¶ … corrections models in the United States have changed significantly over the past several generations, from a rehabilitative toward a punitive paradigm. After World War Two, a strong sense of national security and prosperity prevailed in the United States, leading to a corrections system that was based more on rehabilitation than on punishment. During these idealistic times, criminals were believed to be "ill," and correctable via a treatment model ("History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," n.d.). Trust in governmental institutions also helped politicians and the public alike agree that corrections should be built upon the theory that criminal behavior can be unlearned, or "corrected." The rehabilitation approach persisted well into the 1960s, as humanistic psychology informed corrections models. A humanistic worldview encouraged "deinstitutionalization" of corrections through the use of community-based services like halfway houses and probation ("History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," n.d.). Sentencing policy during the middle of the 20th century was more likely to include mandatory maximums than minimums, with "indeterminate" sentencing trending in criminal justice (Mackenzie, 2001). Judges enjoyed a high level of discretion when issuing sentences. Programs to help inmates, such as vocational training and reintegration assistance, were established even if they were "often poorly implemented and funded," (Mackenzie, 2001, p. 7). These idealistic times shifted dramatically and radically in the early 1970s.
There are two main reasons why the correctional models changed from rehabilitation toward punishment. One reason is increased pessimism, both in terms of the crime and criminal justice was needed to keep the public safe (Mackenzie, 2001, p. 8). The "war on crime" model evolved from official government reports, leading to a new era in corrections that defined responses to crime throughout the latter half of the 20th century and the early 21st as well. In addition to claims that rehabilitation simply was not working to reduce rates of recidivism or overall rates of crime, critics of the humanistic models of corrections also pointed out that judicial discretion in sentencing tended to favor the wealthy and advantaged classes of society (Mackenzie, 2001). The criminalization of nonviolent drug-related crimes and the politicization of the "war on drugs" also contributed to a shift in correctional policies. As drug-related crimes were reframed as criminal rather than mental health issues, incarceration was offered as a legitimate response. Mass incarceration became the pattern in corrections in the late 20th century.
Limits to judicial discretion have characterized correctional models since the 1980s, when "three strikes" and other "harsh…
The average felony sentence imposed upon federal and state offenders in 1996 was 62 months, or just over 5 years. On average these prisoners actually serve 45% of a state sentence for a mean prison stint of 2 years and 4 months, and 85% of a federal sentence for a stint of 4 years and 5 months. Once they are released, the recidivism rates are high. According to Lin
Our findings show that social and psychological aspects of work situations are indeed significant risk factors for coronary heart disease, but not in the manner that might initially be supposed. While the psychological demands of work, along with time pressures and conflicts, are found to be significant sources of risk in many of our studies, work that is demanding (within limits) is not the major source of risk. The primary
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EDSE 600: History and Philosophy of Education / / 3.0 credits The class entitled, History and Philosophy of Education, focused on the origin of education and the "philosophical influences of modern educational theory and practice. Study of: philosophical developments in the Renaissance, Reformation, and revolutionary periods; social, cultural and ideological forces which have shaped educational policies in the United States; current debates on meeting the wide range of educational and social-emotional
Paradoxically, states with harsher criminal statutes and higher conviction rates tend to maintain fewer inmate developmental programs because high-volume prisons tend to be run on a for-profit basis that discourages "unnecessary" spending. The most cynical suggestion is that decreasing recidivism is against the financial interests of private prisons and (although to a lesser extent,) those of government-run prisons as well (Schmalleger, 2008). Other aspects of many types of contemporary criminal