burden of proof and broader definition there were two additional changes resulting from the amendment which served to positively affect the impact and ultimate effectiveness of the legislation. This amendment clarified the fact that judges are not allowed to assess possible mitigating factors such as medication, corrective surgery, or specialized equipment in the determination of whether or not an individual is disabled. This change is directly related to the Sutton case. Further the amendments clarified the definition of major life activities. This amendment relates directly to the Williams case in which a judge deemed that Carpal Tunnel wasn't in fact a significant impairment to major life activities, it merely precluded her from successfully completing specific tasks in the work place. Though the language of the Act is still quite ambiguous, these changes help to clarify and protect the intention of the act.
1. Disability Discrimination Act 1995. (c.50), London: HMSO.
2. Schall, C., 1998. The Americans with Disabilities Act -- Are we keeping our promise? An analysis of the effect of the ADA on the employment of persons with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 10(3), pp.191-203.
3. Stowe, M., 2000. Interpreting "place of public accommodation" under Title III of the ADA: A technical determination with potentially broad civil rights implications. Duke Law Journal, pp. 297- 329.
4. Grabois, R., Nosek, M., & Rossi, D., 2005. Accessibility of primary care physicians' offices for people with disabilities: An analysis of compliance with the American with Disabilities Act. Archives of Family Medicine, 8, pp. 44- 51.
First of all, the number of people being arrested "is far lower than the number of crimes being committed," an indication that placing repeat and habitual offenders in prison for longer periods of time has decreased the arrest rate. Second, some crime analysts have estimated that keeping repeat and habitual offender in prison has lowered crimes by individuals by as much as fifteen crimes per year which when multiplied with the 1.4 million increase in the prison population since 1984 rounds out to about 21 million less crimes per year in the U.S. ("Lock 'Em Up," 2005, Internet).
Obviously, this "prison experiment" of locking up repeat and habitual offenders for longer periods of time seems to have been a success. Kathleen Auerhahn, writing in Selective Incapacitation and Public Policy, points out that both forms of incapacitation have greatly reduced the number of criminals on the streets of America and have…
Auerhahn, Kathleen. (2003). Selective Incapacitation and Public Policy. New York:
Philosophy of Criminal History." (2008). U.S. Sentencing Commission. Internet.
Retrieved October 24, 2008 at http://www.ussc.gov/SIMPLE/crimhist.htm .
Seligman, Dan. (2005). "Lock 'Em Up." Forbes.com. Internet. Retrieved October 24, 2008 from www.forbes.com/2005/0523/216.html.
The middle of the decade of the 1980's was witness to the creation of the Technology Assessment Program Information Center and the Technology Program Advisory Agency. Their functions were as follows:
Technology Assessment Program Information Center: Picked up laboratories for testing equipment, supervised the testing process, published reports concerning the results that the lab released after testing.
Technology Program Advisory Agency: This was a large advisory body of senior local and federal law enforcement officials which are the predecessors to that which exists today
Important in the advancement of police protection was the creation and application in use of pepper spray.
VI. The Role of the National Institute for Justice in the Development of Law Enforcement technology:
The National Institute of Justice issued a "mandate in its capacity as the criminal research and development arms of the U.S. Department of Justice was to improve and strengthen the nations' system of…
Are U.S. Police Agencies Being Outpaced in Technology-policeone.com 09-28-04 [Online] available at http://www.policeone.come/policeone/frtonend/parser.cfm?object+Product Categories&te
Visteon Provides the Latest in Law Enforcement Technology to Alkland County Sheriff Bouchard PR Newswire 10-29-05 [Online] available at http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?ctrlInfo+Round9a%AProd%ADOC%AP11-10-04
Satellite Technology Boosts Officer Safety 26 Jan 2004 [Online] available at http: www.staffordshire.police.uk/news306.htm
NIJ: Autoloading Pistols for Police Officers: NIJ STandard Series: Law Enforcement and Corrections Standard and Testing [Online] available at http://wwwlncjrs.org/txtfiles1/173943.txt
("Home Confinement / Electronic Monitoring," n. d.)
House arrest or home confinement started as a program to handle particularly as a sentencing substitute meant for drunk drivers, but rapidly spread over to a number of other offender populations in a lot of jurisdictions. Depending on the nature of crime committed by the offenders, home confinement has been designed with various degrees of stages of restrictions. These can vary from ordinary curfews to complete confinement. For instance, the home confinement program of the Federal courts extends three separate levels of restrictions under the U.S. Probation and Pretrial Services, 2000. Under the first level ie., curfew, it requires the program participants to stay at home daily during certain time periods. Under the second level house arrest it requires on the part of the participants to stay at home round the clock save for attending to work, school, treatment etc. which must be…
Black, Matt; Smith, Russell G. (n. d.) "Electronic Monitoring in the Criminal Justice System"
No. 254. Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/tandi2/tandi254.pdf
Caputo, Gail. (2004) "Intermediate Sanctions in corrections"
Clear, Todd R; Cole, George F. (2005) "American Corrections"
Japanese Correctional System as Compared to the American Corrections System
The Japanese correctional system places a strong emphasis on rehabilitation and preparing the prisoner for being released once again into society. The Japanese correctional system "is intended to resocialize, reform, and rehabilitate offenders" rather than enforce a system of retributive justice along the lines of the American model (Coutsoukis, 2004). This is why most sociologists state that the restorative philosophy of corrections is the predominant approach practiced in Japan, that is, the main aim of the system is to restore the pre-existing social order rather than enact retribution against a particular individual, or even to protect victim's rights, or to punish an offender in a fair manner (Hosoi & Nishimura 1999: 4).
Much like the American system, Japanese prisoners after conviction are classified "according to gender, nationality, kind of penalty, length of sentence, degree of criminality, and state of physical…
Debito, Arudou & Dave Aldwinckle. (2002). "Arrest and Detention Periods of Criminal Suspects Under Japanese Law
Coutsoukis, Photius. (10 Nov 2004). "Japan: The Penal System." CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 11 Feb 2008 at http://www.photius.com/countries/japan/national_security/japan_national_security_the_penal_system.html
Hosoi, Yoko & Haruo Nishimura. (1999). "The Role of Apology in the Japanese
corrections models in the United States have changed significantly over the past several generations, from a rehabilitative toward a punitive paradigm. After World War Two, a strong sense of national security and prosperity prevailed in the United States, leading to a corrections system that was based more on rehabilitation than on punishment. During these idealistic times, criminals were believed to be "ill," and correctable via a treatment model ("History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," n.d.). Trust in governmental institutions also helped politicians and the public alike agree that corrections should be built upon the theory that criminal behavior can be unlearned, or "corrected." The rehabilitation approach persisted well into the 1960s, as humanistic psychology informed corrections models. A humanistic worldview encouraged "deinstitutionalization" of corrections through the use of community-based services like halfway houses and probation ("History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," n.d.). Sentencing policy during the middle of the 20th…
Christianson, S. (n.d.). Prisons: history. Retrieved online: http://law.jrank.org/pages/1786/Prisons-History.html
"History of American Corrections," (n.d.). In Corrections: A Text/Reader. Retrieved online: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/26034_1.pdf
"History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," (n.d). Retrieved online: http://www.preceden.com/timelines/23091-history-and-development-of-corrections-1700-present
Mackenzie, D.L. (2001). Sentencing and corrections in the 21st century. Retrieved online: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/189106-2.pdf
The swing back and forth between rehabilitation and "lock them up and throw away the key" makes corrections officers' jobs more difficult than they might otherwise be. Police and corrections personnel must bend to winds of change that bring little regard for their own personal and familial welfare. Much has been said about the prisoners, and the effects of those prisoners on the larger society, but little account has been taken of the effects of constantly changing policies and objectives on those who must work in the nation's prisons. Certainly, their needs and quality of life bears on the future rehabilitation or punishment of wrongdoers. The needs of corrections personnel and police are directly related to the overall problem of how we deal with crime in America.
Blumstein, a. (2004). 3 estoring ationality in Punishment Policy. In the Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 61-78). New York: Oxford…
Blumstein, a. (2004). 3 Restoring Rationality in Punishment Policy. In the Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 61-78). New York: Oxford University Press.
Bunzel, S.M. (1995). The Probation Officer and the Federal Sentencing Guidelines: Strange Philosophical Bedfellows. Yale Law Journal, 104(4), 933-966.
Cochrane, J., Melville, G., & Marsh, I. (2004). Criminal Justice: An Introduction to Philosophies, Theories and Practice. London: Routledge.
Diiulio, J.J. (1991). No Escape: The Future of American Corrections. New York: Basic Books.
ole and Evolution of the American Prison System
Explain the Primary ole and Evolution of the American Prison System and Determine if Incarceration educes Crime
The United States constitution is the fundamental foundation of the American criminal justice system. Given that the document is now over two hundred years old, it constantly experiences numerous amendments and interpretations. As a result, the criminal justice system over the years experienced alterations in order to reflect the needs and beliefs of each subsequent generation. The configuration of the modern prison system has its basis in the late 1700's and early 1800s. The development of the modern prison system aims at protecting innocent members of the society from criminals. The prison systems also deter criminals from committing more crimes through detaining and rehabilitating them. However, more and more deluge of white-collar crimes and other crimes, burdens the American criminal justice system and the prison…
Barnes E. Harry. (1921). The Historical of the Prison System in America. Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 12, No. 1, May, 1921
Craig Haney. (1998). The Past & Future of U.S. Prison Policy Twenty-Five Years after the Stanford Prison Experiment. American Psychological Association July 1998 Vol. 53, No. 7, 709-727
Dina R. Rose & Todd R. Clear (2006). Incarceration, Social, Capital, & Crime: Implications for Social Disorganization Theory. Volume 36, Issue 3, pages 441-480.
Escresa - Guillermo, Laarni (2011) Reexamining the Role of Incarceration and Stigma in Criminal Law. Law and economics, criminal law, stigma, social norms, behavioral economics.
Juvenile Community Corrections
Corrections in Community-Based Settings
Community-based corrections: Factors to consider when dealing with juvenile offenders
One seemingly self-evident truth regarding juvenile offenders might seem to be that socio-economic status will have a significant impact upon the individual's ability to find adequate treatment. The research does support the idea that individuals of higher socioeconomic status (SES) are less likely commit juvenile crimes. Also, it would seem that a wealthy, well-connected suburban family who is able to offer private counseling to their child is more likely to see the teen transition out of juvenile corrections than one who does not. An overall literature review suggests that lower SES is linked with the likelihood of perpetuating juvenile crimes. In another study of 420 urban youth comparing those from high SES neighborhoods vs. low SES neighborhoods, the high SES youth were half as likely to engage in serious delinquency (Atkins et al.…
Atkins, T., Bullis, M., & Yovanoff, P. (2007). Wealthy and wise? influence of socioeconomic status on the community adjustment of previously incarcerated youth. Behavioral Disorders, 32(4), 254-266. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/219677853?accountid=14872
Mincey, Barrett, Maldonado, Nancy, Lacey, Candace H. & Thompson, Steve D. (2008).
Perceptions of successful graduates of juvenile residential programs: Reflections and suggestions for success The Journal of Correctional Education 59(1).
Woolard, Jennifer L., Harvell, Samantha, Graham, Sandra. (2008). Anticipatory injustice among adolescents: Age and racial/ethnic differences in perceived unfairness of the justice system. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 26: 207 -- 226. Retrieved:
Correction System in the United States
The objective of this brief study is to examine the correctional system in the United States. This system was historically a state-owned and government-operated institution however, in recent years the prison system in the United States has become privatized and this has created a new paradigm in terms of housing prisoners under the present judicial system's orders.
If It Is roken
The prison system received a wake-up call in the Spring of 2011 due to a ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court that the California prison system was required to reduce the inmates in its overcrowded prison system by 30,000 individuals. The court ruled that the California state's system was "incompatible with the concept of human dignity." (Thomas and eckel, 2011) The United States is reported to have roughly 2 million individuals incarcerated in local, state, and federal jails or prisons, which equals "the…
Mikkelsen, Randall (2007) U.S. Prison System: Costly and Harmful Failure. Reuters News. 19 Nov 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/11/19/us-usa-prisons-idUSN1841666120071119
Private Prisons are Back (2012 ) Corrections. Retrieved from: http://www.correctionsproject.com/corrections/pris_priv.htm
Thomas, Cal and Beckel, Bob (2011) Jailbroken: 5 Ways to Fix the U.S.A.'s Prisons. 13 Jul 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/forum/2011-07-13-prison-jail-system-america_n.htm
Administration and Leadership
Maintaining order and control in correctional facilities -- while also presiding over well-managed facilities from a fiscal and ethical perspective -- is the goal of every conscientious administrator. The Center for Innovative Public Policies (CIPP) published a list of "core competencies" for leadership in correctional facilities. Among the skills most vital to a competent prison leader are: a) to be able to "anticipate, analyze, and resolve organizational challenges"; b) to build and "maintain positive relationships with external stakeholders"; c) to "communicate effectively" and to "comprehend, obtain, and manage fiscal resources"; d) to create a diverse organizational that "promotes respect"; e) to be visionary and to engage in "strategic planning" and develop a vision for the mission of the institution; f) to enhance "self-awareness and maintain proactive professional commitment; g) to "establish organizational authority" and design roles and responsibilities; h) to make sound decisions, manage change,…
Center for Innovative Public Policies. (2010). Core Competencies for Jail Leaders. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://cipp.org/jail/core.html .
Trulson, Chad R., Marquart, James W., and Kawucha, Soraya K. (2009). Gang Suppression and Institutional Control. Corrections One News. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://www.correctionsone.com .
United Nations. (2010). Handbook for Prison Leaders. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://www.iccir.law.ubc.ca.
Wortley, Richard. (2002). Situational Prison Control: Crime Prevention in Correctional
In your explanation, compare and contrast domestic and international terrorism. Also, please indicate whether either type of terrorism is subject to defeat. or, in a free society such as ours, must we simply learn to live with the annoyance and tragedies of ideological, political, and/or religiously-motivated violence?)
Domestic terrorism is much more statistically common than foreign terrorism, as those who feel they have cause to be angry enough to act against anything are much more likely to act against something they see as wrong in their own environment, Opportunity and ease of access also plays a role in this observation. Though terrorist acts are exceedingly rare they do occur on a somewhat regular basis if definitions are kept broad and are more likely to be domestic in nature than foreign born. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Domestic and international terrorism are similar in some ways, they both experience the kind of…
Daniels, D.J. (2002, December). The Challenge of Domestic Terroism to American Criminal Justice. Corrections Today, 64, 66.
Hamm, M.S. (September 2005) Crimes Committed by Terrorist Groups: Theory, Research and Prevention Retrieved April 1, 2008 http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/211203.pdf
Hulnick, a.S. (2004). Keeping Us Safe: Secret Intelligence and Homeland Security. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Lewis, C.W. (2000). The Terror That Failed: Public Opinion in the Aftermath of the Bombing in Oklahoma City. Public Administration Review, 60(3), 201.
Corrections and etribution
etribution is considered as the penalty that is imposed on an individual or a group of people for the crimes they committed with an aim of making them experience the same amount of pain or loss as the victim of their crimes.
etribution programs are set up to correct people who go against the law of justice. It is normally set for individuals who do something that is illegal. For this case, the offenders suffer for the wrong-doing; the aim of retribution is to take action on people who infringed the rights of other individuals. This paper analyzes the purpose of retribution programs conversely to the appropriate ways of how those purposes can be accomplished; it also illustrates some methods of retributive justice models which are applied to the offenders.
Various philosophers have come up with contested arguments on the value for or arguments against retributive…
Redekop, P. (2008). Changing paradigms: Punishment and Restorative Discipline. London:
Shoham, S.G. (2007). International Handbook of Penology and Criminal Justice. New Yolk:
Taylor & Francis Ltd.
American economy goes through temporary periods of expansions and subsequent periods of decline. In many instances, the results of this over optimism or severe pessimism are due primarily to human emotion. It is human nature to become worrisome or risk averse during periods of extreme pessimism. Likewise, it is human nature to become over excited about future prospects during periods of extreme optimism. At some point however, both the extreme optimism and extreme pessimism must correct itself. It has done so for the past 200 years. Below is a chart depicting U.S. GDP figures during the past 80 years. As is depicted from the chart GDP, or the goods and services bought sold and produced in the United States has increases every decade without fail. If history is any indication of the future this trend will continue (1).
Now, as many are well aware of, our nation is currently in…
1) Chart of U.S. Gross Domestic Product, 1929-2004." U.S. Economy: Charts & Tables. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. .
2) Toosy, Mitra. "Consumer Spending an Engine for U.S. Grwoth." Bls.gov. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. .
3) "GDP Grew 2.5%, Boosted by Consumer Spending; No Double-Dip - ABC News." ABCNews.com: Daily News, Breaking News and Video Broadcasts - ABC News. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. .
4) Government Spending in United States: Federal State Local for 2011 - Charts Tables History. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. .
His own work was also published in a wide variety of literary magazines several of which were prestigious and nationally respected. His publication and involvement in publishing impressive accomplishments for an African-American man in the United States in the 1960's (Woodward, 1999).
In 1957 he moved to Greenwich Village in New York and became interested in both in jazz and the Beat Movement. he following year he began the otem Press (I have seen this referenced as Yugen).
he Beat Generation -- later just "he Beats" or the beatniks -- were a collection of writers centered first in New York and later in San Francisco. While there was a great deal of variation among the artists, they were joined to each other by a common rejection of mainstream American culture and some dabbling in Eastern religious ideas. hough counter culture and alternative religion was their focus, they became at least…
The entire above section is unrelated to your paper. You are discussing LeRoi Jones / Amiri Baraka. Though the trials of his wife and writers like her are an interesting cultural reference to the time period they ultimately detract from your paper. A more effective segue into the topic of modernism is (continuing from the last segment in red):
As Jones's views became more radical so too did his writing. One feature that remained consistent however was Jones's distinctive highly personal voice (Harris, 1991). This characteristic of his writing would always physically connect him to the idyllic bohemian roots of his success. Modernism, a style of writing which emphasized the awareness of the author that he, was writing something which represented himself, is evident throughout the body of Jones's work. But It is important to remember that Modernism itself was in many ways revolutionary. And is more connected to Postmodernism than adherents of either school would generally like to admit. (post modernism has nothing to do with your paper. It is unclear why you chose to discuss it here) Modernism (like Postmodernism) rejected the over-arching coherence that had been the provenance detachment of art and literature prevalent since the Enlightenment. Modernist prose and advocated an insistence on were defined by self-awareness, a sense that the author was intimately and immediately aware of their position as the author, the purveyor of their own voice. The author of the Modernist text is always very much aware of the power of authorship and of his or position of authority (in both a limited and a broader sense) within the text. As the literary world shifted into Postmodernity, the sense of suspended reality rationality and coherence which that had marked earlier artistic schools was discarded in favor of meta- literature, or literature immediately aware that it is literature. fragmented even further so that not only did the center not hold in terms of art and discourse but also in terms of the artist's own sense of self. When we contrast Modernism and Postmodernism, it is clear that Baraka is a Modernist author because we are always aware, as is he, of a clearly of his clearly defined sense of self and authorship within the text. We always know who is speaking to us.
Following an unsuccessful attempt at developing a youth theatre in Harlem Jones moved back to Newark NJ. There he became involved in a number of activities and organizations generally focused on the development of the "Black Arts Movement." Among the most personally important of Jones's efforts was Spirit House which was described as a community center intended to be "whatever the community wanted it to be." It was in this period of his life when Jones was first
Because of this ease of manipulation there are many security safeguards in place in conjunction with specific policies. hen a computer service bureau either erases or destroys records, there are procedures in place to notify a physician. If the service's relationship with the physician is terminated, all computer files must be physically given back to the physician who supplied them. The destruction/erasure of records can only be done if a physician has their own copy of the information. Any routine or needed file erasure must be verified in writing to the physician. Constant communication and checking-in between a physician and computer service bureau is essential to maintaining transparency.
6. Should individuals and organizations with access to the databases be identified to the patient?
Computerized databases can have a myriad of people with access to them, and as such should be included in any disclosures to the patient in regards to…
"Opinion 5.07- Confidentiality: Computers."Code of Medical Ethics. American Medical Association, 2010. Web. 08 June 2010. .
American Corrections System
Prisons are so overcrowded within the states that typically "only one criminal is jailed for every one hundred violent crimes committed" (Economist, 1996). Many violent criminal offenders do not even serve out their entire terms; many serve half of their term and are released on an appeal or probation (Economist, 1996). These prisoners are often released to society only to commit another crime at a later date.
Statistics validate the fact the American Correctional System is currently overburdened. According to one report, "More than one million inmates were confined in American prisons in 1995 alone and the number has been steadily increasing over the last few years (Albion, 2003)." The ability of state and local correctional facilities to manage and keep pace with the upward spiral of people incarcerated and imprisoned within the U.S. also continues to decrease, as most prisons within America currently continue to operate…
Mackenzie, D. "Boot Camp Prisons and Recidivism in Eight States." Criminology, 33.3, 1995. 327-357.
Too Many Convicts." The Economist. August 10, 2002.
Stephan, J.J. "State Prison Expenditures, 1996," Bureau of Justice Statistics, Washington DC, 1999. NCJ172211.
Gottfredson, D.C. And Barton, W.H. "Deinstitutionalization of juvenile offenders," Criminology 31:4, 1993. 591-611.
Juvenile facilities provide intensive and specialized therapeutic programs with brilliant results. The juvenile placed in juveniles' corrections enjoy an education-centered curriculum and trained staff that functions exclusively with the juvenile offenders' population. On the contrary, those juvenile held in adult jails and prisons do not enjoy these services (Siegel 2009, 671). Understanding that juveniles hold different emotional, safety, social and physical requirements from adult offenders, guidelines requiring certified juveniles to get placements in divergent setting other than adult prisons and jails is paramount. More than sixteen states in America hold certified juveniles in juvenile corrections and not in adult prison until these offenders reach eighteen years.
Six states hold juvenile in juvenile facilities until they attain the age of 21. Pennsylvania and Virginia passed the laws requiring that juveniles, regardless of their crime, get placement in juvenile correction facilities and not in adult jails (Dietch 2011, p.11). This is because…
Deitch, M 2011. Juveniles in the adult criminal justice system in Texas. The University of Texas at Austin, school of Public Affairs.pp.1-44.
Elrod, P., Ryder, C 2011. Juvenile justice: A social, historical and legal perspective. Michigan: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Roberts, a., Springer, D 2007. Social work in juvenile and criminal justice settings. Texas: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.
Siegel, L 2009. Introduction to criminal justice. New York: Cengage Learning.
Goals of Corrections
The rationale behind retribution is simply to punish the offender and it reflects the most basic natural impulse of human societies in response to individuals who deliberately break the established rules of society (Schmalleger, 2009). Its purpose is nothing more than to satisfy those impulses, particularly on the part of the victims of criminal acts. The types of penal sentences that reflect pure retribution are long terms of incarceration and even hard labor and other forms of punishment that are expressly designed to be unpleasant for the offender. The types of crime control strategies dictated by this philosophy are those that make penal sentences as long and as unpleasant for offenders as is constitutionally permissible (Schmalleger, 2009). In many respects, this was the approach taken in American criminal justice prior to the revolutionary ideas first introduced by William Penn (Schmalleger, 2009). The only "advantages" of this…
Lynch, M.J. (1999). "Beating a Dead Horse: Is There Any Basic Empirical Evidence for the Deterrence Effect of Imprisonment?" Criminal Law & Social Change, Vol.
Nagin, D.S. (1998). "Criminal Deterrence Research at the Outset of the Twenty-First
Century." Crime and Justice, Vol. 23.
Vedantam, 2006), Americans are more socially isolated than they were in 1985, with the number of people with whom they can confide dropping by one third, from three close confidents to two. American is viewed as a fragmented society with splinters of people growing ever more distant with regard to intimate social ties. Despite the benefits of close social connections, people report being alone, feeling alone, and suffering alone in bad times.
The ability of digital social networks to support substantive civic engagement is more than a test of the media's capacity to convey and renew civic engagement -- it is also a test of the transformative capacity of social networks with regard to sustained interest and action. A criticism of communications and information technology (CIT) -- which includes digital social networking -- is its transience and churn. Engaging digital communication tends to cater to the tastes of an audience…
Crime and Corrections
Historically crime has been a concern for the public, and by extension policy makers because of the ways in which it can change and shape society. Criminal activity has the potential to influence social and economic environments within a society thus it is critical to identify measures that reduce outcomes of crime and support the reintegration of offenders into society. Consequently, crime and corrections have become big business in the United States (Smith). The money from the public purse that is expended to deal with crime is increasing in all of the states. More money is being moved from other areas of the budget to address the challenge of crime and criminal behavior. This increase in expenditure occurs in multiple areas of the criminal justice system and in spite of cost control measures. Additionally, there are fewer prisoners in within the system. This reduction in prisoners has…
Calvo-Armengoi Antoni and Zenou Yves Social Networks and Crime Decisions: The Role of Social Structure in Facilitating Delinquent Behavior International Economic Review
Vol. 45, No. 3 (2004):939-958.
Minton Todd D. Jail Inmates at Midyear 2010 - Statistical Tables U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011) Web.
Just as clearly no individual who is logical would consider Charles Manson or Theodore undy as eligible profiles for the restorative justice program or even for rehabilitation program or indeed of any other than imprisonment or death by execution There are however, very potentially productive, useful, and worthy individuals who are shuffled into the correction system due to their inability to hire a lawyer or lack of knowledge concerning their rights to having representation appointed to them that with education and knowledge or skills acquisition can be successfully rehabilitation or restored to society and within the community. Recently there has been documented an additional strategy in criminal justice corrections which is described as a 'transformational' process and is a cognitive-behavioral approach in treatment.
RECOMMENDATIONS for FUTURE CORRECTIONS
Cognitive behavioral approaches are being used in transforming the dysfunctional thinking of the individual. The work of Mahoney and Lyddon (1988) relate approximately…
MacKenzie, DL and Hickman, LJ (1998) What Works in Corrections? An Examination of the Effectiveness of the Type of Rehabilitation Programs Offered by Washington State Department of Corrections. Submitted to: The State of Washington Legislature joint audit and review committee. Crime Prevention effectiveness Program - Dept. Criminology and Criminal Justice. Online available at http://www.ccjs.umd.edu/corrections/What%20Works%20In%20Corrections.htm
Van Ness, DW (nd) Restorative Justice in Prisons. Session 204: The Practice of Restorative Justice in Prison Reform. PFI Centre for Justice and Reconciliation. Prison Fellowship International. Online available at http://www.restorativejustice.org/editions/2005/july05/2005-06-21.9036003387 .
Complexity of the Social Contract (2001) Prisoner Life Online available at http://www.prisonerlife.com/s_writings6.cfm .
Erikson, Kai. Wayward Puritans. New York: John Wiley, 1966.
History Of Corrections
Humankind, all through recorded history, has actually created innovative methods to "punish" their own kind for legitimate and even apparent transgressions. Amongst tribal communities as well as in much more developed cultures, this kind of punishment may include, amongst various other tortures, lashes, branding, drowning, suffocation, executions, mutilation, as well as banishment (which within faraway areas had been equivalent to the dying sentence). The degree related to the punishment frequently relied on the actual wealth and standing of the offended individual and also the culprit. Individuals charged or determined guilty and those who had been more potent had been frequently permitted to make amends simply by recompensing the sufferer or their family members, whilst people who had been less well off as well as lower status had been prone to endure some kind of physical penalties. However regardless of the strategy, and also for no matter what…
Johnson, R. 2002. Hard Time: Understanding and Reforming the Prison. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
King, R., and M. Mauer. 2002. State Sentencing and Corrections Policy in an Era of Fiscal Restraint. Washington, DC: Sentencing Project.
King, D., 2011. Changes In Community Corrections: Implications For Staff And Programs. Available at: http://aic.gov.au/media_library/publications/proceedings/11/king.pdf
Lin, A.C. 2000. Reform in the Making: The Implementation of Social Policy in Prison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Law enforcement and corrections can be influenced by several external threats. These consist of external communication gaps and many environmental influences. One of the key external threats that impacts both corrections and law enforcement is politics. In delineation, politics is the art of wielding one's authority and power over the government or public affairs. In particular, political action can give rise to the imposition of one's interests within the government, in positions of leadership within the government, with regard to the control over resources, as well as in terms of holding government office. Politics influence law enforcement and corrections by impacting the individuals that will hold different positions in criminal justice, for instance the police, judges, prosecutors as well as correctional executives. Law enforcement, administration, and corrections are linked with politics on various extents and levels. Prevailing political philosophy and ideology influence the structure, organization, as well as anticipation of…
Community corrections are an integral component of any law enforcement correctional program. Community corrections staff, develop, and administer contracts for community-based correctional programs and serve as the Bureau of Prisons (BOP)'s local liaison with the federal courts, the U.S. Marshals Service, state and local corrections, and a variety of community groups. Through the community corrections program, the BOP has developed agreements with state and local governments to house juveniles and prisoners of non-violent crimes (Federal Bureau of Prisons, 2011).
The BOP contracts with residential reentry centers to provide assistance to inmates who have been found to be non-violent offenders. The community centers also include those inmates nearing release at the end of their determined term of incarceration. esidential reentry centers are always under supervision; in addition, they provide employment counseling, job placement, financial management assistance, and other programs and services. C's help inmates gradually re-enter the community and facilitate supervising…
Akhila, K. (2010) Foreign Prison Conditions Improvement Act of 2010. http://akhilak.com/blog/2010/10/17/foreign-prison-conditions-improvement-act-of-2010 / Last accessed January 11, 2013.
Federal Bureau of Prisons (2011) Community Corrections. http://www.bop.gov/locations/cc/index.jsp Last accessed January 11, 2013.
Public Safety Performance Project (2007) What Works in Community Corrections. www.pewpublicsafety.org Last accessed January 11, 2013.
And if that policy is already in effect, then further training in that area is necessary.
The kitchen is an obvious source of "weapons" (like the heavy soup ladle used). It should be guarded more heavily and made less easily accessible. Routine searches of that area should be as thorough as possible. There was no video surveillance of this area -- a significant oversight. That is part of the reason the escape attempt went undetected for so long after the two employees were overwhelmed by the convicts.
There is no question that, in this situation, the escape attempt could have been stopped before it became dangerous if only one or two of the above recommendations had been followed.
~There existed too much open access to the security tower, and procedures to enforce security became lax and ineffective. Again, there is no doubt that had proper procedures been in place or…
Associated Press. (2004, March 4). Arizona prison standoff probe blames past decisions in part. Retrieved May 30, 2009, from USAToday.com: http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2004-03-04-prison-hostages_x.htm
Baker, J. (2004). Anatomy of a hostage negotiation: An interview with a primary negotiator. Retrieved May 31, 2009, from The Negotiator Magazine: http://www.negotiatormagazine.com/article211_1.html
Epler, P., & Rushton, B. (2004, February 19). Federal judge questions credibility of Arizona department of corrections director. Retrieved May 29, 2009, from Middlegroundprisonreform.org: http://www.middlegroundprisonreform.org/news/NewTimesDoraCredibility.2004.htm
NICIC. (2004). Preliminary finding and recommendations: The morey unit hostage incident. Retrieved May 29, 2009, from National Institute of Corrections Information Center (NICIC): http://www.nicic.org/Library/019617
149-150). When the inmate failed to deliver on the guards' demands, the guards then planted drugs in the inmate's bunk (p. 150). The inmate was subsequently prosecuted, and received an extended sentence (p. 150).
Often people will doubt these kinds of stories, because, after all, the inmates are already imprisoned for offenses like drugs, and often much worse kinds of crimes. This puts the inmates at risk of guards and other prison employees who might not embrace a high set of ethics or personal morals. Everyone wants to see crime punished, but when the crimes are being committed within the prison environment, people seem to be less concerned about them, even if they are crimes being committed by the guards or prison officials. People should, in fact, be very concerned about these kinds of crimes, because it is the prison officials and those employees, including guards, who are willing to…
Bowman, J.S. & Elliston, F.A. (Eds.). (1988). Ethics, Government, and Public Policy: A Reference Guide. New York: Greenwood Press. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=30400116
Cody, W.J., & Lynn, R.R. (1992). Honest Government: An Ethics Guide for Public Service. Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6854498
Coyle, A., Campbell, A., & Neufeld, R. (Eds.). (2003). Capitalist Punishment: Prison Privatization & Human Rights. Atlanta: Clarity Press. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99960585
Dolovich, S. (2005). State Punishment and Private Prisons. Duke Law Journal, 55(3), 437+. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015707307
This could be on account of the normal human reaction to being placed in frustrating conditions, or drawbacks like very poor security, and lethargy of the authorities. Investing in controlling mechanisms like weapons, guards, and other means of surveillance and control, while suppressing the violent tendencies of most inmates do little to help remove the causes of aggression. A more comprehensive approach is required that takes a study of the whole gamut of psychological emotional, physical needs and suffering into one group and then provide better training to the personnel in handling these emotions and the prisoners. They must be adepts in identifying the threat potential is necessary. (Carter; Glaser, 1977)
Another important fact that was clearly visible in the negotiation process and the later handling of the issue was the tardy help received from the outside, or the reluctance to get outside help. The negotiators must have gone in…
Carter, Robert Melvin; Glaser, Daniel. (1977) "Correctional Institutions" Lippincott.
Corcoran, Michael H; Cawood, James S. (2003) "Violence Assessment and Intervention: The Practitioner's Handbook" CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL.
Garrett, Michael. (2004, Jun) "In Need of Correction: Arizona's prison system is overloaded and its staff is overwhelmed" Retrieved 4 April, 2008 at http://www.tucsonweekly.com/gbase/Currents/Content?oid=oid%3A57551
Description: A court-ordered sanction that puts the offender back into the community but under the supervision of a probation officer. Probation can be assigned to follow jail time (provided good behavior while incarcerated), and it may include having the offender pay a fine, do restitution, and perform community service activities as well (www.pwcgov.org)
Advantages: a) Instead of serving time in prison or a county jail the offender gets an opportunity to return to the community albeit under stringent requirements; b) it is basically like a second chance for the offender, and if he or she takes advantage of the opportunity and follows the rules, it can be a blessing for the offender and a savings of money for the correctional system
Disadvantages: a) This is not technically a "disadvantage" but if the terms of the probation are not met (for example, if the person on probation fails to…
Findlaw. (2010). Restitution. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://criminal.findlaw.com .
Prince William County, Virginia. (2010). What is Probation? Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://www.pwcgov.org .
U.S. Department of Education. (2011). Community-Based Correctional Education. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ovae/pi/cclo/index.html .
U.S. Department of Justice. (2011). Electronic Monitoring Reduces Recidivism. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov .
.....psychologists working in prisons in the United States, Boothby & Clements (2000) found some disturbing trends in corrections. Although the number of prison psychologists has doubled in the past twenty years, the vast majority of prison psychologists remain Caucasian males who may be unable to address the diverse needs of the incarcerated community. Biases and assumptions about inmates may also hinder the ability of inmates to seek and receive psychological treatment. Moreover, a full third of prison psychologist work time is spent on administrative duties -- more than the time spent on direct treatment. Only 26% of their work time is devoted to directly treating the inmates, meaning that structural and institutional variables are impeding the delivery of quality mental health care to the prison community.
Interestingly, the profession of clinical psychology was practically born in the prison context. As Magaletta, et al. (2016) point out, prison wardens partnered with…
Dangers of Overcrowding in American Correctional System
There are several central governments, state and local authority's correctional facilities in the United States. Over the past few decades, the rate of crime occurrence has significantly increased. Also, the correctional facilities have experienced growth in population. There are a huge number of inmates in the various correctional facilities as compared to those in 1990's. For instance, the ureau of Justice Statistics found the number of prisoners at 665,000 across the country; this is a 159% increase from the jail population of 1985. The correctional facilities have, suffered several setbacks due to the increase in the population.
The capacities of the correctional facilities in the United States are not sufficient to hold the large population of inmates; research from the report released in 2002 indicate that the facilities operate at 108% capacity from the 85% capacity held in 1983. This has made the…
Davis, R.K., Applegate, B.K., Otto, C.W., Surette, R. & McCarthy, B.J. (2004). Roles and Responsibilities: Analyzing Local Leaders'Views on Jail Crowding From a Systems
Perspective, Crime and Deliquency, (50) 1, 458-480
Steiner, B. (2009). Assessing Static and Dynamic Influences on Inmate Violence Levels, Crime & Delinquency, (55) 1, 134-158. DOI: 10.1177/0011128707307218
Martin, J.L., Lichtenstein, B., . Jenkot, R.B., & Forde, D.R. (2012). "They Can Take Us Over
(1999) which are:
1) Those with serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder with major depression and who use alcohol and drugs to self-mediate to cope with the symptoms; and 2) Those with borderline personality and anti-social personality disorders including anxiety disorder that is complicated by use of alcohol and illicit drugs. (Mather et al. 1999)
Presenting further difficulty is the establishment of problems with alcohol and illicit drug use for adolescents entering service programs outside of the AOD system. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005) In an analysis of data taken form a sample group of youth in five San Diego county sectors of AOD treatment, mental health, juvenile justice, child welfare and public school-based services for severely emotionally disturbed [SED] youth gives indication that "there are relatively high rates of substance use disorders among adolescents in these systems, as determined in diagnostic interview with DSM-IV…
Amaro, Hortensia, et al. (2005) Racial/Ethnic Differences in Social Vulnerability Among Women with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Disorders: Implications for Treatment Services - Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 33 Issue 4.
An Overview of the Effectiveness of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Models (2001) Thousand Oaks, December 2001. Online available at http://web.utk.edu/~dap/SA2003/EffectadolescentSATx.html
Blane, H.T. (1993) Recent Development in Alcoholism: Ethnicity: Recent Development in Alcoholism, 11, 109-122.
Bridging the Gap: What We Know and Don't Know About Dual Diagnosis (1998) Healing Hands Journal. Vol.2, No.4 July 1998.
Overcrowding in Prisons: Impacts on African-Americans
The overcrowded prisons in the United States are heavily populated by African-Americans, many of them incarcerated due to petty, non-violent crimes such as drug dealing. This paper points out that not only are today's prisons overcrowded, the fact of their being overcrowded negatively impacts the African-American community above and beyond the individuals who are locked up. This paper also points to the racist-themed legislation that has been an important reason why so many African-Americans are incarcerated -- and the paper points to the unjust sentencing laws that have unfairly targeted black men from the inner city.
hen overcrowding becomes an extremely serious human and ethical problem such that state or federal prison officials must find a temporary solution, one trend that has been implemented is to move inmates to other prisons in distant states. However, according to author Othello Harris, who is…
Dalrymple, Jane, and Burke, Beverley. (2006). Anti-Oppressive Practice: Social Care and the Law. New York: McGraw-Hill International.
Hallet, Michael A. (2006). Private Prisons in America: A Critical Race Perspective. Champaign,
IL: University of Illinois Press.
Harris, Othello, and Miller, Robin R. (2003). Impacts of Incarceration on the African-American
Civil War and Reconstruction Question 2: What does the Civil War show that failed in the United States in this period?
The Civil War and its aftermath showed that the United States failed to create a cohesive national character and ethical identity. The nation was truly divided, symbolized by the fact that Abraham Lincoln received not a single Southern electoral vote, and less than half of the popular vote, but still became President (Slide 5). The majority of Southerners allied themselves with the Southern Democrat platform, and failed to align their outdated beliefs about race and economic exploitation with the more progressive norms evident in the North.
Yet slavery was only one of the meaningful points of divergence between different geographic and cultural segments of the nation. The economies of North and South were completely different from one another, with the North cornering the market on manufactured goods and the…
17). Therefore, the proper training of corrections personnel is left unfinished and unrealized which can result in leaving "members of the corrections community handicapped in their ability to address their functions" as corrections officers "in an efficient and effective manner" (1991, p. 18).
Not surprisingly, Carter reinforces the importance of training by pointing out that it is essential for the correctional population to receive adequate preparation in the form of on-the-job experience, correctional classes and through specially-designed criminal corrections academies. Basically, Carter insists that in order for the staff to perform their job functions, they "must receive "appropriate training and orientation to their job assignments," in tandem with "on-going in-service training" which hopefully will enable staff members to "assume increasing responsibility" (1991, p. 22).
In addition, all training must go beyond the possible scenarios of a particular job assignment by providing "an opportunity for the organization to impart its mission,…
Carter, Dianne. (June 1991). The status of education and training in corrections. Federal Probation. PRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT="?55.2: 17-24.
Seiter, Richard P. (1983). Corrections: center of excellence. Corrections Today. 45.1: 72-74.
Stevenson, Benjamin and Daedra Carrio. (April 2009). Why corrections should clear the hurdles. Corrections Today. 71.2: 42-44.
industrialized nation in the world has a higher percentage of its population residing in its prison than the United States (Liptak). This fact has witnessed a corresponding increase in the cost of housing and caring for the incarcerated which has correspondingly raised the public concerns for these costs. This combination has spurred conversation relative to how to address both issues and one of the methods suggested is the possible privatization of the corrections system.
The advantages and disadvantages of privatization have been debated for years and many view privatization as new and unique method for managing the corrections system; however, privatization has a long history in the United States (Perrone). Private management of prisons has been attempted at several points in America's history but was actually abandoned during the early years of the twentieth century. One of the primary reasons for its being abandoned was the Convict Leasing System that…
Liptak, Adam. "U.S. prison population dwarfs that of other nations." New York Times 23 April 2008: A1.
Morris, John C. "Government and Market Pathologies of Privatization: The Case of Prison Privatization." Politics & Policy (2007): 318-341.
Nicholson-Crotty, Sean. "The Politics and Adminstration of Privatization: Contracting Out for Corrections Management in the United States." Policy Studies Journal (2004): 41-57.
Perrone, Dina. "Comparing the Quality of Confinement and Cost-Effectiveness of Public vs. Private Prisons: What We Know, Why We Do Not Know More, and Where to Go From Here." The Prison Journal (2003): 301-322.
Our findings show that social and psychological aspects of work situations are indeed significant risk factors for coronary heart disease, but not in the manner that might initially be supposed. While the psychological demands of work, along with time pressures and conflicts, are found to be significant sources of risk in many of our studies, work that is demanding (within limits) is not the major source of risk. The primary work-related risk factor appears to be lack of control over how one meets the job's demands and how one uses one's skills. In many cases, elevation of risk with a demanding job appears only when these demands occur in interaction with low control on the job. Other research has shown that regular physical exertion has positive effects on cardiovascular health in many situations (although physical hazards can of course pose major health threats beyond our stress perspective). Thus, in our…
Black, S. (2001, October). CORRECTIONAL EMPLOYEE Stress & Strain. Corrections Today, 63, 83.
Black's work demonstrates a great introduction to stress in general, as it applies to the individual and community as well as specific information about stress in the field of corrections. This article is an excellent introduction to the material of this research as well as to a better understanding of how stress is playing out all over the field of corrections.
Devito, P.L. (1994, July). The Immune System vs. Stress. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 123, 27.
Devito offers a great description of the history of stress, its definitions and the fundamental and seminal research and ideology that applies to stress. The mind/body connection is traced through this work to give the reader and researcher a good idea of the holistic expression of unresolved stress in one's health and well-being.
The importance of ethics in the criminal justice field cannot be overemphasised. All participants must portray acceptable moral conduct for positive criminal justice outcomes to be achieved (Braswell, McCarthy & McCarthy, 2008). This is particularly true for correctional institutions, a major component of the criminal justice system. Correctional authorities play a crucial role in rehabilitating offenders and facilitating their transition back to the society. The role places huge ethical demands on correctional personnel. This paper outlines ethical requirements for correctional officers. First, a comprehensive job description of correctional officers is offered, along with the key stakeholders they work together with in the fulfilment of their day to day duties and responsibilities. Next, a number of practical work scenarios where ethical decision making is required are highlighted, with an evaluation of the relevance of theoretical perspectives to the scenarios. Finally, a code of ethics and best-practices checklist relevant for correctional officers…
Whereas judicial decisions are more likely to concern substantive matters of law and definitions of legal concepts, legislative adjustments generally reflect social consensus, particularly over large spans of time. Admittedly, political access and the relative ability of specific individuals, communities, and entities to generate legislative changes beneficial to them are not, in any sense, equal when viewed from the microcosmic perspective. Nevertheless, over time, changes in the American criminal justice are largely functions of widely-shared societal concerns and social values in the United States.
In recent years, the American criminal justice system has changed in several significant respects: it has become increasingly federalized; it seen a dramatic increase in the privatization of criminal justice facilities; and it has become ever-more effective by virtue of its technological evolution. Likewise, concepts and principles of criminal reform have continually undergone cyclical changes, due in part to unanticipated flaws in prior approaches or simply…
" (Elsea, 2005) It was stated at the time that it would appear that "…that federal courts will play a role in determining whether the military commissions, established pursuant to President ush's Military Order (M.O.) of November 13, 2001, are valid under U.S. constitutional and statutory law, and possibly under international law." (Elsea, 2005) It is reported that in June 2008, and in the case of oumediene v. ush that the U.S. Supreme Court "overturned the portions of the law" relating to habeas corpus and stated findings that the individuals held at Guantanamo ay have "constitutional rights to challenge their detention in United States courts." (The New York Times, 2009)
III. Response of the Obama Administration
It is related that one of the first things that the administration of President arack Obama accomplished was an executive order that closed Guantanamo and one that as well "issued an immediate halt to…
Elsea, Jennifer (2005) The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice. CRS Report for Congress. 18 Jan 2005. Online available at; http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/crs/rl31600.pdf
Henning, Anna C. (2009) Analysis of Selected Legislative Proposals Addressing Guantanamo Detainees. 2- March 2009., CRS Report for Congress. Online available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R40419.pdf
Military Commissions (2008) The New York Times. 9 May 2009. Online available at: http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/d/detainees/military_commissions/index.html?inline=nyt-classifier
Richey, Warren (2006) Supreme Court Rejects Military Tribunals. The Christian Science Monitor. 30 June 2006. Online available at: http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/0630/p01s01-usju.html
All of the authors' hypotheses have been supported. Results of this study suggest that positive view of the ACA standards has a negative impact on job stress and a positive impact on job satisfaction. The same holds true with positive relations with coworkers and clear and consistently enforced institutional policies. Furthermore, results show that the impacts of these three are superior to that of personal characteristics of correctional workers.
This study has its own share of limitations and weaknesses. One, the sample was limited to employees of OCCD only. This creates an issue on the representativeness of the sample and thus, the accuracy and generalizability of the findings. Second, among the array of work environment factors that might possibly affect job stress and job satisfaction, discussion has been limited to only three. Lastly, the effects of these three factors on the organizational commitment and job involvement of correctional workers has…
Paoline, E.A., Lambert, E.G., & Hogan, N.L. (2006). A calm and happy keeper of the keys. The Prison Journal, 86 (2), 182-205.
Canadian criminal justice system corrections
The Canadian justice system
Since the last decade, there's been a huge hue and cry pertaining unjust convictions and its disastrous consequences. As in the case of Canada, there have been numerous high profile cases which concluded with unjust verdicts, putting the Canadian justice system and its judicial process in question. Even though, the media's attention has increased on this matter, academic literature on the issue is razor-thin in case of Canada (Denov & Campbell, 2005). The media's coverage of crimes and criminal justice is now excessively given coverage during the last decade, since it's a form of entertainment and news. Criminal justice and crime have emerged as a viable form of entertainment across the media spectrum. In case of TV shows, depictions of criminal justice and crime are observed in courtroom TV seasons as well as daily talk's shows.
Popular culture and criminal courts…
Blatchford, C. (2015, Febuary 27). News. Retrieved from National Post: http://news.nationalpost.com/2015/02/27/christie-blatchford-canadians-seem-to-imagine-that-slow-justice-is-better-justice-but-thats-not-the-case/
Denov, M., & Campbell, K. (2005). Understanding the Causes, Effects, and Responses to Wrongful Conviction in Canada. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice.
Entmann, R., & Gross, K. (2008). Race to judgment: stereotyping media and criminal defendants. 93-133. Retrieved from: http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1495&context=lcp
Gallant, J. (2015, Febuary 23). Crime. Retrieved from The Star: http://www.thestar.com/news/crime/2015/02/23/ontario-courts-slow-to-speak-up-about-hush-orders.html
Education is an essential component of having a successful and prosperous life. However, in many cases students drop out of high school and never receive the diplomas that they need to better their lives. Fortunately there are programs that will provide these individuals with GED's which are equivalent to high school diplomas. The need to acquire a GED is of particular importance to the African-American male. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the research pertaining to the success of this population in such programs. We will also review which programs are the most successful and what element of the programs work the best. We will conclude by discussion the funding that is available for such programs.
What do we know about this population's performance in such programs?
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, approximately 830,000 individual took the GED in 2000. There were 719,000…
Venezky, Richard L., Page S. Bristow, and John P. Sabatini. "Measuring Change in Adult Literacy Programs: Enduring Issues and a Few Answers." Educational Assessment 2.2 (1994): 101-132.
Weirauch, Drucie, and Gary Kuhne. "Satisfying the Itch: Addressing Problems in Adult Literacy Programs with Action Research." Adult Learning 11.3 (2000): 9.
One in eight Americans suffers from headaches (Pain, Academy of General Dentistry). As much as eighty percent of all headaches are caused by muscle tension, which may be related to bite problems. Headaches also can be caused by clenching jaw muscles for long periods of time. Signs that may indicate a headache from a dental origin include:
Pain behind the eyes
Sore jaw muscles or "tired" muscles upon awaking
Clicking or popping jaw joints
Head and/or scalp is painful to the touch
Earaches or ringing
Neck, shoulder or back pain
There are a variety of treatments that will help alleviate orofacial symptoms. One device is called an orthotic, or splint, that is worn over the teeth until the bite can be stabilized. Often permanent correction is practiced such as reshaping teeth (coronoplasty), building crowns or bonding, orthodontics, or surgery that installs a permanent appliance for the…
Forssell, H., Kalso, E., Koskela, P., Vehmanen, R. Puukka, P. And Alanen, P. (1999,
December). Occlusal treatments in temporomandibular disorders: a qualitative systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Pain 83 (3): 549-60. Retrieved May 17, 2003 from National Library of Medicine web site: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10568864&dopt=Abstract
McBride. R. Temporomandibular joint dysfunction ("TMJ"). Retrieved May 17, 2003 from RPM Dentistry web site: http://www.rpmdentistry.com/services/tmjetc.asp
Pain. Retrieved May 17, 2003 from Academy of General Dentistry web site: http://www.agd.org/consumer/topics/pain/main.html
EClinicaWorks at ikers Island
ikers Island is a correctional facility that currently utilizes eClinicalWorks, which has emerged as a leader in medical software solutions. This paper examines the use of this electronic health records software at this correctional facility in relation to hospitalized inmates. The author includes an overview of how this software is run by Corizon Health and how the correctional facility works with Bellevue Hospital, which also has eClinicalWorks. The discussion includes an evaluation of how this software has been characterized by a workflow challenge that hinders effective workflows. The use of paper documentation by hospital staff because of inability of this software to visualize findings, discharge instructions or recommendations is discussed. This is followed by discussion of a proposed innovation and how it can be implemented using a project management approach. The final sections discuss strategies for going live and ongoing maintenance of the proposed innovation.
Corizon Health Website. (2015). About Corizon Health. Retrieved 26 November, 2015 from: http://www.corizonhealth.com/S=0/About-Corizon/Who-We-Are-History-and-Today
Miller, R.H. (2012, March). Satisfying Patient-Consumer Principles for Health Information Exchange: Evidence From California Case Studies. Health Affairs, 31(3), 537-547.
Pantaleoni et al. (2015, February 11). Successful Physician Training Program for Large Scale EMR Implementation. Applied Clinical Informatics, 2015(6), 80-95.
Stazesky, R., Hughes, J. & Venters, H. (2012, April). Implementation of an Electronic Health Record in the New York City Jail System. Retrieved April 18, 2016, from http://www.cochs.org/files/hieconf/implementation-ecw-new-york.pdf
What are the differences between jails and prisons?
Generally, jails are maintained by local municipalities and by state authorities and they are mainly intended to house criminals charged with crimes pending trial (Schmalleger, 2009). Jails are also used to incarcerate inmates convicted of misdemeanors and any other crimes whose sentences are less than a year. Meanwhile, prisons are maintained by states and by the federal government and are generally used to incarcerate inmates convicted of more serious crimes (i.e. felonies) who are serving sentences longer than a year. Federal prisons house inmates convicted on federal charges (Schmalleger, 2009).
Is the current jail/prison system effective? Why or why not?
In many respects the current jail/prison system is not particularly effective. For one thing, many have argued that members of racial minorities and those from economically disadvantaged backgrounds are much more likely to serve criminal sentences than members of non-minority groups and…
Healey, J.F. (2009). Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group
Conflict and Change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.
Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Court records also stick on, whether the charges are dropped or followed by a conviction. People of color or ethnic minorities, such as African-Americans and Hispanics, have come to accept that they cannot avoid acquiring a criminal record. The 1990 Washington DC-based sentencing project found that one in every four African-Americans aged 20 to 29 was in prison, in jail or on probation or parole. A research conducted by the National Center on Institutions and Alternatives had a comparable finding. In a decade, the figure decreased to one out of three or 76% of 18-year-old African-Americans in the urban areas who can expect arrest and imprisonment before age 36. The racial gap became evident at the approach of the millennium. In 1926, 79% of inmates in state and federal prisons were whites and only 21% were lacks. ut in 1999, African-Americans made up 55-60% of new admissions. Including Latino inmates,…
1. Bates, D. (2006). Policy Makers Working to Find a Solution for Increased Incarceration. Falls Church News Press. http://www.fcnp.com/432/parole.htm
2. Beck, A.R.. (2001). Jail Bloating: a Common but Unnecessary Cause of Jail Overcrowding. http://www.justiceconcepts.com/jail%20overcrowding.pdf
3. ISECUREtrac. (2004). Reducing Prison Overcrowding. ISECUREtrac Corporation. http://www.isecuretrac.com/sa_po.asp
4. Joel, D. (1989). Time to Deal with America's Prison Crisis. The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.otg/Research/Criminalbg735.cfm
Correctional Institutions Management
Correctional institution hierarchy
This normally includes the Unit manager, case worker, secretary, correctional counsellor, correctional officer, educator and psychologist or any other approved mental health worker. However, it is important to note that some correction institutions may adopt varying names yet same duties, for instance there are institutions that have the director's office, chief deputy director's office, correctional facility administration, field operations administration and budget and operations administration (tate of Michigan, 2015). The hierarchies defined above are in the descending order, with the highest offices coming first.
Traits in prison volunteer
One most important trait in prison volunteers is that they must be able to honor the confidentiality of the offenders. He is also a servant of the Lord and also committed to the course that they are following. They also have the right motive towards engaging in the activities of the volunteering. He is also an…
S -- Stressed out staff are vulnerable (Cornelius G., 2013).
Punishments/sentences included in community corrections
The following are
In that regard, sentences imposed for crack cocaine are so much harsher that approximately 100 times as much powdered cocaine is required to approach the sentences imposed in connection with crack cocaine offenses. This issue is particularly relevant to the disparity inherent in mandatory sentencing and arbitrariness in sentencing, especially since dealers in powdered cocaine are much more likely higher up on the supply chain than distributors of crack cocaine (USSC, 2007).
The issues concerning provisions of the U.S.A. PATIOT Act pertain to establishing sentences for crimes established and defined by the ACT, such as narco- terrorism, smuggling munitions or military equipment without a license for transport, mining U.S. waters, and interfering with maritime navigation equipment (USSC, 2007).
The Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 requires sex offenders to register and imposes criminal penalties for failure to comply. The current federal sentencing issues authorize increasing sentences for…
Cullen, F.T., Eck, J.E., Lowencamp, C.T. (2002) Environmental Corrections: A New Paradigm for Effective Probation and Parole Supervision.
Lynch, M.J. (1999) Beating a Dead Horse: Is Their Any Basic Empirical Evidence for the Deterrent Effect of Imprisonment?
Schmalleger, F. (2001) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Cultural Binary Opposition Demystified
Although it was initially created for popular consumption, there are a number of varying points of academic interest found in Karl May's novel Winnetou, The Chief of the Apache Part 1 Enters Old Shatterhand. This work is actually a study in post-colonialism and indicates many of the different mores that were popularized to propagate colonial notions. Perhaps the most important of these pertains to the conceptions of culture that are evinced in this novel, and which are typified in colonial endeavors almost anywhere throughout the course of history. Specifically, the notion of binary opposition emerges as one of the chief justifications for the colonization found in May's novel. Binary opposition is the diametric polarization of a pair of cultures -- in the case of May's novel, these include that of the Eurocentric westerner and that of the Native American. In May's work, the Eurocentric westerner perceives…
May, K. (2014). Winnetou, The Chief of the Apache Part 1 Enters Old Shatterhand. Liverpool, England: CTPDC Limited Publishing.
old African-American male, the client represents a seriously underserved population cohort when it comes to providing effective substance abuse prevention and intervention support. According to Williams & Chang (2000), research on adolescent substance abuse treatment is sparse. Available evidence is even scantier when addressing the needs of non-white youth. Yet to be effective, interventions need to be tailored to the specific population.
Empirical evidence supporting a comprehensive and effective substance abuse intervention for the adolescent cohort began with an evaluation of the case. The client has experienced trauma, which should be taken into consideration while developing a treatment plan and during the course of treatment. At the age of twelve, the client's mother's sister in law and her two children -- the client's cousins -- were murdered. The client was deeply affected by the event, as was his family. It took a decade before the perpetrator of the crime was…
Cooper, R. L., MacMaster, S., & Rasch, R. (2009). Racial differences in retention in residential substance abuse treatment: The impact on African-American men. Retrieved from University of North Carolina, Greensboro: http://libres.uncg.edu/ir/uncg/f/R_Rasch_Racial_2009.pdf
Costen, J. A. (2009). Drug use and the Black American male. Retrieved from Kennesaw Sate University: http://ksuweb.kennesaw.edu/~jcosten/papers/paper_drug-use-and-the-black-american-male.pdf
Williams, R. & Chang, S. (2000). Addiction Centre Adolescent Research Group. A Comprehensive and Comparative Review of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Outcome. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 7(2): 138-166.
I have two observations- one small but interesting and one for which I would like a response.
The first- you have transposed the authors names as Ingram and Schneider- in deed this is small but important - you will want to cite them as Schneider and Ingram going forward- as I said - small but important
Next I think you can develop your response to item 3 regarding your research interest.(my research interest is African-American women in the gas and oil field and how minority set aside programs fail them)
You have made a few claims that public policy is weak and that public policy fails- What is the weakness you have identified? How are you understanding failure? What kind of policies are you including in these statements and what is the connection to your research? I ask that you spend a bit more time on this section and…
Auer, M. R. (2014). Collective Action and the Evolution of Social Norms: The Principled
Optimism of Elinor Ostrom. Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, 6(4), 265-
271. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19390459.2014.941177 ?
Baytop, C. M. (2006). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Programs to Improve Educational
According to the American Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology (AACFP), forensic psychologists " have an obligation to provide services in a manner consistent with the highest standards of their profession and are responsible for their own conduct and conduct of the individuals under their supervision." These words suggest that a higher code of conduct from the norms of society should dictate the actions of those in this profession. This is important because it is very easy to dismiss those who have been convicted for crimes and considered wasted people and undeserving of redemption.
The aggressive legal system that profits off of the prison system in this country has created an epidemic of sorts where America imprisons more people per capita than any other developed nation on the planet. This trend encourages prisons to maintain high populations and one way of doing this is by denying prisoners their…
Bartol, C. & Bartol, A. (2010). Introduction to Forensic Psychology: Research and Application. Sage Publications, Inc.;
Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists (1991). Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists. Law and Human Behavior, 15 (6) 1991.
Road to Independence
Independent Living Programs for Juvenile Offenders
Juvenile crime is a major problem in contemporary America. Murder, rape, assault, and crimes against property are a part of everyday life for many teens. Incarceration can both punish and reeducate. The offender learns that antisocial behaviors have consequences. He also learns that there are other ways to deal with his problems, and other ways to make a living. Such attempts at reform are all well and good within the closed world of the juvenile detention center or the sheriff's boot camp, but the day must come when these youths are returned to society. Reintegration into the outside world can be both good and bad for the juvenile offender. For those who return to loving homes, the process can represent the completion of the reform process. However, many teens have no loving homes to which they can go, no caring parents…
Florida Department of Juvenile Justice. (2002). Intervention Program Models. Intervention Services Manual. URL: http://www.djj.state.fl.us/reference/manuals/intervention/ch-model-5.htm
2. HomeBase. (March 23, 2001). Homeless Youth and the Connection to Foster Care.
Homeless Youth. URL: