American Revolution (1763-1783)
American colonists went through the hard time before revolution. The 13 colonies faced various problems due to supremacy of Great ritain. They were imposed with certain illegal acts by the ritain Parliament that placed them under risk to their freedom and independence. ritain Parliament specifically enforced such series of Acts that influenced the colonists in trading.
Roots and Significance of Stamp Act Controversy
The Sugar Act was among the first steps towards revolutionary period and the reason of united colonists. Since, it was after Sugar Act that American colonies first thought of going against the Parliament and protest on Sugar Act. The Currency Act also made the relations critical between the colonies and the Parliament. The currency act, gave complete control of colonial currency system in the hands of Parliament. It put the colonist under economic loss and completely abolished bills of credit.
Stamp Act was passed…… [Read More]
The British Parliament came out with further unjust laws, designed to recoup war losses, that further fanned the flames of revolution. In 1765, parliament passed the Stamp Act, requiring all legal documents and permits, newspapers, and even playing card produced in the Americas carry a tax stamp. The law caused widespread resentment, and was never fully enforced.
The period of 1690 to 1760 saw massive changes in the social, political and economic landscape of early America. The colonies were self-sufficient and had distinct cultures. However, they were also linked by commerce and navigation. By the early 18th century, New England colonies like Boston and Salem were established shipbuilding communities as well as important ports for ships from around the world (Nath 22). Colonies in Virginia and Maryland, on the other hand, would grow agricultural economies and export tobacco internationally.
These economic changes would spur several changes as well..…… [Read More]
American Revolution -- causes
THE CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
Between 1763 and 1776, the relationship between the American colonies and Great Britain steadily declined, due to differences in social, political, economic and religious thought. But the majority of differences centered around the imperial policies issued by the English monarchy and the subsequent initiation of these policies by the British Parliament, yet despite a general lessening of tensions by 1770, specific conflicts arose and with each new disagreement, the colonists moved ever closer to the impending clash between England and America which by 1775 seemed unavoidable.
THE ROYAL PROCLAMATION:
The first of these imperial policies took effect in February of 1763 when King George III signed the Royal Proclamation which reorganized the policies and administrations of the American colonies. Faced with vast new responsibilities following the costly French and Indian War, the British government sought to restrict white settlers…… [Read More]
American evolution, written in 2002 by Gordon Wood on this seminal event, won the Bancroft Prize that is awarded annually by Columbia University for its distinguished portrayal of American history. In a short 166 pages, Wood conquers over 20 years in a very concise and interesting way -- despite the fact that this topic has been covered time and time again, often in a very dry fashion.
The American evolution is divided into seven parts: "Origins," "American esistance," "evolution," "Constitution-making and War," "epublicanism," "epublican Society," and "The Federal Constitution." Wood's book starts with a description of the contributing causes that led to the Declaration of Independence in 1776, including the increasing strained affairs between the British and the colonists who were rapidly becoming more independent. As John Adams said, "the evolution was affected before the war commenced." It was a change "in the minds and hearts of the people." The…… [Read More]
American Revolution was one of the most significant historical turning points in which thirteen colonies in the New World got together to battle the ritish Empire and form the United States of America.
The first battles were at Concord and Lexington during 1775, but there was no formal declaration of war until 1776.
The battle was not a short one, with fighting continuing through 1781 and Lord Cornwallis' surrender at Yorktown, VA to General (and future President) George Washington.
In 1783 the Treaty of Paris was signed, and the war formally ended.
The Congress of the Confederation ratified the Treaty of Paris in January of 1784, which made everything official and ensured that the United States of America was born and was no longer under the control of the ritish Empire.
The Founders, who are often called the Founding Fathers, of the American Revolution were vital to the start of…… [Read More]
American evolution for American Society
The American evolution: A evolution of Political Proportions
In truth, the American evolution was a process that would have inevitably taken place regardless of the oppression by the British monarchy. Years prior to the United States declaring independence, the French rebelled against their aristocracy. In Eastern Europe, nobility fast approached its end hundreds of years later, because even the once-vast Austro-Hungarian Empire began its downward collapse. The American evolution may not have been the initial spark, but as far as the idea of democracy, it was certainly a catalyzing event, one that would further expand the American system to its modern-day political backbone.
As the American evolution took place, many countries sat back and not so much turned their noses down; in fact, some accounts portray the many sympathizers garnered not only in the French and the Spanish, but also in the English as well.…… [Read More]
American Revolution: A conservative, successful Revolution of the haves against those who had more
e usually think of revolutions, particularly colonial revolutions, in radical terms. Perhaps as a result of Marxist influence upon cotemporary historical analysis, the word revolution summons up in historian's minds and imaginations the blazing red flags and blazing anger of the lower classes, rising in revolt. Yet this image is not only overly idealistic and unrealistic, but neglects to take into consideration the fact that our own, American revolution was founded by men who were propertied landowners, once-respected generals (in the case of George ashington) of the regime they were fighting, and that many decided to go to war for economic reasons regarding taxation and a decreasing influence in the parliament of the mother nation of England rather than economic survival. Thomas Paine's radicalism of Common Sense was the ideological exception rather than the rule.
The…… [Read More]
Over the past few years, a number of historians have written about the first years of the American experience. In most cases, they either rave about the actions of the patriots: How this was unlike any other time in world history -- when being bullied, it is necessary to take the defensive. Or, they take a much more negative view: This whole event should not be blown out of proportion. It just happened to be the right time and place for something like this to occur. Just look at what did happen -- or actually what did not happen. Slavery, sexism and imperialism continued, just under another guise. So what? In The American evolution written in 2002, Gordon S. Wood, one of the most knowledgeable writers on this time period, takes a much more realistic -- and pragmatic -- approach. Unlike so many who now write about the…… [Read More]
American evolution was the outcome of a succession of societal, political, and rational alterations that took place in the early American culture and administrative structure. Americans did not have an acceptable attitude towards the established oligarchies within the aristocratic European structure at the time. They instead were more inclined towards the development and sustenance of the phenomenon of republicanism that was founded upon the Enlightenment perception of liberalism. Along with the noteworthy consequences of the revolution was the formation of a democratically -- voted representative administration answerable to the resolve of the citizens. On the other hand, intelligent political arguments broke out over the proper intensity of democracy wanted in the new administrative setup, with a large quantity of the Pioneers anticipating a mob regulation (Center for History and New Media, 2010).
Numerous essential issues of national governance were resolved with the endorsement and approval of the 1788 United States…… [Read More]
The success of the Tea Party resulted in Britain's Parliament passing the Coercive Acts, nearly establishing martial law in Massachusetts, getting rid of t he colonial government and closing the Boston port and sending in troops 67. Despite these attempts at quelling the colonists, the town meetings and mass meetings continued to develop in opposition.
It soon became even more clear that the colonies needed to include the poorer classes to join the Revolution if all planned to defeat the British oppression 68. Each colony was basically forced into getting these other groups to become one cohesive group with the American Revolutionaries. Patriotic sentiment was one useful method to effect this goal. Indeed, Patrick Henry with his verbal repertoire and Tom Paine with his skillful pamphleteering with Common Sense both used their skills to appeal to the masses, rich or poor 68. Eventually the development of the Continental Congress, an…… [Read More]
The dozen years prior to the Constitutional Convention was a period in which the "rich and wellborn" exerted considerable influence. These people consisted of merchants, bankers, and big landowners, and they had the power to make themselves heard and thus to press for their particular view of what shape the new nation should take. The U.S. was not the egalitarian society it has been painted to be but was instead marked by social class divisions. From the earliest colonial times, men of influence had received land grants from the crown and had presided over growing estates. The regions that became the first 13 states had their restrictive laws and practices which shut out certain segments of society while inviting in others. In all but Pennsylvania, only property-owning white males could vote or hold office, and excluded were all Native Americans, persons of Africa descent, women, indentured servants, and white males…… [Read More]
..our troops behaved well, fighting with great spirit and bravery." Giving ashington too much credit would be a mistake, but he had a way of keeping his men on task. And yet, when ashington tried to get his troops to swear allegiance to the United States, "they refused...'New Jersey is our country!' they said stubbornly" (Bowen 7).
Still, the relationships between the men who were outnumbered by the British was an important part of the success of the revolution. In the New England companies, and others, many men fighting side by side were neighbors in civilian life. "They knew each other," Middlekauff writes on 503. They had something to prove and "honor" to protect. Meanwhile, the closer to home the men fought, the more valiant they were. The militiamen too, "best exemplified in themselves and in their behavior the ideals and purposes of the Revolution" (Middlekauff 504). They had indeed…… [Read More]
" This song is a call to fight. It notes that the English have plundered their houses and causes their families to run from their home. They refer to the villains as murderers and state that they should have no mercy because of this. The chorus of the song says, "Then chop with your swords, and constantly sing, Success to our Troop, Our Country, and King." Here the song is calling the country its king, implying that there is no other ruler for them than their own country. The song is a song meant to rally the people and show them that they all can be volunteers for the cause.
In Jonathan Mayhew's, "A Discourse Concerning Unlimited Submission and Non-Resistance to the Higher Powers," the minister notes that it is "weak and trifling and unconnected" for the people to show obedience to a tyrannical and oppressive ruler. He comes to…… [Read More]
The book by John Richard Alden, The American Revolution, is written in an interesting style; it reads like a novel in places, making it entertaining as well as informative. But more than that, it offers background into the political and social dynamics leading up to and into the Revolutionary ar.
For example, on pages 16-17, Alden writes that in 1774, when sabers were rattling on both sides leading up to the Revolutionary ar, and the tension was growing on both sides, there were men in the British House of Commons who "urged a policy of conciliation," but, "It was all to no purpose." That's because only a handful of votes could be "marshaled against the proposals of the ministry and the King" to get tough on the colonists; in fact, "most of the Lords, who spoke for themselves alone, obstinately followed the King and his cohorts."
King George…… [Read More]
The British were good at seizing the ports, but most Americans didn't live on the coast, they lived in the countryside.
Major battles and campaigns in the Revolutionary ar
The Battle of Bunker Hill was the first big clash between the patriots and the British. The Americans had taken and fortified the hills above Charlestown, north of Boston, on June 16, 1775, and the British marched up the hill with 2,500 soldiers and were turned back by musket volleys from 1,400 patriots. But the British came up again, and were turned back; but the third time the Americans ran out of ammunition and the British took the hill, killing 140 Americans. The Battle of Saratoga ended with the British thinking they had a victory but as Roark notes on page 171, General Burgoyne lost 1,200 men and surrendered to the Americans on October 17, 1777. Native Americans were caught between…… [Read More]
American evolution: Competing for the Loyalty of the Colonists
The American evolution had many causes, both economic and social in nature. It had also been brewing for many years, ever since the conclusion of the Seven Years' War with the French, in which the British government closed settlement of the West to the colonists. In doing so, the Crown posted soldiers on the Western frontier to keep Americans out of it, and taxed the Americans to fund the standing army required to prevent American settlement of the West. Naturally, this did not sit well with the colonists, and was the first real grievance against the British government that would eventually lead to the other grievances that finally resulted in the American evolution.
The British government found it easier to raise the money it needed for various projects by taxing the colonists in America. After all, the colonists had no representation…… [Read More]
American evolution and Taxes
There has always been an uneven and uncomfortable relationship among politicians, taxation, and the American people. The old saying, that death and taxes are the only certainties in life, remains nevertheless true. Taxation is as inevitable as the government's duty to provide its people with services. Sometimes, however, when it becomes necessary to raise taxes, people tend to view this in an extremely negative light. From government's point-of-view, taxes are seen as playing a vital role in the delivery of goods and services, as well as infrastructure, in a country. What particularly interests me about this topic is the apparent divide between what taxpayers pour into the IS and how little they receive in return. Perhaps the conservative argument, to lower taxes and let people create their own wealth rather than wealth for the government, is not the worst possible idea.
From the conservative viewpoint, taxes…… [Read More]
How Did the American Revolution Impact omen
Many issues are difficult to research in history because there is only a limited amount of documentation that is available. Much of historical documentation often focuses on the people with exceptional positions in society that have influenced the course of history. As a result there is a limited amount of material that focuses on the daily lives of ordinary people as well as those who have been marginalized in socioeconomic status. Thus historians have to sometimes be creative to find records that can provide insights. The role of women in the American Revolution and its influence on women's suffrage are great examples of difficult topics to research.
This paper will compare two different approaches to understanding issues that are difficult to research. One interesting historical fact is that New Jersey was one of the pioneers on the issue of women's suffrage…… [Read More]
Both the American and French Revolutions resulted in July holidays, but these significant historical events share much more in common than their superficial celebrations. The precursor to both the American and the French Revolutions can in fact be traced to the prevailing philosophical zeitgeist, an attitudinal revolution that was taking root in Western Europe, Britain, and North America. Commonly called the Enlightenment, the philosophical underpinnings of the American and French Revolutions informed the future of global history. Yet in spite of the common causes and revolutionary spirits, the United States and France experienced quite different outcomes to their political struggles.
The primary similarity between the French and American Revolution is that they were organized attempts to divest a monarchy of power. Both the Americans and the French were motivated by principles like freedom, liberty, and justice: which were embodied in the writers of French philosophers like Rousseau as…… [Read More]
The Writings of Thomas Paine:
An Unsung Hero and Architect of the American Revolution
The writings of Thomas Paine were a critically influential voice that helped tip the balance of popular opinion in favor of revolution in colonial America. It is easy to forget that many of the Founding Fathers were deeply embedded in the governing structures of Great Britain within the colonies, even though they attempted to gain a greater voice for the nation in Parliament, particularly in regards to the issue of prohibitive taxation. Paine alone, as a strident voice, was an early and unequivocal supporter of independence.
As noted by Jill Lepore in her essay “The Sharpened Quill” about Paine’s legacy, it is directly documented that John Adams read Paine’s anonymous pamphlet “Common Sense” when he was debating within himself the wisdom of seeking independence for the colonies. Lepore calls “Common Sense” an “anonymous, fanatical, and brutally…… [Read More]
Therefore, for instance, the Stamp Act was justified through "granting and applying (of) certain stamp duties, and other duties, in the British colonies and plantations in America, towards further defraying the expenses of defending, protecting, and securing the same; and for amending such parts of the several acts of parliament relating to the trade and revenues of the said colonies and plantations, as direct the manner of determining and recovering the penalties and forfeitures therein mentioned"(the Stamp Act, 1765).
Taking these legislative manners into consideration, the opponents of the Loyalists considered that the issue of trade as a reason for maintaining the British rule was by no means a viable solution. More precisely, they argued that the lack of representation in the British Parliament should not allow the British to impose taxes they do not agree or vote upon. From this perspective, it can be said that the Loyalists had…… [Read More]
Many colonists had come to the new world in search of a lifestyle infused with greater freedom. The colonists' ideas about government differed greatly from their English counterparts. hile the English still focused on the power of the monarchy, the colonists had been holding popular assemblies since 1763 ("The American Revolution: First Phase"). They began to believe in rights that they saw the English and their stationed guards as there to violate. In addition, they believed that they, not a country across the ocean, should have the right to control or at least have a say in the political decisions that would affect their lives.
In addition to these highly popularized economic and ideological causes of the revolution, social causes also added fuel to the fire of revolution. As the 1700s wore on, More and more Americans came from European countries other than England. As these people began to immigrate…… [Read More]
Criticisms against and praise for colonialism in America: A comparative analysis of "Common Sense" by Thomas Paine and "Origin and Progress of the American Rebellion" by Peter Oliver
The declaration of King George III of the United Kingdom that America is in an active state of rebellion in August 23, 1775, marked the opportunity for Britain's 13 colonies in the country to be liberated from British colonialism. The path towards rebellion in America is an arduous process, where there had been a series of economic and political pressures that Britain had imposed in order to maintain control over the gradually rebelling members of the colonies.
What made the study of the history of the American Revolution interesting is that there are numerous literatures illustrating the political and economic climate between the Americans and British at the time where rebellious ideologies and propaganda are gradually increasing. There had been…… [Read More]
Slavery in the United Stated lasted as an endorsed organization until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1865. In 1619 twenty Africans were brought by a Dutch soldier and sold to the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia as indentured servants.
This would be the first of many visits up and down the American eastern seaboard. At this time, most slaves were being purchased by white men, though some Native Americans and free blacks were also detained. Slavery was spread to the areas where there was a high-quality soil for large plantations of important crops, such as cotton, sugar, coffee and most prominently tobacco. Even though the endorsed practice of enslaving blacks occurred in all of the original thirteen colonies, more than half of all African-Americans lived in Virginia and Maryland. The three highest-ranking North American zones of importation throughout most of the…… [Read More]
American evolution Was Modeled After evolutions in France and England
The American quest for freedom, modeled after reform movements in England and France, has resulted in the most revered democratic society in the world. We are free of the religious and political tyranny that plagued Europe in the 18th Century and early colonialists would approve of our government in 2002.
While the American evolution and the quest for freedom was modeled after revolutions in France and England, the United States has done something that its European relatives admire - it achieved a stable democracy free of aristocratic and religious tyranny - and this was accomplished in a relatively bloodless fashion.
Our success would meet with accolades from European philosophers and historians including Jean-Jacques ousseau, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Thomas Paine and Francois Furet. However, our success has also many developing nations and Middle East nations to regard us as arrogant…… [Read More]
In the Continental Army was not just a force that was motivated by its service to a united cause, but by the democratic impulses that differentiated this from the British system of nobility and military rank. As a result, the dedication to cause elicited from the Continental Army solider was inherently more driven by the theoretical opportunities to follow victory. Certainly, for those who took part in the struggle to remove the British from American soil, there would also be an adoption of the view of this as a personal homeland now imposed upon by occupation.
To an extent, this motive may be said to be a greater assurance of eventual victory than military might. In the case of the American war for Independence, the better armed and more resource-wealthy British Imperial forces would be worn down by a commitment to what the Continental Army and militias alike saw as…… [Read More]
This strategy also permitted the more speedy management of local dealings. Basically the purpose of this strategy was to centralize of colonial affairs; however, it simply solidified the idea that the colonies needed a system of self-governance that was not inclusive of the British government. Because of the behavior of the British government, the English colonies that revolted in 1776 had in common: "representative assemblies and this institutional affinity laid the foundations for the concerted resistance without which the American evolution would have been impossible."
It was under the auspices of the English government's attempt to control the colonists that the idea of American independence began to be viewed as necessary. The colonist felt that they had the right and the wisdom to rule and to develop a governmental structure that would be conducive with meeting the needs and the goals of those living within the colonies. The structure of…… [Read More]
But it certainly was a crucial step in he legitimation of free labor" (141).
eligion in general and revivals especially eased the pains of capitalist expansion in the early 19th century U.S. After Finney was gone, the converted reformers evangelized the working class; they supported poor churches and built new ones in working class neighborhoods. Finney's revival was effective since it dissected all class boundaries and united middle and working class individuals in churches. The middle class went to church, because of the moral obligation to do so; the working classes went, because they were concerned about losing their. Workers who did not become members of churches had more difficulty keeping their jobs. To succeed in ochester, it was astute for the employees to become active churchgoers.
In 1791, not much before the Native Americans began their trek across the country and ochester, New York, was changing its employee/merchant system,…… [Read More]
In his analysis of the American Revolution, Nash refers to the "enshrined, mythic form" the event has taken on in human consciousness (59). Like the creation myths of religion, the story of the founding of the United States of America has become what Nash calls a "sacralized story" that nearly deifies the founding fathers (59). Taught to children in schools and propagated beyond the borders of the Untied States, this version of the American Revolution in which a unified group of colonists rose up together against the mean British tyrants is little more than a "fable," (Nash 59). The real story behind the American Revolution is far more complex and nuanced, testimony to the already diverse and heterogeneous population dwelling throughout the colonies. Even when the emphasis remains squarely on the events taking place in Massachusetts that precipitated the Revolution, it is clear that there was no one…… [Read More]
Regardless of how limited this particular scope lie within colonial society, it set a new precedent for a new form of virtue.
The debate over which type of virtue prevailed within the Continental Congress for four years; it seemed as if the classical virtue was diminishing. The notion of classical virtue involved adherence to social norms that were streamlined with an aristocratic government and monarchy. Even Richard Henry
Lee conceded that liberal virtues "Provided America as free and happy, I am not solicitous about the agents that accomplish it.' the agents Lee refers to were the opportunistic characters to used market conditions to their advantage. Lee formed a partnership with Robert Morris when it came to sealing a tobacco deal for the French, by Virginia planters. They were part of the increasing number of people who had the ability to couple self-interest with republican virtue.
While the shift of liberal…… [Read More]
American evolution: A History" by Gordon S. Wood. Specifically, it will contain a narrative review of the book. Wood's book is a modern look at history, and at the results of the American evolution. While there are numerous books on the subject, this one is relatively easy to read and understand, and short enough not to put off the reader. It is an excellent reference for anyone interested in American history.
The author's thesis is set in the Preface of the book, where he notes, "The evolution, in short, gave birth to whatever sense of nationhood and national purpose Americans have had" (Wood 26). In addition, author Wood believes that as history moves on, the true meaning and how historians view the American evolution has altered, and this book is an attempt to illustrate these new views of a more than 200-year-old revolt. More than anything else, Wood wants modern…… [Read More]
In 1775, Patrick Henry gave his famous speech ("give me liberty or give me death") to lawmakers in Virginia; he urges a citizens' army to defeat the British. The first shots of the Revolutionary ar are fired after Paul Revere rode his horse through Concord and Lexington to warn colonists that the British soldiers are coming. Also in 1775, George ashington is given command of the Continental army, and John Hancock is appointed president of the Second Continental Congress. In August of 1775, King George III makes a declaration that the colonies are in open rebellion against the British.
The Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4, 1776, in Philadelphia, by the Continental Congress. "e hold these truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal..." is the beginning of the declaration. Thomas Jefferson is given credit for most of the writing of the declaration, along with John…… [Read More]
Whether it was the Spanish that fought to conquer lands in the south, or the Dutch that engaged in stiff competition with the British, or the French that were ultimately defeated in 1763, the American soil was one clearly marked by violent clashes between foreign powers. This is why it was considered that the cry for independence from the British was also a cry for a peaceful and secure future for the next generations. Thomas Paine argued that the time had indeed come for the colonies to be excluded from the continuous clashes that had defined their past. Thus, because of the British's traditional inclination towards war, such an objective was hard to reach under the Empire's constant control. Consequently, the time had come for the colonies to break apart and search their peace as an independent state.
Looking at the historical development of the events, it is easy to…… [Read More]
In the period between the evolution and the drafting of the Constitution, Jefferson noted that the eventual existence of a dictator in place of a king in Ancient ome clearly indicated the existence of real failings within the oman system:
dictator is entirely antithetical to republicanism's "fundamental principle...that the state shall be governed as a commonwealth," that there be majority rule, and no prerogative, no "exercise of [any] powers undefined by the laws." "Powers of governing...in a plurality of hands." (Zuckert, 1996, p. 214)
As a result, Jefferson, like the philosophes before him (and the Iroquois) would turn to ideas that would balance the necessary evils of government power with the rights of the people. James Madison agreed wholeheartedly, and urged in "Government of the United States" that a constitutional government based on separation of powers was the only sure way of preventing the country from taking the "high road…… [Read More]
American Revolution in 1776 inspired the French Revolution in 1789 by showing that the common people could overthrow the powerful political establishment. Both countries were ruled by absolute monarchies. The United States were then colonies of Great Britain, and were ruled unfairly. The early Americans became tired of "taxation without representation." In France, the common people and peasants were also not represented by their government. In both cases, only landowners could vote and there was little equality or justice. By taking up arms against Britain, the early American settlers took a stand against tyranny and this act then led to the French Revolution.
The American Revolution set an example to the people of France that it was possible to have democracy. By taking the first step in this process of change, the American settlers showed that democracy was possible, even if it meant going to war. After succeeding in the…… [Read More]
History has shown that the form of government which emerged out of the American evolution was by no means perfect, but to recognize this does not diminish the importance of what was achieved as a result of the Constitutional Convention. Instead, it allows one to appreciate the disruptive and groundbreaking nature of the compromise government established by the various delegates while realizing how much it represents a continuity with the past. By examining Berkin's 2002 account of the creation of the American Constitution in her book A Brilliant Solution: Inventing the American Constitution alongside Middlekauff's 2005 study The Glorious Cause, one is able to better appreciate the process and goals that went into the creation of the American Constitution, and how the problems that existed at its creation continue to plague the country to this day.
Before beginning this discussion of the Constitutional Convention and its details, it…… [Read More]
American Revolution after 1763
There are several factors leading to the American Revolution. During the 18th century, the ritish colonists in North America established themselves as a new nation. Increasingly, they had begun to see themselves as American rather than ritish. This new consciousness contributed to increasing resentment of any ritish attempts at control and influence in America. ritish action deemed unfair by American colonies, such as taxes on tea and sugar, contributed significantly to this problem.
Exacerbated American Grievances after 1763
The Stamp Act is one of the greatest ritish thorns in the American side when 1766 arrived (enjamin Franklin Testifies Against the Stamp Act, p. 3). The problem was that this tax had to be paid by order of a Parliament where the colonials were not specifically represented. Franklin in fact threatens the ritish with a loss of respect and "affection" from the colonials if this Act were…… [Read More]
American evolution was a political turmoil that occurred in the United States between 1765 and 1783 through which rebels in Thirteen American Colonies defeated Britain's authority and led to the formation of the United States of America. The rebels achieved this goal through their rejection of monarchy and aristocracy that was characterized by initiatives that were geared towards a revolution. This important event in the history of the United States was also brought by a series of political, intellectual, and social changes that took place in government, thought processes, and the American society.
The commencement of the American evolution can be traced back to 1763 when leaders from Britain started to stiffen imperial reins ("Overview of the American evolution," n.d.). The tightening up of imperial reins by British leaders was characterized by the enforcement of punitive and coercive laws on various colonies. One of the major reasons for the actions…… [Read More]
American evolutionary War
The objective of this study is to write on the causes and major outcomes of the American evolutionary War.
Until the finalization of the Seven Years' War, there were only very few British North America colonists that had objections to their situation in the British Empire and British American Colonists had realized a great many benefits reported from the system of the British imperialists and furthermore paid little in the way of costs for those reported benefits. In fact, the British did not bother the American colonies until the earlier part of the 1760s. However, the 'Seven Years' War" brought about changes with Britain realizing victory over France and their allies at a great cost.
The Seven-Year's War also known as the French and Indian War brought many changes. According to reports "A staggering war debt influenced many British policies over the next decade. Attempts…… [Read More]
Revolution, Constitution and Enlightenment
The American Revolution and the ensuing U.S. Constitution put forward by the Federalists were both products of and directly informed by the European Enlightenment. The Founding Fathers were considerably influenced by thinkers like Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau and Montesquieu (whose separation of powers served as the model of the three-branched government of the U.S.). This paper will explain how the European Enlightenment set the stage for the American Revolution and U.S. Constitution by putting out the ideas that the Americans would use as the basis of the political and social foundation.
The Enlightenment aka the Age of Reason was an Age in which natural philosophy assumed the vaulted position of guiding light over the preceding Age of Faith, which had served as the socio-political basis in Europe for centuries. The Reformation had upended the Age of Faith and introduced secularization into the political realm (Laux), particularly via…… [Read More]
In the end these early attempts at independent diplomacy, a radical notion in and of itself retained foreign aide from France, despite its early misgivings. This in a time that diplomatic aide to a rebellion would be seen as grounds for a new war the French recognized the Americans as an entity in need of aide and provided 1 Million livres for munitions for the Americans, in secret of course. The Americans then moved forward in hopes to draw actually military assistance from Spain and France. (Middlekauff 398-400) The radical nature of these ideas lays not in the fact that the rebellion deemed themselves in need of foreign aide but in the fact that they believed their colonial/constitutional and temporary government had the right to ask for open foreign aide, as an independent entity, potentially capable of total independence from the rule of the Crown. (400)
The rejection by America…… [Read More]
revolutionary the American evolution was in reality. This is one issue that has been debated on by many experts in the past and in the present too. The contents of this paper serve to justify this though-provoking issue.
American evolution-how revolutionary was it?
When we try to comprehend why the American evolution was fought, we come to know that the residents of the American colonies did so to retain their hard-earned economic, political and social order when the British had stated to neglect them. However, before we began to understand what The American evolution was all about, it is necessary for us to look at conditions of the colonies preceding the war. The economy of Colonial America were divided into three separate parts: New England, where the economy was commerce; the South, where cash crops were the major source of earning; and the middle colonies, a combination of both. [Account…… [Read More]
Glorious Cause: The American Revolution
Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
Robert Middlekauff, born in 1927 in Washington state, holds a B.A. from the University of Washington and a Ph.D. from Yale. He saw active duty as a lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps in Korea from 1952-54. For most of his long career he has been a professor of history at the University of California at Berkeley. In addition to The Glorious Cause (1982), his published books include Ancients and Axioms (1963), The Mathers (1971), and Benjamin Franklin and His Enemies (1996). Dr. Middlekauff received the Bancroft Prize in 1972 and the Commonwealth Gold Medal in 1983. He is listed as a historical educator in Who's Who in America where this biographical information was obtained.
This work, a narrative historical study of the American Revolution, and the first volume to…… [Read More]
Era of the American Revolution, 1760-1791, by Richard D. Brown. Specifically it will use only pages 47-59 & 79-87 to answer the following question: Did a separate Colonial identity emerge in the decades before the American Revolution?
Ultimately, a separate Colonial identity was emerging as soon as the first settlers touched land in America in the 1600s. The colony was formed with dissidents who left England because of religious persecution, and they were far enough away from the mother country to form their own working political relationships. As essayist Greene notes, the relationship between England and America was "in many respects an uneasy connection" (Greene 48). By the 1760s, we had developed our own judicial system, our own educational system, and our own political institutions, such as the assembly, which actually worked better than their English counterparts did. The colonists were also productive and successful. Many who had…… [Read More]
Because of the wording of the "Declaration of Independence," Locke is perhaps the most famous Enlightenment influence upon the Founding Fathers. However, a number of Continental Enlightenment philosophers had great influence upon the shape of the new nation: "Jean-Jacques Rousseau…distrusted the aristocrats not out of a thirst for change but because he believed they were betraying decent traditional values…Rousseau argued that inequality was not only unnatural, but that -- when taken too far -- it made decent government impossible" (Brians 2002). The French philosopher Voltaire's irreverent attitude towards religion and Rousseau's scrupulous belief in the integrity of the 'natural' man, untouched by law and custom, is reflected in the Founding Founders' notions of a society that was based upon a rule of law, rather than upon the whims of a leader. Rights rather than birthright were to govern the new American state.
The philosopher of criminology Beccaria's influence should not…… [Read More]
Slaves were not in such a position, and often lived their entire lives in bondage to cruel masters and terrible conditions. Furthermore, in contrast to immigrants who left their home countries by choice, African slaves were kidnapped from their homes against their will. In these cases, there was indeed a definite hierarchy in the country.
Doerflinger turns the focus to the economy of the country at the time. According to the author, business people at the time were more individually focused on making use of the opportunities offered by the new country than on freeing themselves from England. Indeed, business people did very little to incite revolution. In this way, the paradigm of the economic world was much different from the social.
In terms of hierarchy, it seems not to have been greatly manifested in the American economy. Business people were free to conduct their dealings as they saw fit.…… [Read More]
omen's Lives After American Revolution
hereas the American Revolution has had a significant on people living in the thirteenth American colonies in general, it was also responsible for generating change in domains that appeared to have nothing in common with it. Previous to the ar of Independence, most women in the colonies were relatively accustomed with being discriminated on a daily basis. The American Revolution, however, played a major role in changing the way that women in the colonies behaved, as it presented them with the concept of freedom as being one of the most important values that one could uphold. Thus, ever since the American Revolutionary ar women in the U.S. took on new ideas and engaged in a process that was meant to gradually improve their social status. The American Civil ar was also essential in assisting women in experiencing progress, as, similar to African-Americans, they acknowledged the…… [Read More]
The Short-Term Causes of the American Revolution
Essayist Colin Bonwick writes that a short-term cause from the British perspective was the loss of revenue from taxes generated by American businesses and trading companies. And the short-term legislative measures by the British government were called the "Intolerable Acts" (Bonwick, 2002). More on the Intolerable Acts later on this page, but from the prospective of the colonists, their short-term causes included their rage at the " . . . indebtedness to rapacious British merchants and of navigations acts requiring them to trade through Britain" (Bonwick, 70).
On the subject of the Intolerable Acts (also called Coercive Acts), the short-term cause was created by the anger and frustration the colonists felt when Britain handed down unreasonable laws, designed to pinch the colonists in their pocketbooks, and basically punish them for their drift towards independence. The Boston Massacre happened on March 5, 1770, when…… [Read More]
One of the most important events in the history of the United States is the American Revolution, which is regarded as more important in the country development that ideas, trends, and actions. The significance of the American Revolution in the nation's history and development is highlighted in the fact that it was one of the seminal instances of the Enlightenment. During this period, the political philosophy of the Enlightenment was established and utilized in creating an entirely new country that has developed to become the world's super power. However, the American Revolution was fueled by a series of several major events and incidents brought by various factors including rebellion by the American colonies and Declaration of Independence.
Overview of the American Revolution
As previously mentioned, the American Revolution is one of the most important and remarkable events in the country's history given its role in the birth of…… [Read More]
Merchants and Traders of the American Revolution
The American Revolution occurred during the 1700's as the early settlers underwent a period of change. During this time, settlers in the Americas gained religious freedom, became prosperous merchants, and established a more democratic government. However, during this time, the settlers were also controlled and taken advantage of by England.
The American War was fought from 1776 to 1778 yet the American Revolution started much before the war. John Adams summed up the sentiment of the American Revolution when he stated, "ut what do we mean by the American Revolution? Do we mean the American war? The Revolution was affected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people...This radical change in the principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections of the people, was the real American Revolution."
The American Revolution was fought by the colonists, many of whom…… [Read More]
The second of Middlekauff's major theses is that the colonists were overmatched, militarily, and that the superiority of England's troops almost meant a victory for England. In many history books, the evolutionary figures are portrayed as almost super-human, and their victory against England's forces is portrayed as almost divinely mandated. The reality was much uglier and more vivid, and Middlekauff goes into painstaking detail about those battles. While most know that England used hired troops to fight the evolution, Middlekauff goes into an in-depth description of the hired Hessians and why they were considered such formidable foes. However, he also does a good job of explaining the advantages held by the colonists, including familiarity with the terrain, a guerrilla approach to warfare, and the determination to be free.
Middlekauff's approach to the book is that of a scholar. For example, while he attributes some part of the American victory to…… [Read More]
Breen's book showed that the American Revolution was built more on instinctive emotion than the rational action and decision-making that some think it to be. also learned that the revolution was more popular with far more people supporting it, and vociferously so, than had believed from movies such as 1776. Lastly, was astonished to discover that the pitch and passion of the people was regulated by safety committees that were set up throughout the fighting nation to control and regulate the mood.
Passion of war
According to John Adams, "the Revolution was affected before the war commenced." t did not come about in a rational cause-and-effect manner as a result of the taxes leveraged at the end of the French war against the British as many history textbooks make it seem to be. Rather the colonists had long and entrenched feelings of distrust and animosity against the British, and the…… [Read More]
Navies in American Revolution
For hundreds of years, maritime expansion represented the only way to reach distant shores, to attack enemies across channels of water, to explore uncharted territories, to make trade with regional neighbors and to connect the comprised empires. Leading directly into the 20th century, this was the chief mode of making war, maintaining occupations, colonizing lands and conducting the transport of goods acquired by trade or force. Peter Padfield theorized that ultimately, ritish maritime power was decisive in creating breathing space for liberal democracy in the world, as opposed to the autocratic states of continental Europe like Spain, France, Prussia and Russia. The Hapsburgs, the ourbons, Hitler and Stalin all failed to find a strategy that would defeat the maritime empires, which controlled the world's trade routes and raw materials. Successful maritime powers like ritain and, in the 20th Century, the United States, required coastlines with deep…… [Read More]
Cross-Cultural Differences and Communication
Cultural identity is a significant force that shapes the interaction between people from different cultures. The contemporary globalization has made intercultural interactions inevitable in the contemporary society. People draw conclusions about other people's culture depending on a wide range of observations about the individual's way of live, values and behavior. For instance, understanding what people from specific cultural values helps in drawing about that culture in that specific aspect of value or behavior (Byram, 2015). For example, I have drawn the conclusion that martial art is a significant cultural practice in the Chinese culture. This conclusion is informed by the several Chinese films that I have watched that have largely been characterized by Martial Arts. This predominance of martial arts in these films informed the conclusion I have drawn from the Chinese culture.
UNIT 4 DISCUSSION
I am visiting a new country within a different culture…… [Read More]
Since the author breaks down the book into three main categories, and then further breaks down the categories into chapters, the book has logical breaking points, and follows a rational chronology. It is easy to see, after reading this book, the stages our democracy evolved through, and how these systematic stages clearly affected the ultimate result. From Monarchy to epublicanism to Democracy, each section is like a stepping-stone for the founding fathers, and they had to cover each step to find the final pathway to freedom and self-rule.
What is most interesting about this book is that the author's theories are so radical, and that no one, or very few, acknowledged them before. The author's main thesis, that radical thought created the American evolution, instead of conservative thought that led to determination and revolt, does not seem so radical today, and indeed, the author acknowledges that in the book. Today,…… [Read More]
Colonial Culture efore the American Revolution
The Great Awakening and Religious Change
The Impact of Education
When discussing causes of the American Revolution, most historians cite growing taxation, lack of representation in the national government, attempts by the King and Parliament to curb the power of colonial legislatures, and restrictions on trade as some of the primary causes. Often ignored as a cause are the changes in American colonial society that occurred in the decades before the revolution. Americans began to develop a cultural identity separate from that of Great ritain. Attitudes toward religion underwent sweeping modifications as a result of the Great Awakening. Landed aristocracy was unable to dominate society in the same way that it did in England. Education became more prevalent. New ideas concerning the nature and rights of people were debated and gradually accepted. All of these factors played a part in propelling Americans toward independence.…… [Read More]
Latin American Revolution: New Tactical Approach
The transition in how revolution occurs in Latin America can be explained by a growing awareness of the inefficiency of modern bureaucracy and/or government. In the past, revolution has occurred primarily through the overthrow of one government and the establishment of another. Today, however, revolution is more cultural—it is rooted more in the living of lives and less in the dynamic of governmental oversight. As Holloway states, “We are flies caught in a spider’s web…We can only try to emancipate ourselves, to move outwards, negatively, critically, from where we are” (Holloway 5). What this means is that it is useless to attempt to act as the spider acts—which is what replacing one government with another essentially signifies in the modern age. The web is what needs to be avoided—and so revolution is now centered on escaping the web—the web of politics, the web of…… [Read More]
intended to present to his readership a dual biography of Jefferson and Adams. However, because he felt most Americans knew nothing of Adams, he decided to focus more on just Adams instead. Essentially the book is the life of Adams through the lens of Adams. He also made sure to include the plethora of correspondence among John Adam and Abigail Adams, his wife. He also includes correspondence between Adams and Jefferson. The correspondences are what really make the book noteworthy among those the praise the book. It's a narrative style, heavily documented biography of Adams.
Background of the book
The timeline centers on the life of John Adams, which is from 1735-1826 and in and around the greater Boston area. He attended Harvard and experienced the period of the American Revolution. The biography continues with the post-war period and the tough adjustment the colonies experienced. From then onward, Adams was…… [Read More]
Compare similarities differences revolutions America, France, Latin America. Identify common themes present revolution. What fighting ? Who influenced revolutions? What outcome revolution? What effect revolutions world?.
evolutions in America, France, and Latin America:
Causes, ideology, and consequences
Perhaps the most notable difference between the 18th century revolution in America vs. The 18th century revolution in France was one of class: America was not, primarily, a class-driven revolution. The Founding Fathers and supporters of the American evolution came from the elites of American society. George Washington was an important British general during the French-Indian Wars and Benjamin Franklin was a prominent figure in American colonial politics before talk of revolution became common currency. The colonists' frustration at what they perceived as the British Crown's unreasonable taxation policy and their growing economic power that was not honored with political power within the Empire was at the heart of the American evolution.…… [Read More]
The second section examines the processes of the Constitutional Convention, the rectification of the weak Articles of Confederation, the ratification of the new Constitution, and the Washington and Jeffersonian Administrations. The first presidents had to try to make sense of the wording of the new document and put the presidency's ideals into practice. The third section examines the evolving role of presidents from Jackson to the present and how they defined the role in relationship to the legislative and judicial branches, public opinion, historical events, and foreign affairs.
McDonald notes that although Democrats today tend to be most critical of so-called imperially styled presidents, it was Republicans who decried the increasingly powerful office of the presidency during the Roosevelt and Johnson administrations, and only later did the two parties flip-flop, after Nixon created what would later be called the imperial presidency by Democrats. This suggests that there is less of…… [Read More]