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Andrew Jackson was the seventh president of the United States and a controversial historical figure. He owned slaves, as did many American men in his time, and he helped banish the Native Americans from their homelands. In some ways, these actions make Andrew Jackson truly one of the forefathers of the United States, a country that cannot escape some of the horrors of its history. However, Andrew Jackson also managed to make his mark as a true hero. He overcame great hardship in his life, fought bravely, and contributed to American politics with passion. James C. Curtis describes the ups and downs of Andrew Jackson's life in his book: Andrew Jackson and the Search for Vindication. The title of the biography reflects the fact that Andrew Jackson felt persecuted throughout much of his life and often felt he had to fight back hard to earn respect and trust. The most…
Curtis, James. Andrew Jackson and the Search for Vindication. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1976.
Andrew Jackson's Presidency: A View to Defining the Good and ad
Andrew Jackson is lauded by many as one of the greatest generals and presidents in United States history, and is vilified as one of the most damaging of all time. The fact is that he had some incredible successes in his career that were accompanied by dramatic failures, at least in the minds of some. Jackson himself had so much self-confidence that he would never have acknowledged failure in any endeavor. During his time as a commanding general in the United States military he had the success of the attle of New Orleans and the critical failure of the Florida campaign. During his presidency he had the historical failures of the "trail of tears" and cronyism, and the successes of the federal banking decision and the solidification of the two party system. Although he was a popular president among…
Binder, Frederick Moore. "James Buchanan: Jacksonian Expansionist." The Historian 55 (1992): 69-85.
Brown, David. "Jeffersonian Ideology and the Second Party System." The Historian 62 (1999): 17-31.
Ho, James. C. "Misunderstood precedent: Andrew Jackson and the real case against censure." Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 24 (2000): 283-306.
Magliocca, Gerard M. (2003). "The Cherokee removal and the fourteenth amendment." Duke Law Journal 53, no.3 (2003): 875-895.
The humble and modest imagery which accompanies Andrew Jackson at his inauguration is an image consistent with his reputation as a defender of individual rights and as a man of the people- one no different from everyday lay persons. Many of Andrew Jackson's decisions in office, however, challenge this image and reputation. There is a degree of tension between his conduct and the ideals and values attributed to him-some of which he espoused. Brinkley suggests throughout that the symbolism was as important if not more important than the actual events. Andrew Jackson's professed beliefs about the need to limit the degree of government interference, preserve the rights of states, and limit terms in office need to be reconciled, if possible, with many of the decisions he made while in office. Events such as nullification, his use of the spoil system, his removal of the Indians, and his veto…
Brands, H.W. (2005). Andrew jackson: His life and times. (pp. 3-560). New York: Double Day.
Burstein, A. (2003). The passions of Andrew Jackson. (pp.240). New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Cave, A.A. (2003). Abuse of power: Andrew Jackson and the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Historian, 65(6), pp. 1330-1353.
Meacham, J. (2010). Jackson Stares Down South Carolina. American Heritage, 59(4), pp. 44-46.
.. The philanthropist will rejoice that the remnant of that ill-fated race has at length been placed beyond the reach of injury or oppression.
Jackson was also moved by his early years as a frontier layer, traveling from court to court as an attorney or anything really was fraught with danger and many sleepless nights holding a vigil for one's safety from Indians.
hat he specifically did with this information and this dogmatic belief system was legislate and arm himself for the sole purpose of removing the Indians from land the white man wanted.
According to several experts on Jackson's life the whole of his life was spent dealing with the Indian question. He sought through actions and legislation to free the land from Indian rights to it. So that the white man could progress according to the long held plan of civilization. He came to terms with any desire…
Andrew Jackson Biography" www.whitehouse.govnd.
Buchanan, John. Jackson's Way: Andrew Jackson and the People of the Western Waters. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2001.
Dusenbery B. M, http://www.amazon.com/Monument-memory-General-Andrew-Jackson/dp/B0008CT4TI/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1207696220&sr=8-1 " Monument to the memory of General Andrew Jackson: Containing twenty-five eulogies and sermons delivered on occasion of his death: to which is added an... whole preceded by a short sketch of his life (New York: James a. Bill, 1846)
Indian Wars Timetable" www.u-s-history.comnd.
Similarly, Jackson likewise took actions against people and land as he did with money and commerce.
Indian emoval, Land Sale, and the Opening of the West
In a strange irony, much of the opening of the Western United States to white settlers came as a result of some rather questionable tactics on the part of Andrew Jackson. egardless of the motives, Jackson, it should be noted, supported and coordinated the forced removal of indians from their tribal lands, and court appeals by the indians often fell on the deaf ears of Jackson loyalists and appointees; these lands were then sold by the U.S. government to the highest bidder or offered in land grants in an effort to "open the West" to settlers and developers (Meserve, 1986). Even for the sake of economic development, these tactics on the part of Jackson are irresponsible at best. Presently, indian nations are still fighting…
Meserve, W.J. (1986). Heralds of Promise: The Drama of the American People during the Age of Jackson, 1829-1849. New York: Greenwood Press.
Ryan, M.P. (1996). Narratives of Democracy, or Shistory Without Subjects. American Literary History, 8(2), 311-327.
Sharp, J.R. (1970). The Jacksonians vs. The Banks: Politics in the States after the Panic of 1837. New York: Columbia University Press.
Silbey, J.H. (1973). Political Ideology and Voting Behavior in the Age of Jackson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Andrew Jackson [...] how the exaltation of the common man, the sense of America as a redeemer nation destined for expansion across the North American continent, and white Americans' racial attitudes toward Native Americans east of the Mississippi iver combined to produce a federal policy of Indian removal. Jackson was a popular president who helped perpetuate prejudice and racial inequality with his practices regarding the Native Americans. His Indian emoval Act of 1830 was one of the darkest legislations in American history, and it created lasting animosity between Native Americans and white settlers.
Many Americans viewed Andrew Jackson as a "common man" who had risen through the ranks in the Army, won fame during the epic Battle of New Orleans in 1815, and attained success as a merchant and farmer. One man said of him when he died, "Born a simple citizen, of poor but respectable parents, he became great…
Ward, John William. Andrew Jackson, Symbol for an Age. London: Oxford University Press, 1962.
Andrew Jackson's war Second ank United States. e include key people, events,
Andrew Jackson's conflict with the Second ank of the United States represented a crucial time period in American history. In order to best elucidate the cause of the conflict, its repercussions, and the key players involved in it, it is necessary to return to the root of the reason that Jackson opposed such a financial institution. The bank essentially represented a misnomer, as it was in fact privately owned by wealthy businessmen -- many of whose lineages and ties led back to Europe. In fact, the U.S. government only owned approximately a fifth of the shares in this bank. (Faragher et al., 2009, p. 282). Therefore, Jackson was extremely hesitant about the degree of power and relative autonomy that he would deliver to private investors were the charter for the bank sanctioned by him.
Another important reason that…
Biddle's efforts were highly political in nature. 1932 was an election year, and one of his supporters for the charter of the bank, Clay, would be running against Jackson. However, Jackson is unique among U.S. presidents for the sheer amount of times he used the presidential power to veto measures. Somewhat predictably, he vetoed the charter for the Bank of the United States, and rode the momentum from this political maneuver during the election of that year. Billing himself as a state's rights advocate and hero of the common man, Jackson presented himself of the polar opposite of Clay who championed private investors, big business, and the privileged few. It is highly revealing that Jackson gave Clay a drubbing via the electoral votes in which he won by a landslide, 219 to 49.
After winning the election and stymying the efforts to renew the Bank of the United States, Jackson went a step further by presenting a high amount of federal government funding into states banks. The message was clear: Jackson would remain a proponent of states' rights and continue to support the common man, regardless of education, privilege, or wealth.
Jackson's political maneuvering would have a lasting effect on business relations within the U.S. By choosing to allow individual states the right to dictate economic trends and by absolving the federal government from the responsibility of doing so, Jackson actually begat the period of laissez faire economics (and politics) that would eventually lead to future conflict between presidents and big business conglomerations, trust-busting, and the Progressive Party. In the meantime, however, the federal integrity of the U.S. was safe from the machinations of international bankers.
" Somehow, the Committee is incensed that their position has been misrepresented to the American people and they can not understand how a portion of the white population can disagree with the providential wisdom of driving the Native Americans even further west than they already have been driven. When the Cherokees exercise the same common sense and claim the same rights of whites on their own territory, this is seen as radical and out of order. To further quote the Committee's work, they remark that "No respectable jurist has ever gravely contended, that the right of the Indians to hold their reserved lands, could be supported in the courts of the country, upon any other ground than the grant or permission of the sovereignty or State in which such lands lie (Erbach, "The Cherokee Removal Group C. Readings")." In other words, like slavery, oppression of the Native Americans is acceptable…
"Andrew Jackson and Indian Removal." http://www.teachushistory.org/indian-removal/approaches/andrew-jackson-indian-removal (accessed 31 March 2011).
Erbach, Jennifer. "The Cherokee Removal Group a Readings."
2002. http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/teachers/lesson5-groupa.html (accessed 30 March 2011).
Erbach, Jennifer. "The Cherokee Removal Group B. Readings."
uh.edu). He also made the electing process more democratic by having conventions where he had representatives from every state nominate a presidential candidate to represent their individual parties. This would provide a more accurate representation of who the people themselves saw as President.
Jackson also had great influence on the economic situation of that era. In order for Americans to start to buy more American goods, Jackson wanted to pass a tariff on all English goods. Although this meant that America would get more of their things sold and purchased, it also meant that Americans had to pay more for necessary goods that came from abroad (McGraw-Hill, p.338). This angered the South who owned property and were most affected by the rise in these tariffs. This was the beginning of the Nullification Act. This act was made as a compromise to steadily reduce the tariff placed throughout the years, but…
McGraw Hill. The American Republic to 1877: Unit 5: The Growing Nation:
Chapter 11: The Jackson Era. The McGraw Hill Companies and Glencove.
2004, 2nd edition. Print.
"Learn about the Jacksonian Era." Digital History. n.d. n.p. 27 May 11
1820-1850 is seen as a period of major change in American History. We often call this period the Age of ackson, since Adrew ackson had a profound influence on this entire period. Describe what ackson stood for and what his policies on the spoils system, nullification, The Bank of the U.S., Indian Removal, land sale, and the opening of the West. Also discuss the great strides in transportation in this era. Then I want you to give an assessment as to whether you feel that the changes were due to the actions of ackson or would they have occurred at this time regardless of who sat in the White House? Be very specific.
The Age of ackson
Andrew ackson's election for U.S. presidency in 1828 made it possible for the masses to acknowledge that change was going to happen. In addition to the fact that the new president had innovative…
Jackson was determined to remove Indians from territories in the vicinity of American states and he believed that by moving them to the West he would make it possible for Americans to settle further to the West on territories previously belonging to Native Americans. His actions have had terrible consequences on Indian populations as they were forced to travel westward to territories that they nothing to do with and as they were poorly equipped to travel great distances. "Between 1830 and 1838, virtually all the "Five Civilized Tribes" were expelled from the southern states and forced to relocate in the new Indian Territory, which Congress had officially created by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834" (245).
Jackson was actively involved in cancelling the Second Bank of the United States' federal charter for a series of reasons mainly related to how particular individuals were provided with the opportunity to exploit both the government and the nation's finances. Given that Jackson intended to provide all people with equal powers to experience progress, he acknowledged that the federal charter was actually meant to assist wealthy individuals in becoming richer. His involvement was practically meant to assist western and southern states in having the opportunity to progress similar to how northern states were progressing. The seventh president was reluctant to allow the country's rich families to continue to exploit the masses without providing them with the privileges that underprivileged individuals were entitled to.
It is difficult to determine the exact role that Jackson played in the change happening throughout the U.S. In the 1928-1960 time periods. The fact that the first phase of the industrial revolution happened concomitantly to the Age of Jackson makes it possible for individuals to understand that Americans had been particularly successful as a result of these two occurrences, considering that the industrial revolution enabled them to industrialize their businesses and that Jackson introduced thinking that would no longer allow influential actors to intervene and prevent the masses from progressing.
As is often the case, these good times could not last forever. Just like our modern day governmental debt being financed by foreign investment, Andrew Jackson and the nation faced reality when in 1837 foreign investors came to banks to collect. The speculative bubble of 1837 burst in what historians accurately termed the Panic of 1837. English and other European bankers called in the many outstanding loans the states had out as well as many private investors. Paying back these loans instantly crushed the nation's gold supplies which created a ripple affect where many local and state banks could not pay their debts, investors or the governmental reserves. These events lead to many forced bank failures and a national recession ensued.
The Missouri Compromise
In hindsight, we as a nation know now that the southern states who were in favor of slavery were prepared to defend their right to own…
Brulatour, Meg. Transcendental Ideas: Reform: Social and Political Changes in the Time of Emerson and Thoreau: The 19th Century at a Glance. Ed. Meg Brulatour. VCU. Retrieved on 21 Nov. 2004, from http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/transcendentalism/ideas/reformback.html .
Lorence, James J. Enduring Voices: To 1877 the Enduring Voices, a History of the American People. 4th ed., vol. 1. ADD CITY: Houghton Mifflin Company, ADD YEAR.
Pessen, Edward. The Many-Faceted Jacksonian Era: New Interpretations. Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 1977.
Welter, Rush. The Mind of America, 1820-1860. New York: Columbia UP, 1975.
American president as a king would have been one of the greatest insults in the early 19th century, merely decades after the United States won its independence from the British crown. Andrew Jackson's policies and leadership style both reminded the American public of monarchic rule. Here, Jackson is depicted as a loathsome king who tramples on the American constitution and wants to veto any legislation Congress tries to pass. The veto power refers to Jackson's vetoing of several congressional bills including those related to the creation of federal banking systems. At the top of the cartoon, the words "Born to Command" underscore the comparison with Jackson and a dictatorial ruler. Interestingly, Jackson touted himself as being the "man of the people," not "King Andrew." One reason why Jackson did engage his veto power as often as he did was that he viewed his role as being to protect the people,…
"Andrew Jackson, (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://americanhistory.si.edu/presidency/timeline/pres_era/3_668.html
"King Andrew." [Political Cartoon]. Available online: http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/treasures_of_congress/Images/page_9/30a.html
Thompson, et al. (n.d.). An overview of healthcare management. Retrieved online: http://samples.jbpub.com/9780763790868/90868_CH01_FINAL_WithoutCropMark.pdf
demise of traditional hierarchical distinctions in the fifty years after the American evolution. It is easy to see how America changed from a hierarchical society to an egalitarian world that supported social equality. America was setting the stage for the world with her new democracy, and she wanted to be a role model in modernization and equality.
When the first colonists stepped on the shores of Virginia and Massachusetts, they were looking for a better way of life that allowed them religious freedom and the ability to earn their living by their own hands. They had left England to escape religious persecution, but also to create viable townships that could create a profit for themselves and the people who funded them back in Europe. Thus, they carried heavy burdens -- they had to create towns from scratch, make a living, and create a profit so they could survive and thrive.…
Ward, John William. Andrew Jackson, Symbol for an Age. London: Oxford University Press, 1962.
The FDIC is one of oosevelt's most notable legacies. However, New deal economics have largely fallen by the wayside. The neo-liberal market economy that prevailed in the latter decades of the 20th century counteracts the inherent socialism of the New Deal.
A series of public works programs like the Civil Works Administration (CWA), the Public Works Association (PWA), the Works Progress Administration (WPA), and the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) helped stimulate the American economy in the wake of the Depression. Public works projects resulted in improved transportation infrastructures, which would become increasingly important during the age of the automobile.
The New Deal also resulted in improved labor laws under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 and therefore offered tacit support for labor unions. One of the most lasting legacies of the New Deal was the Social Security Act, encouraging investments in pensions which would also stimulate the economy. Although…
Andrew Jackson." State Library of North Carolina. Retrieved Dec 4, 2006 at http://statelibrary.dcr.state.nc.us/nc/bio/public/jackson.htm
Andrew Jackson." The White House. Retrieved Nov 4, 2006 at http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/aj7.html
Dred Scott case: the Supreme Court decision." PBS. Retrieved Dec 4, 2006 at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h2933.html
Jacksonian Democracy." Fact Monster. Retrieved Dec 4, 2006 at http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/people/A0858962.html
During antebellum America, the Jacksonian Democrats were created. This was a group that viewed themselves as protectors of the common people. A powerful executive whose goal was to destroy aristocracy in America, Andrew Jackson, ruled the Jacksonian Democrats. (Schlesinger)
Strangely, this group was not made up of the common people. The Jacksonian Democrats were a wealthy group that supported equality between white men, enacted radical economic policies, and disregarded any capabilities of the federal government. Many say that the group was not the introducers of democracy in America but rather users of the system for their own benefit.
During the early 1800's, the United States was growing at a rapid pace. A market revolution took place as cash-crop agriculture and capitalist manufacturing replaced the artisan economy. However, this prosperity created a split between the industrializing, urban north, agrarian, rural South, and the expanding West.
The Jacksonians passed the…
Schlesinger, Jr. The Age of Jackson. 1945.
Latner, R. The Presidency of Andrew Jackson. 1979.
Sellers, Charles. The Market Revolution: Jacksonian America, 1815-1846. 1991.
But it certainly was a crucial step in he legitimation of free labor" (141).
eligion in general and revivals especially eased the pains of capitalist expansion in the early 19th century U.S. After Finney was gone, the converted reformers evangelized the working class; they supported poor churches and built new ones in working class neighborhoods. Finney's revival was effective since it dissected all class boundaries and united middle and working class individuals in churches. The middle class went to church, because of the moral obligation to do so; the working classes went, because they were concerned about losing their. Workers who did not become members of churches had more difficulty keeping their jobs. To succeed in ochester, it was astute for the employees to become active churchgoers.
In 1791, not much before the Native Americans began their trek across the country and ochester, New York, was changing its employee/merchant system,…
Gilje, Paul a., ed. The Wages of Independence: Capitalism in the Early American Republic. Madison, WI: Madison House, 1997
Johnson, Paul E. A Shopkeeper's Millennium: Society and Revivals in Rochester, New York, New York: Hill and Wang, 2004.
McCusker, J.J. And Menard, R.R., the Economy of British America, 1607-1789, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.
Slaughter, Thomas. R. Whiskey Rebellion: Frontier Epilogue to the American Revolution, New York, Oxford Press, 1986.
They then take it a step farther in what appears to directly
challenge the federal government and can easily be seen as foreshadowing
its later secession in which South Carolina says as a state that (we), "Do
further Declare that we wil not submit to the application of force, on the
part of the Federal Government." This bold statement is challenged by
President Andrew Jackson, and as unlikely as it is for a state to stand up
to federal force, it is very revealing of the nature of the union. South
Carolina, it appears, is ready to fight on the issue on taxation and
withdraw from the union to form its own government as a sovereign nation.
Surely South Carolina could not have been the only state such opposed to
the tariffs and with such strong convictions ready to become independent,
as it felt the federal government was not doing…
As the costs were considerably less, the profit margins were greater and they were adaptable to host of different weather conditions. ("A rief History of Slavery")
How did the ritish and American ways of viewing representative government differ? How did these differences lead to problems between ritain and America?
The ritish believed that Parliament should address the different issues affecting the colonies. However, the colonists were not given any kind of representation or a way of discussing their grievances. This is different from the American views, where people felt that everyone should be allowed to speak directly with their representatives, about a host of issues.
Over the course of time, this would lead to problems between ritain and America. As the colonists felt that Parliament was not willing to listen to their concerns or to discuss them, by ensuring that they had some form of representation. This is was problematic,…
Brewer, Lawanda. "Religion in Colonial America." UNCP, 2001. Web. 11 Feb. 2011
"A Brief History of Slavery." Religious Tolerance, 2006. Web. 11 Feb. 2011
Geise, Robert. American History to 1877. Hauppauge, NY: Baron's Educational Services, 1992. Print.
MLA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
Military Leadership Merits of General George S. Patton, Jr.
One aspect of cultural development which seems to be universal throughout the course of humanity's history is the innate desire of society to lionize the accomplishments of triumphant military leaders. Perhaps owing to a subconscious desire for the implicit protection provided by effectual wartime figures, nearly every civilization from the ancient Greeks to contemporary suburban Americans has placed its generals, admirals, and other military authorities on a proverbial pedestal, lauding their preternatural ability to motivate men during the heat of battle while achieving strategic victories. Among this nation's long lineage of military leaders -- which begins with George Washington's revolutionary heroics and includes famed generals like Andrew Jackson and William Tecumseh Sherman -- one of the most competent and accomplished figures to ever lead American troops on the field of battle was also considered to be among the most controversial. General…
Atkinson, R. (2007). The Day of Battle: The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943 -- 1944 (The Liberation
Trilogy). New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.
Axelrod, A. (2006). Patton: A Biography. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan.
Blumenson, M. (1974). The Patton Papers 1885-1940. Vol. I.
He was viewing them as little children who required guidance. He tended to believe that the policy of removal had great benefits to the Indians. Majority of the white Americans were thinking that United States was not capable of extending past Mississippi. The removal was capable of saving the Indian nationals from the white's depredations Foreman 1932).
The removal could make them to govern themselves peacefully
It was assumed that the removal was to resettle the Indians in a region where they were capable of governing themselves peacefully. However, a number of Americans viewed this as being a mere excuse for a cruel and appalling course of action, and complained against the removal of the Indian nationals. Their complaints however could not prevent the southeastern populations from being removal. The first lot of people to sign the removal treaty was the Choctaws. They did this in September 1830. A number…
(415 pp., 14 ill., 6 maps, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1932.)
Gibson, Arrell M. Oklahoma: A History of Five Centuries. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1981
Lindberg, Kip and Matthews, Matt. "To Play a Bold Game: The Battle of Honey Springs" North and South Magazine December 2002: pgs. 56- 61.
American Way of War
The history of the American Way of War is a transitional one, as Weigley shows in his landmark work of the same name. The strategy of war went from, under Washington, a small scale, elude and survive set of tactics practiced by what seem today to be relatively "quaint" militias, to -- in the 20th century -- a full-scale operation known as "total war." True, "total war" was not a concept invented by the Americans in the 20th century. The North eventually practiced "total war" against the Confederates when Sherman's campaign left utter destruction of civilian territory in its wake. The ancient Romans practiced it when, under the direction of Cato, they destroyed Carthage because its mere existence, they felt, posed a threat to their prosperity. In the 20th century, however, "total war" received an enormous boost of technical support when the inventors of the atom…
Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. LA: Feral House, 2003.
Chollet, Derek and James Goldgeier. America Between the Wars. NY: Public Affairs,
Debs, Eugene. "Anti-War Speech," 16 June 1918. Web.
.." And with that that party "controls the spoils of office" by appointing people friendly to the president's election to positions of influence and by keeping the party's masses happy by giving them what they asked for.
In defining HO and HY, and UNDER HAT CONDITIONS the CHANGE CAME on the national political scene that vaulted Andrew Jackson (a roughneck frontier and war hero with little sophistication vis-a-vis national politics and diplomatic elitism) - i.e., Jacksonian Democracy - into the hite House, University of Chicago social science professor Marvin Meyers writes in American Quarterly (Meyers 1953) that there are three distinct phases to examine. Put in the context of published volumes that would cover these three phases, Meyers lays it out: one, "the revolt of the urban masses against a business aristocracy"; two, "simple farming folk rise against the chicanery of capitalist slickers"; and three, "...tense with the struggle of…
Aldrich, John H. Why Parties? Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995.
Brown, David. "Jeffersonian Ideology and the Second Party System." Historian 62.1 (1999):
Eldersveld, Samuel J.; & Walton, Hanes. Political Parties in American Society. Boston: Bedford/
Segregation, denial of voting rights, and systemic terrorization were part of the everyday life of many African-Americans. Following the Civil Rights Movement, African-Americans had the same legal rights as other Americans. The years following the Civil Rights Movement have seen those legal rights bloom into actual rights. In approximately 50 years, the United States has gone from a country that was sharply divided along racial lines, to a country where the most influential members of the President's cabinet are African-Americans. Furthermore, the wealthiest, and perhaps most influential, entertainer, Oprah infrey, is an African-American.
hile there is some surface validity to the idea that American policy is dominated by a power elite, there is too much evidence that contradicts the idea of a true power elite. First, there has been a major revolution in American society in the last 50 years. The country has gone from an almost apartheid-like system…
Abraham Lincoln." WhiteHouse.gov. 2005. The White House. 9 Mar. 2005 http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/al16.html .
Andrew Jackson." WhiteHouse.gov. 2005. The White House. 9 Mar. 2005 http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/aj7.html .
Gates, Bill and Melinda French Gates. "Letter from Bill and Melinda French Gates." Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. 2005. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. 9 Mar. 2005. http://www.gatesfoundation.org/AboutUs/LetterfromBillMelindaFrenchGates/default.htm .
Lyndon Johnson." WhiteHouse.gov. 2005. The White House. 9 Mar. 2005 http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/lj36.html .
Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.
Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…
Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
Union at Risk, historian Richard Ellis confronts the most singularly formative event of Andrew Jackson's two presidential terms: The Nullification Crisis of 1832 and 1833. In response to tariffs enacted by the Congress in Washington in the late 1820s, the State of South Carolina declared their legal independence from national laws. Avoiding the tariffs, South Carolina poses a real threat to the Jackson administration with serious national repercussions; responsively, Jackson issued a Proclamation asserting the foremost power of the Federal government.
Because legal action means little to a state already refusing Washington's insistence, Jackson found executive support in the Force Act, allowing national laws to be enforced on a state-wide basis with troops. The assuagement of the crisis by Henry Clay brought solvent end to this doctrinal crisis between states' rights and national policy. Richard Ellis argues that this decisive moment in 19th century politics not only connected to other…
Another Alamo survivor, Enrique Esparza, recalled that Crockett was the "leading spirit" in the camp and provided support and advice to military commanders
illiam Travis and Jim Bowie. "Don Benito," as the Mexicans called him, went "to every exposed point and personally directed the fighting." (PBS Online).
In fact, Crockett's personality and tenacity served him up until the moment of his death. He was reportedly one of the last seven men defending the Alamo. However, Crockett did not have the dignity of dying in battle. hen Santa Anna entered the Alamo he ordered the execution of any survivors. "According to the diary of Mexican soldier Jose Enrique de la Pena, several Mexican officers hacked the prisoners to death with their swords." (PBS Online). However:
Crockett's reputation and that of the other survivors was not, as some have suggested, sullied by their capture. Their dignity and bravery was, in fact, further…
American West. "Davy Crockett." American West. 1996. American West. 14 Nov. 2006 http://www.americanwest.com/pages/davycroc.htm .
Lofaro, Michael. "Crockett, David." The Handbook of Texas Online.
The University of Texas at Austin. 14 Nov. 2006 http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/CC/fcr24.html.
PBS. "People & Events: David 'Davy' Crockett (1786-1836)." Remember the Alamo. 2004.
American History prior 1877 signed . Start introduction paragraph discuss historical events / people occurances, devote approximately page topic chosen.
"Unimportant" American Events
In spite of the fact that they had a decisive influence on the American society, particular historic events are likely to be forgotten by the masses. Little people know something regarding Thomas Paine's "Common Sense" pamphlet or about the influence that it had on colonists during the ar of Independence. The Three-fifths compromise made it possible for Southerners to increase their power in the U.S. through exploiting the fact that they had slaves. The Fugitive Slave Clause of 1793 was among the first legislations issued with the purpose of allowing slaveholders to get their slaves back. The ar of 1812 played an essential role in shaping U.S. history, but received little attention from the public across time. The Land Act of 1820 prohibited the acquisition of public…
"Common Sense," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the Digital History Website: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/documents/documents_p2.cfm?doc=267
"Land Act of 1820," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the University of Oklahoma Website: http://jay.law.ou.edu/faculty/Hampton/Mineral%20Title%20Examination/General%20Reading%20-%20Land%20Act%20of%201820.pdf
"The Fugitive Slave Acts of 1793 and 1850," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the University at Buffalo Website: http://www.nsm.buffalo.edu/~sww/0history/SlaveActs.html
"The Presidency of Andrew Jackson," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the Digital History Website: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=637
Laffitte, pretending to cooperate with the ritish, warned the officials in Louisiana of the impending attack. However, Governor W.C.C. Claiborne didn't believe Laffitte and called upon the United States Army and the United States Navy to completely wipe out the colony from existence.
III. Laffitte and General Jackson: The attle of New Orleans
The U.S. Army and Navy attacked Laffitte and captured some of his ships. Laffitte still announcing his loyalty to the United States offered his assistance to the worn and weary troops of General Andrew Jackson defending New Orleans in exchange for a full pardon for himself and his men. General Jackson accepted the proposition and Laffite and his men, now called the aratarians, fought with all their might in the attle of New Orleans which took place in December of 1814 and January of 1815. General Jackson said that Laffite was "one of the ablest men" in…
Jean Lafitte New Orleans Crime Library [Online] available at http://www.crimelibrary.com/gangsters_outlaws/cops_others/lafitte/14.html?sect=18
Ross, Nola Mae (nd) Jean Lafitte "War Hero" Louisiana Books [Online] available at http://www.booksbynolaross.com/articlewarhero.htm
Pirates: Jean Lafitte [Online] available at http://members.aol.com/lostincave/LaFitte.html
Lafitte, Jean - the William Charles Cole Claiborne connection [Online] available at http://freespace.virgin.net/rod.clayburn/clayburn/usa/laffite.htm
Otter -- Crockett -- cook
s William Otter's a History of My Own Time a rags-to-riches success story? To what extent does it conform to the themes associated with the Cult of the Self-Made Man and to what extent does it deviate?
William Otter's autobiographical work A History of My Own Time (1835) is truly what one would call a "rags-to-riches" tale, yet it can also be viewed as being quite the opposite. Otter started out in several professions -- a shoemaker with John Paxton in New York City, the venetian blind-making business with William Howard, a carpenter with Gausman, and finally, the bricklaying and plastering business with Kenweth King. Following these flings as an apprentice, Otter then decided to attend school with a "liberal attention to classic lore," but Otter's involvement with heavy drinking at the taverns and his association with many of New York's toughest street gangs severely…
In 1842, P.T. Barnum purchased what has come to be called the "Feejee Mermaid" (i.e., from the island nation of Fiji) from a Boston museum proprietor. This "mermaid" was a conglomeration of various fish parts and other faked pieces assembled to look like a real mermaid; of course, its authenticity was not promoted by Barnum who merely wished to display the "mermaid" as a curiosity of "artful deception." Considering Crockett's love for the outdoors and for nature, he most probably would have bought a ticket to see the mermaid at Barnum's museum and thus would have enjoyed the exhibit, mostly due to his innate curiosity as pointed out in his narrative and his love for nature, but since Crockett was not a stupid nor gullible man, he most assuredly would not have been fooled by Barnum's "mermaid" and would have viewed it yet another gimmick to fool the common man or woman and thus profit from their gullability. As a demagogue, Crockett would also have not liked the idea of the mermaid as a "promise" to the viewer in regard to its authenticity, for Crockett surely would have considered any attempt to make money from gullible customers as outright theft.
Question # 4: How would William Otter respond to Barnum's "What Is It?" exhibit? How would he describe it? Would he enjoy the exhibit? Would he demand his money back? Answer should draw on both James Cook's account of the exhibit and evidence from A History of My Own Times.
In his book The Arts of deception, James W. Cook describes an exhibit in Barnum's museum called "What Is It?," promoted in the museum's literature as "Nondescript," meaning something that cannot easily be identified or recognized, much like Barnum's "Feejee mermaid." This exhibit featured a black man with a shaved head, dressed in furs or tights while grunting and consuming what appeared to be a meal of "African" origin; obviously, Barnum was attempting to parody the traditional racist view of the black man as an "African" primitive far beyond the bounds of ordinary New York civilization. For William Otter, this exhibit, due to his New York City roots, would have been seen as quite hilarious yet somehow reminiscent of the streets of New York with its roving bands of thieves and rowdies, some of whom were most assuredly African-American. As to enjoying the exhibit, Otter would most probably have thoroughly liked it, for it may have reminded him of his own early roots working as a "slave" in various low-paying and often unglamorous professions in New York City. Also, Otter may have understood the true meaning of this exhibit -- a symbolic reflection of life on the streets of the city with many people living as animals while the rich and powerful enjoyed their luxuries and wealth. Of course, Otter would not have asked for his money back; in fact, he may have returned to Barnum's museum to see this exhibit several times.
Still, many prospered -- visitors such as Alexis de Tocqueville from France marveled at American's drive to acquire wealth, American faith and sociability, as well as the profound racial divisions that characterized American society. American society was poised in continual paradoxes -- religious yet money-hungry, disdainful of social hierarchies yet dependant upon oppressing or disenfranchising races to secure advancement of poorer whites. America was also land-hungry in a way that put it into conflict with its neighbor Mexico, despite its insistence upon being against colonialism, having been born of resistance to colonial Britain. This resulted in the Mexican-American ar and the eventual incorporation of Texas into the Union.
Texas and the est itself is still another paradox of the American experiment. For those unable to become wealthy through capitalism, striking out on one's own in the west seemed a better alternative to the increasingly civilized and also socially entrenched east.…
Wilentz, Sean; Jonathan Earle; Thomas G. Paterson. Major Problems in the Early Republic,
1787-1848, 2nd Edition. Wadsworth, 2008.
Of course, Tecumseh's quest to unite the tribes and overcome the American government was a quxotic one.
Ultimately, the polices of the Jackson administration, after Tecumseh's murder in 1813 resulted in the genocide of virtually all of Native American tribes in the area. The remaining native populace was relocated to the estern Territories. But for a reader who does not know much about this period, other than the fact that such a removal occurred, this text provides a powerful introduction to the personalities of the era. It makes what seems a lost culture come to life. Also, it gives individual characteristics to the different personalities of the Indian leaders, and makes it clear that the tribes were not merely a faceless conglomerate of oppressed persons, but warring factions with intertribal conflicts, for which unity was a difficult and considerable achivement.
In contrast, historians who focus on Andrew Jackson and the…
Edmunds, David. Tecumseh and the Quest for Indian Leadership. New York: Longman,
Love, Christopher." Andrew Jackson and His Indian Wars."
Air Force Law Review. Spring 2002. [11 Oct 2006]
Indian tribes in the Eastern United States. At the time, the nation was expanding westward and there were concerns that the Indians could begin attacking civilized areas. After the end of the Black Hawk War, is when these worries increased exponentially. As a result, different states began to pass laws that restricted and limited the power of Indian tribes. (emini, n.d., pp. 107 -- 119)
Once this occurred, is when the Cherokee became worried about being forced westward. This was problematic, as they had adopted civilized practices including: establishing a functioning democracy, they had their own language, newspaper and Constitution. These areas led many to believe that the Cherokee would remain in the region. As they were not: a threat to society and believed they had the support of the American people. (emini, n.d., pp. 107 -- 119)
Moreover, the Cherokee were able to win two favorable Supreme Court decisions…
Remini, R. (n.d.). Andrew Jackson vs. The Cherokee Nation.
The third theater of operations, besides the naval and Canadian one, was focused on the ritish push towards the capital city. Although successfully burning out Washington, the ritish were discouraged by the strong hold of Fort McHenry and the battle of New Orleans, in which they were defeated by Major General Andrew Jackson. As the Treaty of Ghent was signed in December 1814, news of this came to the American and ritish forces almost two months after the signing, putting also an official end to the war. As with altimore's fight, the defense of Fort McHenry, the author reminds the reader of another important information on the significance of this war. The battle of altimore later inspired Francis Scott Key to compose the poem "The Star-Spangled anner" which later became the national anthem of the United States.
As the author goes on with the war narrative, he introduces various descriptions…
Borneman, Walter. 1812: The War That Forged a Nation. Harper Perennial, 2005
Sorkin, however, posits no argument per se. ather, his book offers insight into how the financial crisis manifested from a far more personal perspective of those involved than anything else. The book is informative in nature, and give insight into some of the thought processes and activities those on the outside may not otherwise be exposed to or privy to. The title of the book sums it up best, and the book outlines how the banks and the primary players and stakeholders have become too big to fail. The book highlights the self-interest of those in charge of some of the biggest financial institutions in the world and their blatant disregard for Main Street.
The book has a place in the larger academic debates raised within public knowledge because it adds to the public's real knowledge of those involved in the nation's financial industry and government offices. Instead of speculating…
Cassidy, J. (2008). Anatomy of a meltdown, New Yorker, 84(39), 1-756.
Cherry, C. (1998). God's new Israel: Religious interpretations of American destiny.
UNC Press Books.
Cohan, W. (2010, Nov. 27). The power of failure. New York Times. Retrieves from www.thenewyorktimes.com.
WHIGS vs. DEMOCATS
Slavery, Freedom, crisis Union 1840-1877 Democracy America: The Whigs Democrats Many Americans half nineteenth century a powerful federal government a threat individual liberty supported sovereignty state local government.
Slavery, freedom, and the crisis of the Union 1840-1877: Considering economic policies and the balance of power between national and local government, how did Whigs and Democrats differ in their definitions of American freedom and its relationship to government authority? Use two examples from both the Democrats and Whigs to support your claims.
Ever since the birth of America, two competing strains of thought ran through the American consciousness. The first was the Jeffersonian idea that the government which governed best, governed least and that a relatively weak central government was a facilitator of liberty. The contrasting Hamiltonian notion stressed that a strong federal government was required to protect individual liberties and the state as a whole. These tensions…
Baker, William D. (2007). Whig Party. Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved:
Democrats v. Whigs. (2012). Tennessee 4 Me. Retrieved:
Americans have even been moved to call the document divinely inspired, in another irony, as Constitution gives the right to every American to worship as he or she chooses, free of state influences.
Kammen convincingly shows that how Americans feel about the Constitution is often very different from what lies within the document. In doing so, he encourages the reader to take a more critical view of his or her own conception of the Constitution and to question assumptions that we have somehow always known what the Founders envisioned. e are neglectful of our duties as citizens, says Kammen, if we do not read the Constitution in light of its cultural history and grow more reflexive and self-critical as a nation about the way we view it. The Constitution is malleable in our elected and unelected officials' hands and minds, and in our own collective mind as a culture.
Rosen, Jeffrey. PBS. "The first hundred years." The Supreme Court. 2007. December 30, 2009.
"Text of John Roberts' opening statement before the Senate Judiciary Committee." USA Today.
September 12, 2005. December 30, 2009.
How valuable is history if it is truly written by the victors of war? What remains of the historical account are only tiny fragments of what the true and whole story encapsulated. What we are left with are scraps of stories that are fragmented and skewed to the current power structures that run the institutions. Understanding this skeptical attitude is extremely important when judging an historical account.
The purpose of this essay is to discuss the removal of Native Americans from the region east of the Mississippi in the time of 1830. This essay will examine both sides of the argument and address the ethical, moral, philosophical and legal aspects to this complex and sophisticated subject. This essay will ultimately try to distinguish that the removal of these people's land, while extremely expedient and profitable, was a clear violation of the human ethic and should be remembered as…
And farther west on the Great Plains were the Teton Sioux, among them the Oglalas, whose chief was Red Cloud, and among the Hunkpapas, was Sitting ull, who together with Crazy Horse of the Oglalas, would make history in 1876 at Little ig Horn (rown 10).
After years of broken promises, conflicts and massacres, came the Treaty of Fort Laramie, said to be the most important document in the history of Indian-white relations on the Great Plains (Marrin 94). The treaty basically set aside a Great Sioux Reservation on all of present-day South Dakota west of the Missouri River up to and including the lack Hills, and barred all whites except government officials from the reservation and from a vast "unceded" territory lying between the lack Hills and ighorn Mountains (Marrin 94). Under the treaty, these lands belonged to the Lakota "forever" unless three-quarters of the tribes' men agreed to…
American History since 1865: Wounded Knee
1988. The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Retrieved October 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Amerman, Stephen Kent.
2003. Let's get in and fight!" American Indian political activism in an urban public school system, 1973. The American Indian Quarterly. June 22. Retrieved October 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web sit.
It was also the driving force behind the annexation of vast territories by the United States in the West, including Texas, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Arizona, which were conquered from Mexico, and Louisiana, which was purchased from France (Lubbrage, 2003).
The newly acquired territories became a bone of contention between the Southern and Northern states as the slave-holding South wanted to create more slave-holding states in order to restore the balance of power with the North, while the North resisted the expansion of slavery mainly because of a fear of "Slave Power." Hence, Manifest Destiny, at least indirectly contributed to the start of the Civil War.
The Fugitive Slave Law
During the drafting of the U.S. Constitution in 1787, the delegates from the Southern slave states refused to join the Union unless certain specific provisions on slavery were agreed. One of the provisions relating to slavery introduced in…
The Free Soil Party Platform." (1848). Professor Mark Lause's Links. Retrieved on December 13, 2007 at http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Quad/6460/doct/848frsl.html
Hawes, R.F. Jr. (2007). "Nullification Re-visited." The Libertarian Enterprise. Number 411, April 1, 2007. Retrieved on December 13, 2007 at http://www.ncc-1776.org/tle2007/tle411-20070401-03.html
Lubragge, M.T. (2003). "Manifest Destiny: The Philosophy That Created a Nation." From Revolution to Reconstruction. http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/E/manifest/manif1.htm
Swogger, M.J. (1997). "Causes of the Civil War: The Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Law." Suite 101. Retrieved on December 13, 2007 at http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/american_civil_war_retired/4390
The name Seminole is derived from the Spanish word "cimarron" meaning "wild men." Seminoles were originally given this name since they were Indians who had escaped from slavery in the British-controlled northern colonies. hen they arrived in Florida, they were not known as Seminoles as they were in reality Creeks, Indians of Muskogee derivation. The Muskogean tribes made up the Mississippian cultures which were temple-mound builders. "Among the Muskogean tribes were the Creeks, Hitichis and Yamasees of Georgia, the Apalachees of Florida, the Alabamas and Mobiles of Alabama, and the Choctaws, Chickasaws and Houmas of Mississippi" (Murray, n.d.).
It is believed that the Seminole tribe settled in Florida as far back as 10,000 BC. For hundreds of years, the Seminole Indians essentially ruled almost all of Florida. Even when the Europeans arrived, at first they were not concerned in the area of Florida, but displayed more inquisitiveness toward…
Murray, D.J. n.d. "The Unconquered Seminoles." Web. 5 February 2012. Available at:
"Seminole." n.d. Web. 6 February 2012. Available at:
19th century, the federalist/anti-federalist schism dominated political discourse in the United States. The so-called "first party system" became less relevant as increasing numbers of citizens became politically active, leading to a greater plurality of voices and opinions. Even then, political parties had not yet become fully formed. Most elections had candidates running independently. However, the anti-federalists had become the Democratic-Republicans and they emerged as a dominant presence in the controversial 1824 presidential election. When he was defeated in that election by John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson and his supporters started the Democratic Party as an opposition group. In response, John Quincy Adams and his Secretary of State Henry Clay rebranded the Democratic-Republican Party the National Republicans.
Jackson's Democratic party grew in popularity during his presidency. An opposition party, the Whig party, emerged in response in the 1830s. For the next several decades, the Democrats and the Whigs were the primary…
Six Questions & Discussion on American Politics
During the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, two primary plans were forwarded that shaped the development and discussion at the convention that would forever impact the shape of American politics. The first plan, the Virginia Plan, introduced by Governor Randolph, was an effort to simply revise the existing Articles of Confederation. It was characterized by three major points: the structural exclusion of states from elections and representation at the national level, reductions of powers to individual states, and the abandonment of the some national features of republicanism like institutional separation of powers. The Virginia Plan was countered by two alternative plans, and a division at the Convention: the New Jersey Plan that believed the Virginia Plan went too far in affording power to the national government, and the Hamilton Plan that argued the Virginia Plan didn't go far enough (Lloyd).…
Burner, David and Rosenfield, Ross. "Polling." Dictionary of American History. 2003. 15 Dec. 2009 .
"Evolution of American Political Parties from the Revolution to the Reconstruction." 2003. 15 Dec. 2009 .
Follesdal, Andreas. "Federalism." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006. 15 Dec. 2009 .
Green, John, Smidt, Corwin, Guth, James, and Kellstedt, Lyman. "The American Religious Landscape and the 2004 Presidential Vote: Increased Polarization." 15 Dec. 2009 .
It also illustrated the solidification of the definition of a true American as a white male. Andrew Jackson was a populist, and spoke out against the landed aristocracy, of which Jefferson was a member. Jackson wanted votes for all men, regardless of property-holding status, but he also wanted to expand property ownership to a larger proportion of the population. his would be accomplished by expansion westward.
he Indian Removal Act of 1830 confirmed the Jacksonian idea that America was not a race-neutral civilization, and depended upon the subjugation and eradication of some races, while it strove to build up its own status: "hey have neither the intelligence, the industry, the moral habits, nor the desire of improvement which are essential to any change in their condition. Established in the midst of another and superior race, they must necessarily yield to the force of circumstances and ere long disappear," said Jackson,…
The war with Mexico, which resulted in the establishment of Texas as one of the states of the union, was also characterized as a battle of civilizations, with Mexicans being characterized as 'inferior' and undeserving of a state that had been their territory, into which they had invited American settlers. Because the American settlers in Texas were white, ergo Texas was seen as a 'white' and 'American' nation in a way that transcended most legal conceptions of what constituted national ownership of a territory.
As expansion westward continued, so did the divisions in the nation over slavery. A variety of compromises were instated to balance the U.S. between slave and free, but a crisis was clearly building in terms of how the U.S. would finally identify itself -- could an American citizen be anything other than a white man? But not only southerners subscribed to the doctrine of racial inferiority: In a perfect ideological storm, a misinterpretation of Darwinian notions of the evolution of the races and anthropological study of 'primitive' societies and skull sizes were used to justify the inequitable status of black people and the right of Europeans to dominate all other races in the name of progress. Racism and domination of native peoples was cast in a moral light.
Finally, he inferiority of certain races became codified into law: the 1857 Dred Scott U.S. Supreme Court case declared that people of African ancestry, enslaved or free, could never become citizens of the United States. The Court's opinion stated that black people "had no rights which the white man was bound to respect," and in effect, one a slave, always a slave. Hopes that slavery would die out of its own accord were extinguished.
.. [of] her father, a gunsmith, she writes...'All he ever cared about were guns. All I ever cared about was art'" (Martin 2000). Vowell's anti-gun politics and assassination fascination thus may have a personal dimension -- in the act of remembering violent American history, Vowell comes to terms with her past although retains her liberal politics.
Vowell does tie the issues raised by violence and assignations in the past to present-day attitudes Regarding one unwitting casualty in the attempt on Ronald Reagan's life, Reagan's press secretary James Brady who must spend the rest of his life in a wheelchair due to his injury, Vowell is proud that she is part of their campaign and writes how moved she is: "that he and his wife, Sarah, turned this rotten luck into the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence is downright heroic. And not the soft-focus treacle that 'heroic' often implies. I'm…
Beato, Greg. "On the road with wisecracks and historical oddities.' The San Francisco
Chronicle. April 17, 2007. C3.
Handy, Bruce. "Assassination Vacation: Dead Presidents." The New York Times. May 8
Marin, Rick. Radio Daze. The New York Times Magazine. April 4, 2000.
People's History of the U.S. By Zinn
The responses to the Indian removal campaign were as diverse as the tribes themselves. Some fought, some surrendered, and within some tribes, they did both. For one tribe, the Creek, there were those that chose to fight Andrew Jackson's troops and protect their land. In some cases, this involved aggressive attacks against U.S. encampments. Others within the Creek Nation chose to cooperate with U.S. troops, lured by the promise of friendly relations if they should comply. As such, they joined Jackson's forces in battle against their fellow tribe members. They were rewarded, after the U.S. massacre, with seizure of their land. Some Native American groups chose to sign treaties with the government and believed that they would be relocated to areas that were more secure. This was rarely true, and as a result indigenous people were shuttled from one place to another, often…
2. In general, the history of indigenous-white relations is a story of oppression and mistreatment. While a lot of violence occurred on both sides of the several Indian-U.S. government wars, there is little question that the government were the aggressors in their relentless removal campaign. Before this removal campaign, however, white settlers had to rely upon the Natives' knowledge of the land upon which they were now making a home. This reliance created peace. But once the itch of capitalism set in and the use of land for mass farming was necessary, relations changed. Speckled Snake felt, in short, that the white man was a father, who had been nourished by the Indians' kindness and now became large and powerful. He went on to say that the "father" only wanted his "sons" to stay away now, while he swallowed up the resources of the land. In a certain sense, he is correct. The white man did become great on the back of the Indian, but had grown more powerful and was using that power to move the Indian further and further afield.
3. The negotiations between the U.S. And the First Nations were more or less one-sided in favor of the government. Some of the treaties may have seemed kind, but on closer look changed the culture and fabric of the Indian lifestyle, eroding their power. One example is Jackson's 1814 treaty which created individual ownership of land, as the Indians had shared a more communal attitude toward the Earth and this created competition. Other treaties were simply ways to make Indian removal official and did not provide for any advantages to the Native people. They gave over land to the government upon threat of violence if the Natives resisted. Even more of an insult than the general unfairness of the treaties was the fact that the government did not always abide by them.
4. American foreign policy is marked by imperialism and paternalism and these are the same attitudes that were exhibited toward the Indians. Because of raw greed, the government chose to subject the Native people to actions that were not in their best interest (in this case, removal from their land). In cases when they resisted, the government declared war. Often, this was couched in a claim of self-defense. This happens even today, when the U.S.'s business interests (particularly in the hunt for oil) lead them to foreign nations to try to conquer foreign people. Beyond this, the government generally has an interest in the assimilation of foreign people into the American way of life. Democracy, capitalism, and materialism are promoted. The Natives who thrived did so only because they chose to go into business, to run their own farms, and to govern themselves to the extent they were allowed. These actions all ran counter to their old lifestyle.
At this time, African-Americans were not allowed to enroll in this institution Autherine only stayed for three days not because she could not cope with the education, but because her life was in danger. Majority of the white students protested because of her presence. There is also the George allace incident that has also been mentioned bringing the University of Alabama into the limelight.
The university is also well-known for its prowess in football which was initiated in 1892 in the institution. Football in the University of Alabama is on a professional level ranked next to clubs in the league (Brad, 3). Many students receive football scholarships thus providing career opportunities to the students not only through education.
Alabama has been at the centre stage of civil rights activities involving fight against segregation, and providing inspirational individuals who will forever be celebrated like Reverend Martin Luther King and Rosa…
Alabama . Infoplease. 2005. 18 Oct. 2010.
Brad, Jason. Alabama Is No. 1 in Preseason Poll. New York Times
Oct. 18, 2010: 3
South and the North of the 19th Century
As I write this, I can hear faint yells and cheers through my window. Somewhere, the city of Charleston still celebrates. You'll have heard why by the time my letter arrives. Secession. It was no secret that it would happen when Lincoln, that great ape, was elected. As many years as we've been on the receiving end of Yankee insults and "compromises," I wonder why we took so long.
You and I have talked about our peculiar institution, and I know you disapprove, but then, you have not been around Negroes. They are not our equals. They need us to care for them and direct them, and we need them to work the fields and keep our farms and plantations running. There is no immorality, no terrible sin. Merely an advantageous arrangement for both sides. But the Yankees don't see…
Catton, B. (1961). The coming fury, volume one. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co.
Naden, C.J. & Blue, R. (2000). Why fight? The causes of the American Civil War. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn Publishers.
Mirror of the Face of America
Robert Takaki's book A Different Mirror is a history of the people of the nation of America. The book is not, however, a history of America that a reader might expect when he or she first opens an introductory text. The subtitle of A Different Mirror is A History of Multicultural America. The book attempts to give a fuller history of America. It tries to give a fuller history of the America of nationalities such as the Native Indian peoples of America, African-Americans, Mexican-Americans, Japanese-Americans, Chinese-Americans, Irish-Americans, and of the people of the Jewish religion in America. By telling the different stories of these different groups, Robert Takaki demonstrates that more conventional American history books are incomplete. The history of A Different Mirror is not simply the history of many different American groups -- it is a more complete history of America itself. The…
Takaki, Robert. A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Boston: Back Bay Books, 1993. Reprinted 1994.
African-Americans and Western Expansion
Prior to the 1960s and 1970s, very little was written about black participation in Western expansion from the colonial period to the 19th Century, much less about black and Native American cooperation against slavery. This history was not so much forbidden or censored as never written at all, or simply ignored when it was written. In reality, blacks participated in all facets of Western expansion, from the fur trade and cattle ranching to mining and agriculture. There were black cowboys and black participants in the Indian Wars -- on both sides, in fact. Indeed, the argument over slavery in the Western territories was one of the key factors in breaking up the Union in the 1850s and leading to the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. In the past thirty years, much of the previously unwritten and unrecorded history of the Americas since 1492 has been…
Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1970, 1995.
Foner, Philip S. History of Black Americans. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983.
Katz, William Loren. The Black West: A Documentary and Pictorial History of the African-American Role in the Westward Experience of the United States. NY: Random House, Inc., 2005.
Katz, William Loren. Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1986.
Democratic Party in Massachusetts in the last few years of the decade. Particularly, the paper will assess why the Democratic Party seems to have lost its historic continuity with middle-income voters as evidenced by the popularity of republican themes and issues. The paper will also specifically, examine the role of African-American problems in the philosophy of the democratic party and the receptivity of office holders and office seekers to identify with minority people's problems. The press will be used to help reflect on this idea in Massachusetts. The analysis and information regarding the democratic party of Massachusetts will be further included in the paper so as to present the readers with the relative information regarding the actions and strategies of the democratic party of Massachusetts. In the end, a conclusion will be provided in the paper with respect to the evidences and information, which will be discussed throughout in the…
As retrieved from Democratic Party 1834 -- present http://library.thinkquest.org/~12587/contents/parties/democrat/democrats.html. On May13, 2004
As retrieved from Massachusetts
http://www.massdems.org/agenda/civilrights.htm . On May13, 2004
As retrieved from PREAMBLE
ace: Power of an Illusion
This second episode of the PBS series, "The Story we Tell" discusses how race and racism developed in this country. Surprisingly, the series experts believe race has a history, and develops over time, and "that it is constructed by society to further certain political and economic goals" ("ace"). The episode begins with narration that leads into the controversial words of Thomas Jefferson, who wrote that he found blacks inferior to whites in "body and mind." The episode suggests that Thomas Jefferson was then the first American to theorize race in the country. The episode then goes on to discuss the juxtaposition of Jefferson's theory that "all men are created equal" with his own slaveholding and clear approval of slaveholding in the United States. Does this mean that the founding fathers felt those of color were "less than" men?
The episode then discusses early history in…
The Story we Tell." Race: The Power of an Illusion. Prd. Larry Adelman. California Newsreel, 2003.
His accomplishments included simplifying government jobs, and helping create the Democratic Party. He is most remembered as a great general and for defying Congress. Martin Van Buren served from 1837 to 1841. He was married to Hannah, and he died in 1862. His vice-president was ichard Johnson, and his nickname was the "Little Magician." His accomplishments included regulating banks and federal funds, and creating an independent treasury. He is most remembered for the Panic of 1837, and for being opposed to slavery. William Henry Harrison served in 1841 and died after only one month in office. He was married to Anna. His vice-president was John Tyler. He is most remembered for being the first president to die in office. John Tyler served from 1841 to 1845. He was married to Letitia and then Julia and he died in 1862. His nickname was "Old Tippecanoe." His accomplishments included annexing Texas and…
Editors. "Biographies." Vice-Presidents.com. 2006. 22. Sept. 2006. http://www.vicepresidents.com/Biography%202006.htm
Editors. "The Presidents of the United States." WhiteHouse.gov. 2006. 22 Sept. 2006. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/index2.html
telling the story of what has come to be known as Central Park in New York City. Indeed, very few parks in the world are as iconic and story-filled as that park. The words in this report will not just be a recitation of the history of the park. There will also be stories told about the people that planned, envisioned and constructed the site. There will also be some focus on those that have used the park for whatever notable purpose. This report will very much be an encapsulation of the people that brought Central Park to life and have kept it at the glorious standards that it still meets today. The author of this report will make use of historical and scholarly sources to make the important points to be made. While there are certainly architectural and landscaping marvels, both in the United States and around the world,…
Brown, Jeff L. 2013. "The Bridges of Central Park." Civil Engineering (08857024) 83, no. 2: 38-
41. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed November 4, 2015).
Brown, Jeff L. 2013. "The Making of Central Park." Civil Engineering (08857024) 83, no. 1: 40-
43. Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed November 4, 2015).
East From Indian Country
This summarizes Chapter 6 of "Facing East from Indian Country," by Daniel ichter. This chapter talks about the race for Indian lands after the evolutionary period was over, and how there were really two wars for independence, one by the Native Americans trying to hold on to their land, and one by the white colonists seeking more land and opportunities. ichter believes the continual takeover of Native lands was a form of ethnic cleansing, and refers to that often throughout the chapter, comparing it to other areas where ethnic cleansing took place, such as wanda, and these dual wars began in 1763.
He details two examples of these revolutionary wars, one waged by the Delaware Indian Pontiac against Fort Pitt and other locations, and the other by the "Paxton Boys" of Pennsylvania who fought the Indians near Lancaster and Philadelphia. He describes the hatred each group…
Richter, Daniel K. Facing East from Indian Country. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.
The Hartford Convention was a gathering of Federalist Party delegates from five New England states that met in Hartford, Connecticut, between December 15, 1814, and January 5, 1815. Its members convened to discuss their long-held grievances against the policies of the successive Democratic-
Republican administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
After that, the party never regained a national following. Its beliefs and actions during the War of 1812 helped seal its fate. y 1828 the Federalists became the first American political party to die out because it could not adjust to an increasingly democratic national spirit, especially in the nation's towns and cities. And among most Americans, mainly farmers suspicious of government, its policies of strong federal involvement in the economy kept it un-popular. Inconsistency in its stance toward military action (first undertaking a naval war with France, then treating for peace with that same nation, then actively opposing…
Alexander Hamilton's Anglo-American vision. (2008, July 26). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from American Founding: http://americanfounding.blogspot.com/2008/07/alexander-hamiltons-anglo-american.html
Corps of discovery: President Jefferson's vision. (2003, October 10). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from Center of Military History - U.S. Army: http://www.history.army.mil/LC/the%20Mission/Expedition/page_2.htm
Democratic-Republican party. (n.d.). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from Law Library - American Law and Legal Information: http://law.jrank.org/pages/6058/Democratic-Republican-Party.html
Federalist party. (n.d.). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from Bookrags.com: http://www.bookrags.com/history/federalist-party-aaw-01/
In colonial America, formal education for girls historically has been secondary to that for boys. In colonial America girls learned to read and write at dame schools. They could attend the master's schools for boys when there was room, usually during the summer when most of the boys were working. (Women's International Center)
During the latter half of the Republic Era, rapid economic growth presented new opportunities for northern white women. Previously limited to homework or to household-related jobs like cleaning and cooking, some young women now became school teachers or mill workers. One destination for young farm women was the Lowell mills in Massachusetts, at the falls of the Merrimac River. An unnamed rural crossroads in 1823, Lowell by 1830 boasted ten mills and three thousand operatives, nearly all of them female. (oyer)
eginning in the 19th century, the required educational preparation, particularly for the practice of medicine, increased.…
Boyer, Paul S. "Early Republic, Era of the." 2001. encyclopedia.com. 20 February 2009 http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O119-EarlyRepublicEraofthe.html .
Do History. "Who Was Martha Ballard?" n.d. Do History. 19 February 2009 http://dohistory.org/martha/index.html .
Lewis, Jone Johnson. "Women and Work in Early America." n.d. about.com. 20 February 2009 http://womenshistory.about.com/od/worklaborunions/a/early_america.htm .
PBS. "Martha Ballard's Diary." n.d. PBS. 19 February 2009 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/midwife/gallery/index.html .
Before this tariff was passed, Calhoun and worked hard in the federal government to increase its military power, and was instrumental in bringing the United States into the ar of 1812 (ThinkQuest). hen he began to see the disparity between the states, however, his attitude began to shift towards advocating state power.
The Tariff of Abominations was a major indicator of this increasing disparity (Trumbore). It imposed tariffs on imported goods, especially from Britain, which led to higher prices for goods in the largely agricultural and therefore non-industrial South (Trumbore). In addition, British importers were left with a huge loss in profit, making them less able to buy the cotton and other agricultural products with which the South provided them costing Southerners even more money (Foreign Affairs).
As the Tariff of Abominations and other issues of disparity in state power grew in prominence, the idea of the compact theory grew…
Cole, Bruce; Drake, Frederick, and Lynn Nelson. State's Rights and American Federalism. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1999
John C. Calhoun: He Started the Civil War." Weider History Network. Retreived 8 February 2009. http://www.historynet.com/john-c-calhoun-he-started-the-civil-war.htm
John C. Calhoun: Southern Leader." Library ThinkQuest. Retrieved 8 February 2009. http://library.thinkquest.org/3055/graphics/people/calhoun.html
Tariff of 1828." Foreign Affairs, the J.Q. Adams Administration. Retrieved 8 February 2009. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h268.html
On February 26, Travis began to order fire power conservation in anticipation of further battle. The Texians burned more huts and were also engaged by Colonel Juan Bringas. One Texian was killed on this occasion.
On March 3, 1000 further Mexican troops reinforced Santa Anna's army, which now amounted to almost 2,400. Santa Anna began to plan a direct assault on the fort on March 4. A visit from a local woman to negotiate a Texian surrender, according to historians, is likely to have increased Santa Anna's impatience for battle. It was decided that the fort would be attacked on March 6. On the evening of March 5, the Mexicans strategically ceased their bombardment of the fort, and as planned, the Texian army fell into exhausted slumber.
Planning for the final assault began just after midnight on March 6, and Santa Anna gave the order to advance at 5:30 AM.…
Edmondson, J.R..The Alamo Story: From Early History to Current Conflicts Republic of Texas Press, Plano, Texas, 2000
Hopewell, Clifford James Bowie Texas Fighting Man: A Biography, Eakin Press, Austin, Texas, 1994.
Lindley, Thomas Ricks Alamo Traces: New Evidence and New Conclusions, Republic of Texas Press, Lanham, MD, 2003
Petite, Mary Deborah. 1836 Facts about the Alamo and the Texas War for Independence, Savas Publishing Company, Mason City, IA, 1998.
hen a northern imposition of tariffs, ratified in Pennsylvania in 1828, began to damage southern income, the 'abomination,' as this legislation was labeled, became a flashpoint for Southern identification with anti-federalist principles. This spoke to one of the strengthening ideological holdings in the South as it pertained to maintaining a slave-labor system in spite of the nation's prevailing cultural, ethical and economical trends.
The South would generally hold that the Constitution was conflictive to the independence of states.
In the unfolding dispute between the regions, South Carolina would be a leader for the concept of nullification, which as explicated in a doctrine anonymously written by southern leader John C. Calhoun, would entitle states to undermine Federal laws that were inconsistent the individual states' constitutions. An act which elicited a military response against South Carolina from then president, Andrew Jackson, this underscored the extremity of distinction in economic interest which had…
APVA. (1997). History of Jamestown. The Association for Preservation of Virginia Antiquities. Ret. Online at http://www.apva.org/history/.
Morrison, Michael. (1997). Slavery and the American West: The Eclipse of Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Rosenberg, Daniel. (2005). Calculating the Value of the Union: Slavery, Property Rights and the Economic Origins of the Civil War. The Historian, Vol. 67.
Woodworth, Steven E. (2000). Cultures in Conflict: The American Civil War. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
The decisive moment in the Virginia theater came down to this: on the first day of the ilderness, the new commander Grant stood behind the line and met Union troops that had been routed. Rather than ordering them to return to ashington as McClellan might have, admitting defeat, he merely sent them back down a transverse road to attack at another point. All that was left was a battle of attrition which the South could never hope to win.
Ambrose Bierce was one of the leading American literary figures of his generation, approaching the rank of his contemporary, Mark Twain. He was the only first class author to fight in the Civil ar and to write extensively about it in both fiction and non-fiction genres. He enlisted as a private a few days after Fort Sumter fell and served until wounded in early 1865, reaching the rank of major. Decorated…
Bierce, Ambrose. n. d. "The Nature of War," in Russell Duncan and David J. Klooster, eds. 2002. Phantoms of a Blood-Stained period: the Complete Civil War Writings of Ambrose Bierce. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 309-10.
Elmer Ellsworth and the Zouave Craze. 2000. http://188.8.131.52/craze.html (Accessed Apr. 26, 2008).
Famous American Duels. 2005. http://www.law.gwu.edu/Burns/rarebooks/exhibits/duel_american.htm (Accessed Apr. 26, 2008).
Keegan, John. 1987. The Mask of Command. New York: Viking.