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Are you writing an essay on autism and need further assistance to help get your writers block in check? For starters, you should know the definition of Autism, which is a mental condition usually diagnosed in early childhood which causes a child to have difficulty with language and forming relationships. Our autism essay examples will help you complete your paper by providing you with quality titles, topics, thesis statements, outlines, introductions, conclusions, and resources on this topic.
Autism is a disorder that starts early in the childhood and stays until adulthood. It has now been known that many conditions are considered co morbid to autism spectrum disorders. These conditions are variable but some of the most common ones include fragile X syndrome and epilepsy. Furthermore, it is noted that autism most likely affects areas such as communication, social interaction and behavior of the person. Therefore, there is a strong tendency for the person to develop different psychiatric disorders.
Some of the common disorders that are linked with autism include attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Many researchers also went onto look into chromosomal abnormalities in children who are affected with autism. Due to this reason, syndrome association such as fragile X syndrome was also discovered. This research goes on to show that Autism is co morbid with many psychiatric conditions such as ADHD, and…… [Read More]
Autism has reached epidemic proportions between American children with cases increasing amongst adults and children worldwide. Treatments initially began with helping children improve their social and communication skills. With medications like risperidone and aripiprazole to treat irritability, children with autism were managed short-term. However, these medications only present a temporary fix with symptoms continuing after stopping of medication and symptoms recurring even with higher doses. For there to be a suitable alternative to pills and traditional methods of treatment, current research must demonstrate efficacy and cost efficiency concerning new autism treatments. This literature review will highlight a variety of new treatment approaches along with ways to monitor, evaluate, and understand how autism effects a child to show what can be done to help children with Autism.
In an article by Klintwall, Gillberg, Bolte, & Fernell, the authors discuss the use of intervention programs based on applied behavior analysis as the…… [Read More]
Stimuli other than explicit instruction are reported to have likely signaled the beginning of a new activity. In the case of the female student, Christie it was related that arranging and ordering was not an escapist activity as it had been for the male participants to avoid responding to instructions. In the case of one of the male students the ordering and arranging was believed to be due to lack of other stimulating attention. The work of Gongola and Sweeney (2011) report discrete trial teaching which is an educational instruction practice that is characterized by a fast pace that is delivered repetitively and which enables instruction that is intense is a short period of time. Discrete trial teaching sessions are reported to take place in environments that are highly structured. The area in which this instruction takes place should be as free of distractions as possible. An instructional team that…… [Read More]
In ode to foste equitable management of the available esouces in the society, it becomes less valuable if the innate membes ae not esponsible. A lesson can be dawn fom the family of Rowan ove the avenues of esponding to the calls of duty. The family of Rowan is awae of the chaacteistic and developmental chaacteistic that ae found in the society. Theefoe, they ae vey eady to offe consequential avenues of managing the applicable esouces in ode to ensue the futue health status of thei son. Theefoe, it makes it less valuable o appoachable to take a consideate management of the health of the child iespective of the measues of gowth and development in the society.
What changed between the boy and his paents and how did that affect his way of being in the wold? Fom a family systems pespective, how did the oveall family changed?
The way…… [Read More]
Autism is a developmental disorder as it is marked with pervasive and severe impairment revolving around areas of development such as communication, imagination, reciprocal interaction and behavior. The diagnostic criteria for autism as incorporated by the DSM IV T includes symptoms such as impairment in the use of nonverbal behaviors like eye contact, gestures, bodily postures during the normal routine social interaction, the inability to form good peer relationships, delay or lack in the development of the language being spoken, failure to start a conversation despite an adequate ability to speak, restricted and repetitive behaviors and stereotyped behavior patterns, interests and activities. Many of these symptoms along with few others are supposed to be present in an individual by the age of 3 years in order to be diagnosed as autistic. As a matter of fact, even if the parents notice something wrong or abnormal in their child during infancy,…… [Read More]
In some students, autism is more severe than it is in others, and teachers must learn to anticipate this if they are to be successful in the classroom.
The severity of the autism can make the difference between whether students with autism should be included or whether they should be taught separately (Shattuck, et al., 2009). Students cannot make that decision, of course, but the parents and teachers can work together to determine which is going to be the best option for the individual student. Where some subjects are concerned it is more difficult to make this choice, as well.
One of those subjects is math, because math can be complicated and can build on what was previously learned (Jimenez & Garcia, 2002). That can be a problem for autistic students, because they often do not learn as easily or retain the information they have learned for as long or…… [Read More]
" Presentation of new tasks accompanied by old tasks promotes the child to target behaviors quicker. Letting the child chose the items of stimulus is another motivational tool. Self-motivation and self-management teach the child the consequences associated with their actions or behaviors. Self-management involves:
1. Choosing a specific behavior to target, such as aggression, hygiene, or verbal communication with others
2. Teaching the child to recognize when he/she behaves appropriately. Do not focus on the absence of the negative behavior, rather reward when appropriate behaviors are displayed.
3. Once the child has learned to differentiate the desirable behavior from undesirable, then the child is taught to monitor brief periods of time or occurrences of the positive behavior.
4. After mastering step #3, the child can be taught to self-manage in any environment. The provider should only remind the child to begin self-management and then gradually fade out of the new…… [Read More]
As noted in the located research, "individuals with autism may have an IQ at any level. By convention, if an individual with autism has an IQ in the normal range (or above), they are said to have 'high-functioning autism' (HFA)." (Baron-Cohen, 1) For a parent with a young child who exhibits signs of true intelligence or even of prominent and unique talents, the understanding of autism as a disorder becomes somewhat difficult to accept.
This leads us to consider a question which remains today up for ongoing debate in diagnosis and treatment perpsecitve. Namely, it is argued that the term disorder is improperly applied to those with symptoms of autism which might otherwise display the capacity for a healthy and full development as individuals. Accordingly, the research conducted here brings us into contact with an article which "considers whether Asperger Syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) necessarily lead to disability…… [Read More]
Autism is one of the most severe and disruptive of all childhood disorders. It is a communicative disorder that interferes with an individual's ability to form social relationships, as well as to communicate with others. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD's) officially belong to a group of illnesses known as 'developmental disabilities'. They are characterized by problems with social and communication skills of varying degrees (Schechter & Grether, 20). Autistic people also commonly display unusual ways of learning, reacting to different sensations and paying attention. Sufferers also tend to repeat certain behaviors and have difficulties when required to change their usual daily activities. ASD's are commonly said to start in childhood and last for the person's whole life, but as you will see below, there are many new theories as to the cause(s) of these disorders and many offer the hope of effective treatments (Gerber & Offit, 457).
ecent reviews in environmental…… [Read More]
Dr. David Miller, in his article examined the methods of testing for autism. He concluded that a discovery of genetic variables contributing to autism (ASD) is the first step in developing effective clinical diagnostic genetic tests. He concluded that most cases are still unexplained by current genetic testing and will require ongoing discovery to improve the yield from clinical testing. Miller (2010). n other words, Miller suggests that the current genetic testing is not yielding the results that would best explain the causes of autism and in light of the available testing mechanisms. As a solution to this issue, Miller suggests that the ideal genetic test would identify genetic susceptibility to autism. Miller (2010) .
n light of Miller's testing theories and to illustrate an example of how genes are evaluated in autism studies, in the Traylor study, six subjects were studied from different areas of the world. Study subjects…… [Read More]
ut sometimes, depending on how severe a child is affected with autism, the decision to place such a child in a residential environment, such as a specialized care facility, must be made. Yet for those children who are only slightly or moderately afflicted with autism, the classroom, under the guidance of a trained professional and with the assistance of parents, appears to be the best environment for instruction and education. However, as Karen S. Exkorn sees it, all autistic children must experience "full classroom inclusion and be made a part of the mainstream experience in order to guarantee their civil rights as human beings" (2005, 213).
2007). Autism Fact Sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Internet. Available at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/autism/detail_autism.htm.
Exkorn, Karen S. (2005). The Autism Sourcebook. New York: Prentice-Hall.
Jordan, Rita and Stuart Powell. (2002). Understanding and Teaching Children with Autism. New York: John Wiley & Sons.…… [Read More]
According to Bock & Goode (2003), the plasticity of the brain during early childhood allows for the best outcomes when treating the disorder. Because autism is a spectrum disorder some children benefit more from the aforementioned interventions than others. However regardless of the severity of the disorder all children seem to benefit from early diagnosis and early treatment (pg, 254).
The purpose of this discussion was to compare and contrast two theoretical models of intervention in Autism. The two models that we reviewed were behavioral and educational. The research suggests that behavioral interventions are amongst the most studied and most effective interventions for those suffering from autism. Behavioral interventions are beneficial because they increase communication, skills and peer interaction. The research also found that educational interventions can be beneficial to those with autism. The types of educational interventions discussed included conductive education and gentle teaching. Both of these types…… [Read More]
Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder. Language and communication skills are deeply affected by autism; therefore it is difficult for those with autism to interact in social situations. There is a spectrum of disabilities related to autism, sometimes called pervasive developmental disorders. These disorders can range from mild to severe (Sathrum 36).
Symptoms of autism generally appear by the time a child is three years old. oys are much more likely than girls to have autism. Some symptoms of autism are speech problems, avoiding eye contact, impulsive behavior, need for routine, and repetitive movements (Goin and Myers 5-12).
Autism is diagnosed when a child displays all three of the following signs: delayed speech and language, difficulty with social contact, and repetitive or odd behaviors (Sathrum 36). All of the signs must occur before age three, but a child is not typically diagnosed with autism until three years of age or later.…… [Read More]
The Article concludes by reiterating the IOM's recommendation to continue with the current immunization programs in the absence of any strong and concrete evidence on the contrary. [Michelle Meadows]
The last few years have triggered intense debate on the autism and vaccination topic with research results supporting both sides. A study by weibel et.al (1998) concluded by stating a rare but important link between measles vaccine and brain encephalopathy among children. [Weibel et.al] Another study by Singh VK et.al (1998) implicated measles virus induced autoimmunity in autistic children. [Singh, et.al] the fact that Dr. Megson's prescription of vitamin a therapy via cod liver oil capsules reversed or considerably improved the condition for her autistic patients serves to attest the 'G alpha proteins' theory and consequently the link between autism and DPT vaccination. Also, recently a hepatitis protein strain was extracted from a similar retinoid receptor gene (RAR beta). Thus, it…… [Read More]
The best way to explain to a friend that that a close relative, such as a son, has autism, would be to begin by explaining that there are certain traits that such a relative may manifest that are decidedly at variance with others his age. Quite frequently, such differences pertain to various aspects of socialization and education, although these two areas are not mutually exclusive. It would certainly be worthwhile to explain to one's friend that one of the endemic processes of formal, classroom-based education is related to socialization -- knowing how and what to say in appropriate situations, as well as how to work (and play) with others. The friend needs to hear that autistic children learn things and socialize differently than other people do.
Furthermore, it is very important to explain to one's friend that just because one's son is autistic, it does not mean that…… [Read More]
AUTISM 'CURES' AND TREATMENT CONTROVERSIES
Autism Cures and Treatment Controversies
Autism 'Cures' and Treatment Controversies
Autism 'Cures' and Treatment Controversies
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) encompasses classical autism, Asperger syndrome, and progressive developmental disorder -- not otherwise specified (DD-NOS) (Leonard et al., 2010, p. 548-550). Classical or typical autism represents the most severe and common of the ASD disorders, of which the main symptoms are social, attention, and behavioral deficits (Betancur, 2011, p. 43). Intellectual impairment and epilepsy are also common comorbid conditions and are present in 70% and 25% of autistic individuals, respectively.
ASD is primarily a genetic disease and approximately 90% of all cases can be thus explained (Holt and Monaco, 2011, p. 438). The risk of both monozygotic twins developing autism, who have a family history, is between 30% and 60%, but for siblings the risk is much smaller and depends on how carefully they are screened for…… [Read More]
Autism is, if not the foremost, one of the most well-known of the disorders among the pervasive developmental disorders list. The conditions are so marked through a set of communicative and social malfunctions in an early age that autism has been commonly diagnosed among children less than three years of age. The disorder is known to statistically affect 1 in 1,000 births for prototypical autism, while autism spectrum disorders can be found in 4 in 1,000 births (Klin, Ami). Around 60% to 70% of those diagnosed with autism display range of mental retardation; however, studies have also indicated that this percentage is gradually decreasing due to further study on the subject.
The diagnosis of autism is usually reliant on a number of behavioral criteria. Studies performed on diagnosed autistic behavior usually determine severity by using three different tools for prognosis: the Pervasive Development Disorder Behavior Inventory, the Autism Evaluation Treatment…… [Read More]
The children were scored in terms of whether they imitated the action that had been modeled for them as well as for the presence of any "errors" -- the introduction of actions not in the modeled behavior. The results were then subjected to multivariate statistical analysis.
The researchers found, in contrast to previous similar research, that children with both conditions did not evidence any greater problems with either gross motor or fine motor skills but that they did make more "mistakes" in imitation and that they were subject to greater problems in maintaining their balance. They expected the children with both syndromes to have both increased motor control problems and greater errors in imitation. Thus their hypothesis was supported in part.
The diagnostic consequences for this finding are that children who have been diagnosed with Fragile X who show high error rates in imitation and problems in balancing should also…… [Read More]
In these environments, the problems in behavioral instincts might be more obvious compared to a doctor's home or his chamber. It is required on the part of the doctors to devote more time to test patients those who are less in age whom they expect to be having autism. A systematic neurologic, listening and testing the manner of his speaking must be done prior to making the detection; More research should be carried out to develop testing instruments for infants and to find out the functioning of brain activity, genetics and family settings in the development of autism. (Preboth, 2000)
But while the children having autism mature crossing the threshold of their classroom and plunge into adult life of holding jobs and self-sufficient livelihood, the fundamental organized specialized education methods which have been exhibited to be efficient in the earlier years are relevant as well. The Childhood Autism ating Scale…… [Read More]
Autism in Children
Autism can be defined as a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and non-verbal communication and social interaction usually evident before age 3 that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movement, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and usual sensory experiences (Coffey, 2004).
Symptoms of autism are usually apparent by 30 months of age. Recent research has noted that a diagnosis of autism can be made as early as 2 years of age (Cox, 1999). Early identification is important and an integral part of the medical management and treatment of children with autism. Identification of autism at young ages can allow for earlier participation in special intervention services, which may reduce the impact of early deficits on later functioning. Although the average age of diagnosis appears to have decreased over the past…… [Read More]
Sadly, the real risk is a global recurrence of the disease as, one at a time, people begin to reject vaccinations because they are associated with controversy, not real medical findings.
US CDC Stand:
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have an informative fact sheet that demonstrates, very briefly the establishment of fear and states unequivocally that there is no known connection between MM and autism and goes further to state that the 12 cases in the 1998 (12 child) study may have just by chance simultaneously began symptoms of the autism disorder, around the time they received the vaccinations. As the onset of autism usually does correspond with the age group of vaccinating children there is a major point of validity with this argument. The CDC also points out two other important facts, that no other studies have been able to link the two and that the…… [Read More]
Autism: Discrimination Learning
Autism is no longer a condition that can be wished away or ignored in the American society today but has to be tackled efficiently. As a matter of fact autism prevalence is estimated to be at one child for every 110 children counted. These statistics that puts autism at a higher prevalence rate than a combination of cancer, pediatric AIDS and diabetes among the children. Effectively, there is an estimated 1.5 million Americans with autism another ten of millions across the world. The American government estimates that the condition increases at a rate between 10% and 17% each year. Though there is no solid evidence and explanation given to this rise in the numbers, it is thought that the perfection of the diagnosis process makes the medical fraternity keener on the condition hence with the increase in the medical science and practitioners awareness, the there is more…… [Read More]
Introduction to the Problem
Designing effective support services for students with autism remains one of the most pressing needs in special education (Creswell, 2013). Autism is described as being a spectrum because of its diverse manifestations. Therefore, students with autism spectrum disorders comprise a heterogeneous group. Being a heterogeneous group makes it harder to design effective support services that meet the needs of all persons. Research consistently shows that although students with autism spectrum disorders do not necessarily have concurrent intellectual or learning disabilities, and many have the potential for high academic achievement, these students are “at risk of scholastic underachievement,” (Clarke, Hill & Charman, 2016; Creswell, 2013). According to White, Elias, Salinas, et al. (2016), many individuals with autism spectrum disorder have above-average intellectual ability and yet are less likely to enroll in postsecondary education such as college or university. In addition to being at risk for scholastic underachievement,…… [Read More]
What Is Autism?
Autism, also referred to as autism spectrum disorder, is a disorder that takes into account a variety of conditions signified by challenges with social abilities, repetitive manners, speech and nonverbal communication, in addition to distinctive strengths and differences (Autism Speaks, 2018). Delineated by a set of behaviors, autism impacts persons in dissimilar ways and to varying magnitudes. There is no acknowledged sole cause of autism, but increased cognizance and early diagnosis or intervention and accessibility to suitable services give rise to substantially augmented results (Autism Society, 2016).
What is the history of autism?
1887- Dr. John Langdon Down, the first to describe Down's syndrome, researched mental retardation and this is what would be classified as having Autism today
1911- Eugen Bleuler used the word autism to describe a symptom of schizophrenia
I943 and 1944 – Leo Kanner and Hans Asperger develop Infantile Autism and Asperger’s Syndrome
1971-…… [Read More]
Autism is a disorder that mainly occurs on children from birth and if not diagnosed or treated early, can impede the development of the child in terms of learning and interaction with their peers. Research shows that it might be genetic since offspring often inherit some of their parents’ characteristics when born. Even though the research is not conclusive, it is believed that autism is spread through vaccinations. Autism is just but one syndrome that currently falls under the umbrella of autism spectrum disorders. There were previous disorders are now classified under umbrella diagnosis of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or as a social communication disorder (Mayo Clinic, 2017). The main threat of autism is communication disorder for the child. The child will find difficulty in learning, interacting with peers and being in mood swings that are unnatural for an infant and this needs to be diagnosed and treated…… [Read More]
MMR vaccination and relationship to autism among children study proposal
The MMR vaccine is meant to give protection against measles, mumps and rubella diseases. The vaccine contains live measles, mumps and rubella viruses which have been significantly weakened or attenuated. These attenuated viruses trigger or stimulate the human immune system but does not cause disease in a healthy individual. This vaccine should not be given to individuals with suppressed immunity or immune-suppressed people due to some underlying illness or due to drug treatment. These exception groups include the babies whose mothers, during their pregnancy or during the days of breastfeeding had immunosuppressive treatment. The reason for their exclusion from the vaccine is due to the possibility of the vaccine strain replicating too much hence causing serious infection (Oxford Vaccine Group, 2018).
There have been a good number of misconceptions about the MMR vaccine with the major one…… [Read More]
What is the correlation between children who do not get the MMR vaccine and end up Developing Autism?
1. Describe/ explain in detail the purpose of the research and will it be qualitative or quantitative?
While a significant pool of research spanning the past fifteen years has failed to relate the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine to ASD (autism spectrum disorder), parents as well as other entities continually associate the two. Parents refuse or postpone inoculating their children claiming that inoculation (in general) and the MMR shot (in particular) are ASD- causing factors. Decreased inoculation levels are a public health threat as they reduce individual as well as group immunity, besides being linked to numerous recent measles outbreaks, mostly in the non- inoculated population. Parents with ASD- diagnosed children are potentially especially concerned about the reported relationship between ASD and MMR, in spite of scant evidence indicating this association. Surveys of ASD-…… [Read More]
Cannabinoid Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adolescents
According to the Autism Society of America, no single cause has been identified for autism spectrum disorder (hereinafter alternatively “autism”) to date, but a growing body of research confirms that the disorder is characterized by several developmental disabilities that typically begin during early childhood that adversely affect the ability to interact with others appropriately including most especially severe deficits in communication (Autism overview, 2018). Furthermore, there are currently no pharmacological regimens available that can cure autism or even treat its symptoms with proven efficacy (Treatment of autism, 2018). Despite these challenges, studies have shown that early interventions that help children learn how to walk, talk and interact with others during the first 3 years can significant improve childhood development (Treatment of autism, 2018). In addition, some novel experiments using cannabinoids derived from medical marijuana have shown significant promise in treating…… [Read More]
There have been several incidences of claims and counter claims about the relationship between Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) vaccine and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). There is a significantly large group of people who believe that MMR vaccine causes ASD, hence heightening their fear for the vaccine and making them shy away from presenting their children for the vaccine. Worse still, the families with history of ASD in the family grow bigger discomfort on the use of the vaccine since they fear that the genetic exposure, coupled with the vaccine that may predispose their children to ASD, is almost a sure way of getting the ASD affecting their children. It is a health danger that faces the nation since the children, who are not vaccinated, risk developing measles that may result in death, mumps that may lead to other complications of the organs in the body and rubella which may expose…… [Read More]
Childcare Patterns and Issues for Families of Preschool Children with Autism
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are the most rapidly growing student population served in special education. As a result, several early childhood programs targeting such students have been established in the education sector. These programs are established to help meet the special needs of these children while promoting and enhancing their academic growth and achievements. In addition, family members play a critical role in the development and growth of these children with respect to meeting their special needs. Mereiou, Bland & Niemeyer (2015) state that the increase in diagnosis of ASD among children has made families and policymakers to champion for initiatives that enhance knowledge and understanding of their needs. Understanding these needs is essential toward improving the effectiveness of interventions and related services. Additionally, understanding the needs of these children help families to adopt suitable childcare patterns…… [Read More]
1) Connor (2002) states that studies report findings that mothers of children with Autism "who showed greater satisfaction" in life were those "who made the clearest redefinitions and who were most willing to follow alternative ways of gaining self-fulfillment." (p. 1)
II. EFFECTS on LIFE of FAMILY in NORMAL ACTIVITIES
In the work entitled: 'Autism and the Family" reported is a study conducted in a 12th grade classroom at 'Our Lady of Loures High School through survey instruments completed by the children of mothers with autistic children in the age range of 4 to 36 years of age. This study reports that family outings "can be quite an ordeal for these families." (Hart, nd, p.1) for instance, when these families go on an outing, in families where it is possible two cars travel to the outing in case the child needs to be suddenly removed from the public setting due…… [Read More]
The moral of the article's story is that teachers of autistic children with limited spoken languages may indeed need more training to get the most out of their students.
Still on the subject of therapy for autistic children, another article in the journal Autism (Vismara, et al. 2009) reports that professionally led training sessions with the parents of autistic children were helpful in getting the children to respond and communicate. The study was a 12-week research investigation, one hour per week; and what took place was the parents of eight "toddlers" (who had been diagnosed with autism) were brought together with their children and therapists. These parents were taught how to implement "naturalistic therapeutic techniques" based on the "Early Start Denver Model" (ESDM) (Vismara 93). The ESDM model focuses on "creating an affectively warm and rich environment to foster positive relationships between children and adults" (Vismara 99). The training with…… [Read More]
The overall purpose of this book is to assist teachers and educators to understand the often complex world of autism as it relates to "social and emotional development, communication, cognition and behavior" in a classroom setting. It also addresses the overwhelming needs of autistic children related to "communication and flexibility of thought and behavior" and how these needs "might be overcome or circumvented" both at home in a classroom environment (TheNile.co.uk, Internet).
4. Mesibov, Gary B., et al. (1998). utism: Understanding the Disorder. New York: Kluwer cademic Press. 105 pages.
ccording to the Journal of pplied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, this book offers "a comprehensively referenced guide to autism," created in part by TECCH, " a forerunner in research and treatment for individuals" afflicted with autism, such as children and young adults. Overall, this book contains a very detailed overview of autism, such as its clinical history, diagnosis, biological causes,…… [Read More]
In fact, the CDC continues, a scientific review by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) has concluded that there is no justification for believing that "a casual relationship" exists between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism (CDC).
The CDC believes that "about 1 in 150 children have ASD" (autism) -- quite a different number in comparison with the NAA's data -- and the CDC explains that it is approaching the research into the causes of autism in three important areas: a) understanding the trends and the frequency of autism spectrum disorders; b) the CDC is conducting advanced research in the causes and potential treatments of ASD; and c) the CDC is very involved in research that can help parents and teachers understand the symptoms so early detection and diagnosis is possible.
Meanwhile, Lisa Jo Rudy writes in the New York Times' online publication, About.com, that it is scientifically proven that in "some cases"…… [Read More]
Far from being too simple an explanation for autism, Ramachandran notes that single causes often do lead to multiple symptoms. Ramachandran's hypothesis has been tested using a variety of brain imaging techniques including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Brain imaging did reveal dysfunctional mirror neurons in children with autism vs. those without it. In fact, Ramachandran calls the research using TMS "conclusive evidence" that mirror neuron function is the root cause of autism (p. 142). The study of embodied cognition enhances research into how mirror neurons impact autism syndromes.
Ramachandran also notes that mirror neuron deficiencies can cause dysfunctional language acquisition. After all, infants acquire language knowledge first from listening and then mimicking mother, father, and others. Autistic children struggle with mimicry. Mirror neurons play a role in language mimicry as does mu-wave suppression, which is why autistic children have trouble both with certain audio stimuli and with mimicking phonemes.…… [Read More]
hile Dr. Asperger called the condition "autistic psychopathy" and described it as a personality disorder primarily marked by social isolation, today Asperger's Syndrome is identified as a brain, communication, or neurological disorder like autism, not a personality disorder like, for example, antisocial personality disorder ("Asperger's Syndrome fact sheet," 2008, NINDS).
Like autism, Asperger's Syndrome is characterized by repetitive routines, rituals, and movements, poor social skills, and odd ways of communicating that do not take into consideration the other person's feelings and needs. The distinguishing feature of Asperger's, in contrast to classical autism, is that the individuals all have normal IQ but show "limited interests or an unusual preoccupation with a particular subject to the exclusion of other activities" ("Asperger's Syndrome fact sheet," 2008, NINDS). Unlike autistic individuals who show little interest in others, Asperger children may seek out companionship, but may drive other people away because of their refusal to…… [Read More]
Identifying Autism Loci and Genes by Tracing Recent Shared Ancestry. Science 321(5886): 218-23.
This article begins with a discussion of autism spectrum disorders and the social and mental impairments that typify the disorder, setting up an approach that is inherently humanistic and person-centered. Despite the highly technical and quantified nature of the ultimate research question and data collected and analyzed in this study, this person-centered focus and tone is observable throughout this research article. Immediately following a brief description of the impacts of autism spectrum disorders on individuals that have these disorders, the authors launch into a discussion regarding the evidence for a hereditary pattern in the development of the disorder and the ability to trace the disorder and its impact through families.
The authors follow this with a discussion about one of the general methodologies they ultimately employ in this research, known as "homozygosity mapping," which essentially is…… [Read More]
Autism and Dementia
Description of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Dementia
Behavioral Criteria for Autism and Dementia
The Incidence ates and Causes
Options for Treatment Based on Theoretical Models
Description of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Dementia
Autism Spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder which is essentially a brain dysfunction that has the potential to affect emotion, learning ability and memory that gradually comes to light as an individual grows up. This is generally evident in children and sometimes, if undetected and untreated, can manifest in adults also. Autism Spectrum disorder can include brain dysfunctions due to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, Down syndrome and intellectual developmental disorder. In modern medicine, Autism and ADHD are also considered to be Autism Spectrum disorders (http://aadmd.org, 2015).
The root of autism seems to be in the very early brain development. Since it is a brain developmental condition that becomes prominent as an individual continuous to grow…… [Read More]
Autism: Home-Based Treatment of Young Children
Over time, research findings have shown that behavioral intervention (intensive) instituted early enough impacts significantly on the trajectory (developmental) of children having autism. In a big way, such findings have informed quite a number of treatment programs targeting youngsters with autism. Some of the main approaches that have been adopted as far as the treatment of autism is concerned include the school-based approach, the center-based approach and the home-based approach. In this text, I concern myself with treatment (home-based) of children with autism.
According to Sheinkopf and Siegel (1998), parents and professionals have often encountered difficulties formulating appropriate treatment approaches for youngsters with autism. This is mainly as a result of the variations that exist when it comes to the treatment of the condition. Indeed, Sheinkopf and Siegel (1998) note that many children with autism end up receiving a cocktail of modalities in regard…… [Read More]
Autism is a very complex neurodevelopmental disorder previously classified in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders -- fourth edition -- text revision (DSM -- IV -- T) as a pervasive developmental disorder (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). In 2013 the diagnostic scheme for pervasive developmental disorders was changed and that term was deleted from the DSM-5 (APA, 2013). The new designation became Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD's) and now represents a heterogeneous set of disorders that clinically present as a spectrum of developmental issues ranging from severe cognitive impairment to functional cognitive impairment. The diagnosis of ASD replaces the previous diagnoses of autistic disorder (often called autism), Asperger's disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, and the rather vague category of pervasive developmental disorder that is not otherwise specified (APA, 2013). ASD's are characterized by varying levels of deficits in social skills (these skills are identified as being deficits in skills of…… [Read More]
A brief but insightful article that stresses the importance of communication is Autistic Kids Benefit from Dads' Involvement. This also applies to the issue of parental stress but echoes other studies that emphasize the importance of communication skills in treating autistic children. There article notes that autism is a disability or disorder that appears during the first three years of life and is characterized by problems interacting and communicating with others. elated to this is a discussion of the father's role in communication. esearchers found that, …teaching fathers how to talk to and play with their autistic children in a home setting improved communication, increased the number of intelligible words the youngsters spoke by more than 50% and helped dads get more involved in their care."
( Autistic Kids Benefit from Dads' Involvement)
An article that explores the issue of communication, nursing and the autistic child is Observing communication skills…… [Read More]
autism disorder. The writer explores what it is and how it manifests itself. The writer also discusses the teaching methods that have been used to allow the autistic student to take part in a public education. There were ten sources used to complete this paper.
Each year millions of American couples add to their family with the birth of a baby. The pregnancy is spent getting ready for the newcomer. Names are chosen, baby items are purchased and stored and other people's children are discussed as examples of what might be produced by this child. The family becomes ready as they read up on the milestones that they can expect the baby to make at various times of the first few years of development.
By the time the baby is born the parents have studied the progress that can be expected and are ready to start their life as a…… [Read More]
For now, however, the cause of autism remains a mystery
The objective of this proposal is to assess the effects of autism on girls and women and their education. The eight female subjects will be grouped. Group A will include four female subjects who had been diagnosed with autism when they were very young, and Group . would include four female subjects who were skipped over and not diagnosed with autism until a later age. The full treatment and education records would be available for each subject.
There will be a total of four sessions, one subject from Group A and one subject from Group . In each session.
For gathering the data here, a quantitative approach would not be appropriate since quantitative data may be misleading. A good example is a recent study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in which the rates of autism…… [Read More]
At long last, here is a book that provides women on the autism spectrum the opportunity to tell the world about their experiences, good and bad. heir candid reflections will warm your heart while giving you a backstage pass to another realm. Leading professionals in the field punctuate this masterpiece with fascinating articles that offer insightful advice. Finally, autism literature isn't just a "man's world."
Buliller, K. (2008, Summer). Quirky citizens: Autism, gender, and reimagining disability. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 33(4), 967-991.
"Feminist disability scholarship has raised new issues about identity formation and social exclusion (Garland-homson 2005). By evoking a notion of disability that fundamentally disputes the assumption of disablement as natural or a detriment, these studies follow critiques of the social construction of gender and race and also chart out new grounds to extinguish socially disabling categories. his scholarship has unsettled how feminists conceptualize gender,…… [Read More]
Every step of the process needs to be broken down into its simplest elements: putting the sanitary napkin in a purse, bringing the purse to the bathroom, sitting on the toilet, removing the paper from the back of the pad, etc. You could have the young female change her pad up to eight times a day during the school hours. With puberty comes a new sensations in the body, and topic of masturbation is one that fraught with shades of gray. As almost everything in autism, you have to address on a case by case basis.
Young females and women need a rigorous curriculum and need to be pushed harder than most of us in our lives. They need to learn how to identify familiar people, make a snack, sort laundry, simple task so one day they can enter into the real world and function to the best of their…… [Read More]
Mirror Neuron Dysfunction in Autistic Disorder
Autistic disorder is characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction. Autistic children also often display restricted behaviors and repetitive behaviors. These signs of autism usually appear before the age of three. The inability to display empathy and imitate others in autism, a skill crucial to learning communication and social skills, has been hypothesized to result from defects in the mirror neuron system (Williams, Whiten, Suddendorf, & Perrett, 2001). The role of mirror neuron system and how dysfunctions in this system may relate to the deficits observed in autistic disorder are discussed.
Mirror neurons fire when animals or people act or observe the same action performed by another. In humans, brain activity consistent with that of mirror neurons is located the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the primary somatosensory cortex, and the inferior parietal cortex (izzolatti & Craighereo, 2004). There are two chief…… [Read More]
Mary Law entitled: "Autism Spectrum Disorders and Occupational Therapy' states of the autistic child that this child "may be the child who is standing in the middle of the field at recess spinning around in circles, or she may be the child who can't stand the way a certain fabric feels on her body or the way a certain texture of food feels in her mouth, or it may be the child who is throwing a severe temper tantrum because they just can't communicate their needs." (Law, 2006) According to Law, Autism Spectrum Disorder is characterized by four main categories:
1) Impairment in social interaction;
2) Impairment in verbal and nonverbal communication;
3) Restricted repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and interests and activities; and 4) Delays in development. (2006)
Law states that occupational therapy focuses on assisting individuals to "participate in daily occupations, including taking care of oneself, contributing to society…… [Read More]
Children with autism can be hard to assess. Many children who fall under the criteria needed to determine autism, may be in fact be socially awkward, shy, among other things. As the CDC websites explains: "Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability caused by differences in the brain" (CDC, 2014). Some have even identified a gene that could play a role in the development of autism. This however does not speak for the majority of children diagnoses with autism so therefore other assessment tools as well identification methods must be used to determine whether a child has autism.
"A diagnosis of ASD now includes several conditions that used to be diagnosed separately: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome. These conditions are now all called autism spectrum disorder" (CDC, 2014). Along with the new guidelines for proper diagnosis comes a set of identification methods…… [Read More]
Rather than heeding the advice of doctors or researchers, parents may find it easier to accept the claims of those who offer easy solutions to the complex problem of autism. Because few scientific interventions claim miracles, parents are more likely to shun them in favor of a fantastical one.
A fear of pharmaceuticals, often justified, is another reason why some parents might shun scientific data. Although some pharmacological interventions do not have longitudinal research attached to them that might reassure parents that the drug is not going to cause any serious side effects, the suspicion that drugs might do children harm remains strong. Parents are wise to mistrust the blind faith in pharmaceuticals, but some medications can be used to help autistic children.
Finally, the cost of autism interventions is enormous. Parents who cannot afford continued therapy or interventions might opt for unproven, pseudoscientific methods that are less expensive. However,…… [Read More]
Kogan et al. (2009) report that the increasing prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) makes the identification of these disorders a public health priority. Many of the studies of the prevalence of ASD are taken from clinical data; the researchers believe that this data inaccurate. The researchers review all of the current research used to determine the prevalence of ASD and point out several flaws in each of these studies. In order to get an accurate point prevalence measurement the researchers used the National Survey of Children's Health (N = 78, 037) that utilizes parental reports of children aged three to seventeen years old to determine the prevalence of ASD. The study would help identify demographic variables associated with ASDs.
The researchers considered a child in the study to have ASD if a physician had told their parents at one time or another that the child had an ASD diagnosis.…… [Read More]
Research a specific disability: Autism -- trace the effect of policy, practices/services, and perspectives related to that disability over time in the United States and in another country. Compare and contrast now and then in the United States with regard to the disability in terms of policy, practices, and perspectives and draw comparisons and contrasts to the other country at similar times in history. Complete the graphic organizer with your research notes and sources.
Autism in the United States
Policies in the United States changed towards granting more grants to autism research to understand what may cause autism and what can be done to diagnose autism earlier. In 1997, NAAR awarded three grants ($150,000) to help five scientists research autism. That same year the Autism Genetic Research Exchange was founded by CAN. As more and more organizations sprang up to research autism, people now understand what autism is…… [Read More]
The author of this report has been asked to review and assess a functional behavior assessment that was completed for a patient. Within this brief summary, the behavior itself and the function of the same behavior will be analyzed and summarized. Parts of the description will include the background of the student, a narrative description of the behavior, the setting or settings within which the behavior occurs, the frequency of the behavior, the intensity of the behavior, the duration of the behavior, previous attempted interventions and the educational impact of all of the above. For the function of the behavior, this would include the affective regulation/emotional reactivity, the cognitive distortion, the reinforcement, the modeling, the family issues, the psychological/constitutional issues, the communicative need and curriculum/instruction facets of the behaviors and outcomes thus far. While the situation with the student could be much worse, there are some troubling signs…… [Read More]
Interview With a Child
Bill is a 12-year-old child, Caucasian, ethnicity unknown. He is the only son of Sandra and Dave, who are divorced. They separated when Bill was 9. He currently lives with Sandra in their home. Dave moved to a different city and is rarely seen by Bill.
Sandra is very protective of Bill. She homeschooled him for two years after she and Dave separated, but now she feels that Bill may need some sort of outside stimulation. He is often withdrawn and uncommunicative and she fears he may be depressed or suffering from autism.
Bill has always been sensitive to sounds and to touch. He did not begin speaking until he was almost 3 years old and then he had to take speech lessons. When he was 10, he told his psychiatrist that he hated his parents because they fought all the time and that they hated…… [Read More]
Autism is one of the most severe and disruptive of all childhood disorders - a level of disruption that of course lasts well into adulthood. With both genetic and environmental elements at work, autism (which affects boys at least three times more often than girls and is found in all races and throughout the world) is a communicative disorder that interferes with an individual's ability to form social relationships as well as to communicate with others.
The inability to communicate easily with others is devastating for many children with autism. Being disconnected from other members of the human community is always a difficult condition, but it is especially difficult to the young. An adult who finds himself or herself unable to communicate will already have established connections with other people.
But a child with autism often has the greatest possible difficulties communicating and so establishing those connections to begin with.…… [Read More]
Autism is one of the most severe and disruptive of all childhood disorders - with a high level of disruption that of course lasts well into adulthood. With both genetic and environmental elements at work in it, autism (which affects boys at least three times more often than girls and is found in all races and throughout the world) is a communicative disorder that interferes with an individual's ability to form social relationships as well as to communicate with others. As might well be expected to be the case with any severe condition the etiology of which is understood a number of "folk" explanations for the condition have developed, including the idea that childhood vaccinations (and especially the mercury-based preservative Thimerosal that is used in the formulation of many vaccines) is responsible for triggering the condition. This paper argues against any connection between Thimerosal and autism (or rather argues that…… [Read More]
The differences between a medical diagnosis of Autism and an educational diagnosis of Autism often have implications for the individualized educational prospects of an autistic student in public schools. Often even when a child has a medical diagnosis of autism parents still go through the diagnostic process of the school to determine what, if any, educational adjustments can or should be made. Diagnosis is made more difficult by the fact Autistic symptoms vary widely in individuals and often tend to manifest themselves in many different combinations (Lenne, 2001, P. 71). Autistic impairment includes social, communicative, and behavioral development challenges. An autistic child may have trouble with nonverbal language, poor eye contact, and difficult making and retaining friends (Lenne, 2001, P. 71). n terms of communication, there may be delays in speaking difficulty using or imitating language and incorrect use of words (Lenne, 2001, P. 71). Repeated body movements and…… [Read More]
Autism Spectrum Disorders
esearch shows that in today's society, the awareness of Autism has went from something that people were ashamed of, all the way to the forefront of education. It is also noted that research is increasing due to the rising amount of people and children that are suffering from Autism Spectrum disorders. However, this disorder is gaining attention all over the world. With that said, this paper will challenge and explore the mystery of this condition, and expectations for the future, concerning this disorder in an ever developing and expanding society.
What is Autism?
Autism came on the scene in 1943. At first, the condition is was believed to be some kind of a mental retardation condition. Some even categorized this condition as someone that is insane. However, Leo Kanner recognized that these children did not fall into the category of emotionally disturbed children. Instead, he recorded patterns…… [Read More]
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Gender -- Male
Ben is currently being raised by a single mother who has two additional children. The mother has worked full time for a number of years while the biological father is absent and rarely offers support or sees his children. The mother currently reports high levels of stress that are in part due to Ben's ASD symptoms and his behavior at home. These symptoms include requiring considerable amounts of attention, difficulties with communication, mood swings and frequent outbursts, and trouble with school and homework.
Ben has had many problematic behaviors since birth including poor sleeping habits. Currently, Ben has entered the first grade and is experiencing tremendous difficulties in school which has prompted the school to moving Ben to an individualized educational program (IEP). Although there are many problematic behaviors that have been reported at school, the primary problem that the…… [Read More]
Autism, first identified in around the 1930s, has been described as a clinical disorder that is characterized by impairment in individuals towards social interaction and communication. Such individuals are also restricted and stereotyped in the patterns of interests and behaviors . At present, the prevalence of autism in the population in the United States is around one in every 68 children; which include roughly 1 in every 42 boys identified (2) Such figures have increased significantly over the years. When compared to the similar figures in the early 1970s, the rates of prevalence of diagnosed autism were estimated to be about 1 in 2,500 in the early 1970s  which is many times lower than the present rates.
While the above numbers suggest that there has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of diagnosed autism over the past few decades, it has also fueled an ongoing debate and an…… [Read More]
Vitamin a for Autism Spectrum Disorder
The Theory of Using Vitamin a as Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders
There is widespread linkage of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Oxytoxin. There are reports that any decrease in the pathway of Oxytocin, is a possible causative factor to the development of autistic situation (Munese-et-al., 2008). Decrease in Oxytocin comes about because of mutations in its receptors, which lead to a reduction on the amount of Oxytocin released to the body posing possible chances for the development of autistic conditions (Lerer et-al., 2008). There is partial dependency of Oxytocin secretion to a protein found, in the cellular membranes of certain red blood cells. The scientific reference of these proteins is CD38, and whenever they mutate there develops a risk of Autism. Mice engineered without the oxytocin receptor gene have been shown to display socially anomalous behavior such as a deficiency of maternal behavior…… [Read More]