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Autism is a disorder that starts early in the childhood and stays until adulthood. It has now been known that many conditions are considered co morbid to autism spectrum disorders. These conditions are variable but some of the most common ones include fragile X syndrome and epilepsy. Furthermore, it is noted that autism most likely affects areas such as communication, social interaction and behavior of the person. Therefore, there is a strong tendency for the person to develop different psychiatric disorders.
Some of the common disorders that are linked with autism include attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Many researchers also went onto look into chromosomal abnormalities in children who are affected with autism. Due to this reason, syndrome association such as fragile X syndrome was also discovered. This research goes on to show that Autism is co morbid with many psychiatric conditions such as ADHD, and…
Lau, N., Green, P., Taylor, A., Hellberg, D., Ajamian, M., Tan, C., Kosofsky, B., Higgins, J., Rajadhyaksha, A. And Alaedini, A. (2013). Markers of Celiac Disease and Gluten Sensitivity in Children with Autism. PLOS ONE, 8 (6), p. 66155.
Leyfer, O., Folstein, S., Bacalman, S., Davis, N., Dinh, E., Morgan, J., Tager-Flusberg, H. And Lainhart, J. (2006). Comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism: Interview development and rates of disorders. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 36 (7), pp. 849 -- 861.
Rapoport, J., Chavez, A., Greenstein, D., Addington, A. And Gogtay, N. (2009). Autism spectrum disorders and childhood-onset schizophrenia: clinical and biological contributions to a relation revisited. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48 (1), pp. 10 -- 18.
Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Charman, T., Ch, Ler, S., Loucas, T. And Baird, G. (2008). Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47 (8), pp. 921 -- 929.
Autism has reached epidemic proportions between American children with cases increasing amongst adults and children worldwide. Treatments initially began with helping children improve their social and communication skills. With medications like risperidone and aripiprazole to treat irritability, children with autism were managed short-term. However, these medications only present a temporary fix with symptoms continuing after stopping of medication and symptoms recurring even with higher doses. For there to be a suitable alternative to pills and traditional methods of treatment, current research must demonstrate efficacy and cost efficiency concerning new autism treatments. This literature review will highlight a variety of new treatment approaches along with ways to monitor, evaluate, and understand how autism effects a child to show what can be done to help children with Autism.
In an article by Klintwall, Gillberg, Bolte, & Fernell, the authors discuss the use of intervention programs based on applied behavior analysis as the…
Klintwall, L., Gillberg, C., Bolte, S., & Fernell, E. (2012). The Efficacy of Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Children with Autism: A Matter of Allegiance? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(1), 139-140. Doi: 10.1007/s10803-011-1223-z
Magiati, I., Moss, J., Yates, R., Charman, T., & Howlin, P. (2011). Is the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist a useful tool for monitoring progress in children with autism spectrum disorders? Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 55(3), 302 -- 312. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2010.01359.x/abstract?deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false
Schreibman, L., & Stahmer, A.C. (2013). A Randomized Trial Comparison of the Effects of Verbal and Pictorial Naturalistic Communication Strategies on Spoken Language for Young Children with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(1), 6-11.
Silva, L.M., Schalock, M., & Ayres, R. (2011). A model and treatment for autism at the convergence of Chinese medicine and Western science: First 130 cases. Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, 17(6), 421-429. Doi: 10.1007/s11655-011-0635-0
Stimuli other than explicit instruction are reported to have likely signaled the beginning of a new activity. In the case of the female student, Christie it was related that arranging and ordering was not an escapist activity as it had been for the male participants to avoid responding to instructions. In the case of one of the male students the ordering and arranging was believed to be due to lack of other stimulating attention. The work of Gongola and Sweeney (2011) report discrete trial teaching which is an educational instruction practice that is characterized by a fast pace that is delivered repetitively and which enables instruction that is intense is a short period of time. Discrete trial teaching sessions are reported to take place in environments that are highly structured. The area in which this instruction takes place should be as free of distractions as possible. An instructional team that…
Gongola, L. And Sweeney, J. (2011) Discrete Trial Teaching: Getting Started. Intervention in School and Clinic. 2012 47: 193.
Parker, D. And Kamps, D. (2011) Effects of Task Analysis with Self-Monitoring for Children with Autism in Multiple Social Settings. Focus on Autism and Other Disabilities 26(3) 131-142. Mannill Institute on Disabilities.
Rodriguez, NM and Thompson, RH. (2012) Functional Analysis and Treatment of Arranging and Ordering by Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 2012, 45, 1-22.
Thiessen, C. et al. (2009) Evaluation of a Self-Instructional Manual for Conducting Discrete-Trials Teaching Children with Autism. Behavior Modification 2009 33: 360.
In ode to foste equitable management of the available esouces in the society, it becomes less valuable if the innate membes ae not esponsible. A lesson can be dawn fom the family of Rowan ove the avenues of esponding to the calls of duty. The family of Rowan is awae of the chaacteistic and developmental chaacteistic that ae found in the society. Theefoe, they ae vey eady to offe consequential avenues of managing the applicable esouces in ode to ensue the futue health status of thei son. Theefoe, it makes it less valuable o appoachable to take a consideate management of the health of the child iespective of the measues of gowth and development in the society.
What changed between the boy and his paents and how did that affect his way of being in the wold? Fom a family systems pespective, how did the oveall family changed?
references that have been established in the family.
The whole family comes to the rescue of the needs and specification of the family members. This is possible with the change of attitude and perception drawn from the available measures of growth and development in the society. Initially, the parents to Rowan were not aware of the specified number of approvals that their son needed in order to assume a quality life in the society. Nonetheless, the presence of these facets necessitated for the growth and development of the horse needs. The family had to shift its intentions and even the place of settlement in order to offer the necessary measures and requirements to the growth and development of their son in the society. There are other specified characteristic of the family like managing the available avenues of growth within the sector of child development. The family had to shift its settlement locations. Moreover, the family had to ensure that it has provided all the requirements that are needed by the child in the society.
In essence, Rowan suffers the consequences of having to respond to his immediate needs in the family. It is not a big burden for the family to provide the required amenities in this regard. Nonetheless, there are specific managerial avenues that are directed at influencing positive establishment of the society and its growth agencies. In order to master the entire family and provide for the specified needs, the family has to change its plans starting from the vocational boundaries to school levels.
Autism is a developmental disorder as it is marked with pervasive and severe impairment revolving around areas of development such as communication, imagination, reciprocal interaction and behavior. The diagnostic criteria for autism as incorporated by the DSM IV T includes symptoms such as impairment in the use of nonverbal behaviors like eye contact, gestures, bodily postures during the normal routine social interaction, the inability to form good peer relationships, delay or lack in the development of the language being spoken, failure to start a conversation despite an adequate ability to speak, restricted and repetitive behaviors and stereotyped behavior patterns, interests and activities. Many of these symptoms along with few others are supposed to be present in an individual by the age of 3 years in order to be diagnosed as autistic. As a matter of fact, even if the parents notice something wrong or abnormal in their child during infancy,…
Abramson, L. (2007). Public schools prepare to educate children with Autism. Npr. Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=12776434
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Edition. Text Revision. Washington DC
Arthur-Kelly. (2006). Enhancing everyday communication for children with disabilities. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
Attwood, T. (2000). Strategies for improving the social integration of children with Asperger Syndrome. Autism, 4, 85-100
In some students, autism is more severe than it is in others, and teachers must learn to anticipate this if they are to be successful in the classroom.
The severity of the autism can make the difference between whether students with autism should be included or whether they should be taught separately (Shattuck, et al., 2009). Students cannot make that decision, of course, but the parents and teachers can work together to determine which is going to be the best option for the individual student. Where some subjects are concerned it is more difficult to make this choice, as well.
One of those subjects is math, because math can be complicated and can build on what was previously learned (Jimenez & Garcia, 2002). That can be a problem for autistic students, because they often do not learn as easily or retain the information they have learned for as long or…
Beckman, P.J., Hanson, M.J., & Horn, E. (2002). Family perceptions of inclusion. In S.L. Odom (Ed.), Widening the circle: Including children with disabilities in preschool programs (pp. 98-108). New York: Teachers College Press.
Caronna, E.B., Milunsky, J.M., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2008). Autism spectrum disorders: Clinical and research frontiers. Archives of Dis Child, 93(6):518 -- 23.
Casas, AM & Castellar, RG. (2004). Mathematics Education and Learning Disabilities in Spain. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37(1), 62-66.
Cross, AF, Traub, EK, Hutter-Pishgahi, L, & Shelton, G. (2004). Elements of Successful Inclusion for Children with Significant Disabilities. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 24(3), 169-181.
" Presentation of new tasks accompanied by old tasks promotes the child to target behaviors quicker. Letting the child chose the items of stimulus is another motivational tool. Self-motivation and self-management teach the child the consequences associated with their actions or behaviors. Self-management involves:
1. Choosing a specific behavior to target, such as aggression, hygiene, or verbal communication with others
2. Teaching the child to recognize when he/she behaves appropriately. Do not focus on the absence of the negative behavior, rather reward when appropriate behaviors are displayed.
3. Once the child has learned to differentiate the desirable behavior from undesirable, then the child is taught to monitor brief periods of time or occurrences of the positive behavior.
4. After mastering step #3, the child can be taught to self-manage in any environment. The provider should only remind the child to begin self-management and then gradually fade out of the new…
Articlesbase.com. (2009). Autism Social Interaction- How to Deal with Negative Autism Social
Skills. Retrieved on April 12, 2010 from http://www.articlesbase.com/mental-health-articles/autism-social-interaction-how-to-deal-with-negative-autism-social-skills-1483772.html
Bakken, T.L., Friis, S., Lovoll, S., Smeby, N.A., & Martinsen, H. (2007). Behavioral
Disorganization as an Indicator of Psychosis in Adults with Intellectual Disability and Autism. Mental Health Aspects of Developmental Disabilities, 10(2), 37+. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from Questia database:
As noted in the located research, "individuals with autism may have an IQ at any level. By convention, if an individual with autism has an IQ in the normal range (or above), they are said to have 'high-functioning autism' (HFA)." (Baron-Cohen, 1) For a parent with a young child who exhibits signs of true intelligence or even of prominent and unique talents, the understanding of autism as a disorder becomes somewhat difficult to accept.
This leads us to consider a question which remains today up for ongoing debate in diagnosis and treatment perpsecitve. Namely, it is argued that the term disorder is improperly applied to those with symptoms of autism which might otherwise display the capacity for a healthy and full development as individuals. Accordingly, the research conducted here brings us into contact with an article which "considers whether Asperger Syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) necessarily lead to disability…
Autism Network International (ANI). (2002). Diagnostic Criteria for 299.00 Autistic Disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM IV. Online at http://ani.autistics.org/dsm4-autism.html
Baron-Cohen, S. (2000). Is Asperger's sundrome/High-functioning Autism necessarily a disability? Developmental and Psychopathology. Online at http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/7138/lobby/disability.htm
Bishop et al. (2004). Using self-report to identify the broad phenotype in parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders: A study using the Autism Spectrum Quotient. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1431-1436.
Easterbrook, G. (2006). In search of the cause of autism. Slate. Online at http://www.slate.com/id/2149002/
Dr. David Miller, in his article examined the methods of testing for autism. He concluded that a discovery of genetic variables contributing to autism (ASD) is the first step in developing effective clinical diagnostic genetic tests. He concluded that most cases are still unexplained by current genetic testing and will require ongoing discovery to improve the yield from clinical testing. Miller (2010). n other words, Miller suggests that the current genetic testing is not yielding the results that would best explain the causes of autism and in light of the available testing mechanisms. As a solution to this issue, Miller suggests that the ideal genetic test would identify genetic susceptibility to autism. Miller (2010) .
n light of Miller's testing theories and to illustrate an example of how genes are evaluated in autism studies, in the Traylor study, six subjects were studied from different areas of the world. Study subjects…
Incidents and Prevalence
The Steer study was referred to as the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) sample. The study originally recruited 14,541 pregnant women with expected delivery dates between April 1992 and December 1992. Of the children in the study with ASD there were 86 such children identified with the disorder by age 11 years giving a prevalence of 62 per 10,000 children. These numbers were based upon the original recruited sample of 13, 971 children. Steer (2010). However, these numbers are somewhat lower than previous numbers. For example, a recent study by Baron-Cohen et. al suggests a prevalence rate of 0.9% based upon a survey of special educational needs (SEN) children among 96 schools. Steer (2010).
When the ALSPAC studies were conducted on the sample of 13,138 children (a significantly smaller sample than the original sample), there were 80 cases of ASD identified. Of the 80 ASD cases identified, 28 represent childhood autism, 14 were atypical, 21 were Asperger's syndrome, 3 had unspecified pervasive developmental disorders, and 14 had
ut sometimes, depending on how severe a child is affected with autism, the decision to place such a child in a residential environment, such as a specialized care facility, must be made. Yet for those children who are only slightly or moderately afflicted with autism, the classroom, under the guidance of a trained professional and with the assistance of parents, appears to be the best environment for instruction and education. However, as Karen S. Exkorn sees it, all autistic children must experience "full classroom inclusion and be made a part of the mainstream experience in order to guarantee their civil rights as human beings" (2005, 213).
2007). Autism Fact Sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Internet. Available at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/autism/detail_autism.htm.
Exkorn, Karen S. (2005). The Autism Sourcebook. New York: Prentice-Hall.
Jordan, Rita and Stuart Powell. (2002). Understanding and Teaching Children with Autism. New York: John Wiley & Sons.…
2007). Autism Fact Sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Internet. Available at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/ disorders/autism/detail_autism.htm.
Exkorn, Karen S. (2005). The Autism Sourcebook. New York: Prentice-Hall.
Jordan, Rita and Stuart Powell. (2002). Understanding and Teaching Children with Autism. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Mesibov, Gary B., et al. (2003). Autism: Understanding the Disorder. New York: Kluwer Academic Press.
Autism is one of the most severe and disruptive of all childhood disorders. It is a communicative disorder that interferes with an individual's ability to form social relationships, as well as to communicate with others. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD's) officially belong to a group of illnesses known as 'developmental disabilities'. They are characterized by problems with social and communication skills of varying degrees (Schechter & Grether, 20). Autistic people also commonly display unusual ways of learning, reacting to different sensations and paying attention. Sufferers also tend to repeat certain behaviors and have difficulties when required to change their usual daily activities. ASD's are commonly said to start in childhood and last for the person's whole life, but as you will see below, there are many new theories as to the cause(s) of these disorders and many offer the hope of effective treatments (Gerber & Offit, 457).
ecent reviews in environmental…
Gerber, J.S., & Offit, P.A. "Vaccines and autism: A tale of shifting hypotheses." Clin Infect Dis. 48.4
(2010): 456-461. doi: 10.1086/596476
Jordan, C.J. "Evolution of autism and understanding via the world wide web." Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. 48.3 (2010): 220-227. doi: 10.1352/1934-9556-48.3.220
Baker, J.P. "One controversy, three histories: Mercury, vaccines, and autism." American Journal
According to Bock & Goode (2003), the plasticity of the brain during early childhood allows for the best outcomes when treating the disorder. Because autism is a spectrum disorder some children benefit more from the aforementioned interventions than others. However regardless of the severity of the disorder all children seem to benefit from early diagnosis and early treatment (pg, 254).
The purpose of this discussion was to compare and contrast two theoretical models of intervention in Autism. The two models that we reviewed were behavioral and educational. The research suggests that behavioral interventions are amongst the most studied and most effective interventions for those suffering from autism. Behavioral interventions are beneficial because they increase communication, skills and peer interaction. The research also found that educational interventions can be beneficial to those with autism. The types of educational interventions discussed included conductive education and gentle teaching. Both of these types…
Bock, G. & Goode, J. (Eds.). (2003). Autism: Neural Basis and Treatment Possibilities. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Hollander, E. (Ed.). (2003). Autism Spectrum Disorders. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Jacobson, J.W., Foxx, R.M., & Mulick, J.A. (Eds.). (2004). Controversial Therapies for Developmental Disabilities: Fad, Fashion, and Science in Professional Practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Schoen, a.A. (2003). What Potential Does the Applied Behavior Analysis Approach Have for the Treatment of Children and Youth with Autism?. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 30(2), 125+.
Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder. Language and communication skills are deeply affected by autism; therefore it is difficult for those with autism to interact in social situations. There is a spectrum of disabilities related to autism, sometimes called pervasive developmental disorders. These disorders can range from mild to severe (Sathrum 36).
Symptoms of autism generally appear by the time a child is three years old. oys are much more likely than girls to have autism. Some symptoms of autism are speech problems, avoiding eye contact, impulsive behavior, need for routine, and repetitive movements (Goin and Myers 5-12).
Autism is diagnosed when a child displays all three of the following signs: delayed speech and language, difficulty with social contact, and repetitive or odd behaviors (Sathrum 36). All of the signs must occur before age three, but a child is not typically diagnosed with autism until three years of age or later.…
Barrett, Rowland P. "Is There an Autism Epidemic?" Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter 20.4 (2004): 8-9.
Carothers, Douglas E., and Ronald L. Taylor. "How Teachers and Parents Can Work Together to Teach Daily Living Skills to Children with Autism." Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities 19.2 (2004): 102-104.
George, O'Brien. "Progress - in Small Bites." Business West 20.12 (2004): 73-75.
Goin, Robin P., and Barbara J. Myers. "Characteristics of Infantile Autism: Moving Toward Earlier Detection." Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities 19.1 (2004): 5-12.
The Article concludes by reiterating the IOM's recommendation to continue with the current immunization programs in the absence of any strong and concrete evidence on the contrary. [Michelle Meadows]
The last few years have triggered intense debate on the autism and vaccination topic with research results supporting both sides. A study by weibel et.al (1998) concluded by stating a rare but important link between measles vaccine and brain encephalopathy among children. [Weibel et.al] Another study by Singh VK et.al (1998) implicated measles virus induced autoimmunity in autistic children. [Singh, et.al] the fact that Dr. Megson's prescription of vitamin a therapy via cod liver oil capsules reversed or considerably improved the condition for her autistic patients serves to attest the 'G alpha proteins' theory and consequently the link between autism and DPT vaccination. Also, recently a hepatitis protein strain was extracted from a similar retinoid receptor gene (RAR beta). Thus, it…
Mary Megson, MD, 'Autism and Vaccinations',
Accessed 8th Nov 2007, Available at http://www.westonaprice.org/children/autism
Michelle Meadows, 'IOM Report: No link between Vaccines and Autism',
Accessed 8th Nov 2007, Available at http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/2004/504_iom.html
The best way to explain to a friend that that a close relative, such as a son, has autism, would be to begin by explaining that there are certain traits that such a relative may manifest that are decidedly at variance with others his age. Quite frequently, such differences pertain to various aspects of socialization and education, although these two areas are not mutually exclusive. It would certainly be worthwhile to explain to one's friend that one of the endemic processes of formal, classroom-based education is related to socialization -- knowing how and what to say in appropriate situations, as well as how to work (and play) with others. The friend needs to hear that autistic children learn things and socialize differently than other people do.
Furthermore, it is very important to explain to one's friend that just because one's son is autistic, it does not mean that…
AUTISM 'CURES' AND TREATMENT CONTROVERSIES
Autism Cures and Treatment Controversies
Autism 'Cures' and Treatment Controversies
Autism 'Cures' and Treatment Controversies
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) encompasses classical autism, Asperger syndrome, and progressive developmental disorder -- not otherwise specified (DD-NOS) (Leonard et al., 2010, p. 548-550). Classical or typical autism represents the most severe and common of the ASD disorders, of which the main symptoms are social, attention, and behavioral deficits (Betancur, 2011, p. 43). Intellectual impairment and epilepsy are also common comorbid conditions and are present in 70% and 25% of autistic individuals, respectively.
ASD is primarily a genetic disease and approximately 90% of all cases can be thus explained (Holt and Monaco, 2011, p. 438). The risk of both monozygotic twins developing autism, who have a family history, is between 30% and 60%, but for siblings the risk is much smaller and depends on how carefully they are screened for…
Only one prescription medication has been FDA approved for treating ASD and this is the antipsychotic medication risperidone for irritability (Rossignol, 2009, p. 213). The use of any others are generally provided 'off-label' for non-FDA-approved uses and confined to treating the symptoms associated with ASD. What is most troubling about using medications off-label is that the short-term and long-term benefits are usually unknown, especially in children, and the risk of side effects generally high.
A retrospective analysis of all known or suspected pharmaceutical treatments for ASD was performed recently and each was graded on the quality of research performed (Rossignol, 2009). The most promising treatments that were supported by well-controlled studies include melatonin, vitamin C, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (rivastigmine, donepezil, galantine), and naltrexone. Melatonin seems to be well tolerated and one study showed improved sleep in 80% of the children studied. Vitamin C significantly reduced repetitive behaviors in a small group of children and had no adverse effects. The advantages of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were a decrease in the severity of autistic symptoms, but the adverse side effects were sometimes significant and included nausea, diarrhea, irritability, and hyperactivity. Naltrexone also reduced the severity of symptoms and
Autism is, if not the foremost, one of the most well-known of the disorders among the pervasive developmental disorders list. The conditions are so marked through a set of communicative and social malfunctions in an early age that autism has been commonly diagnosed among children less than three years of age. The disorder is known to statistically affect 1 in 1,000 births for prototypical autism, while autism spectrum disorders can be found in 4 in 1,000 births (Klin, Ami). Around 60% to 70% of those diagnosed with autism display range of mental retardation; however, studies have also indicated that this percentage is gradually decreasing due to further study on the subject.
The diagnosis of autism is usually reliant on a number of behavioral criteria. Studies performed on diagnosed autistic behavior usually determine severity by using three different tools for prognosis: the Pervasive Development Disorder Behavior Inventory, the Autism Evaluation Treatment…
Klin, Ami. Autism and Asperger syndrome: an overview. Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr. [online]. 2006, vol.28, suppl.1 [cited 2011-12-02], pp. s3-s11 . Available from: . ISSN 1516-4446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-44462006000500002 .
Wondra Lee, et al. "Nutritional And Metabolic Status Of Children With Autism Vs. Neurotypical Children, And The Association With Autism Severity." Nutrition & Metabolism 8.1 (2011): 34-65.Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 Dec. 2011.
The children were scored in terms of whether they imitated the action that had been modeled for them as well as for the presence of any "errors" -- the introduction of actions not in the modeled behavior. The results were then subjected to multivariate statistical analysis.
The researchers found, in contrast to previous similar research, that children with both conditions did not evidence any greater problems with either gross motor or fine motor skills but that they did make more "mistakes" in imitation and that they were subject to greater problems in maintaining their balance. They expected the children with both syndromes to have both increased motor control problems and greater errors in imitation. Thus their hypothesis was supported in part.
The diagnostic consequences for this finding are that children who have been diagnosed with Fragile X who show high error rates in imitation and problems in balancing should also…
Burgess, a.F. & Gutstein, S.E. (2007) Quality of life for people with autism: Raising the standard for evaluating successful outcomes. Child and adolescent mental health 12(2): 80 -- 86.
Chiang, H.-M. (2009). Naturalistic observations of elicited expressive communication of children with autism: An analysis of teacher instructions. The National Autistic Society Vol 13(2): 165 -- 178.
Fombonne, E. (2007) Modern views of autism. Canadian journal of psychiatry 48(8): 503 -- 5.
Helt, M. et al. (2008). Can children with autism recover? If so, how? Neuropsychological review 18(4): 339 -- 66.
In these environments, the problems in behavioral instincts might be more obvious compared to a doctor's home or his chamber. It is required on the part of the doctors to devote more time to test patients those who are less in age whom they expect to be having autism. A systematic neurologic, listening and testing the manner of his speaking must be done prior to making the detection; More research should be carried out to develop testing instruments for infants and to find out the functioning of brain activity, genetics and family settings in the development of autism. (Preboth, 2000)
But while the children having autism mature crossing the threshold of their classroom and plunge into adult life of holding jobs and self-sufficient livelihood, the fundamental organized specialized education methods which have been exhibited to be efficient in the earlier years are relevant as well. The Childhood Autism ating Scale…
Courchesne, Eric. (March, 2004) "Outcome Classification of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders using MRI Brain Measures" Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Volume: 26; No; 1; pp: 46-48
Drain, Tammy. L. (February, 2004) "Errorless Academic Compliance Training: Improving Generalized Cooperation with Parental Requests in Children with Autism" Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Volume: 25; No:1; pp: 30-34
Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. (2001) "Autism" 2nd ed. Gale Group
Hancock, Terry B; Kaiser, Ann. P. (Spring, 2002) "The Effects of Trainer-Implemented Enhanced Milieu Teaching on the Social Communication of Children with Autism" Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. Vol: 23: No:1; pp: 61-66
Autism in Children
Autism can be defined as a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and non-verbal communication and social interaction usually evident before age 3 that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movement, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and usual sensory experiences (Coffey, 2004).
Symptoms of autism are usually apparent by 30 months of age. Recent research has noted that a diagnosis of autism can be made as early as 2 years of age (Cox, 1999). Early identification is important and an integral part of the medical management and treatment of children with autism. Identification of autism at young ages can allow for earlier participation in special intervention services, which may reduce the impact of early deficits on later functioning. Although the average age of diagnosis appears to have decreased over the past…
Coffey, K. And Obringer, J. (2004). A case study on autism: School accommodations and inclusive. Academic Search Premier,124 (4), 632.
Coonrod, E. And Stone, W. (2004). Early concerns of parents of children with autistic and nonautistic disorders. Infants and Young Children, 3, pp. 258-268.
Cox, A., Klein, K., Charman, T., Baird, G., Baron-Cohen, S., and Swettenham, J. (1999).
Autism spectrum disorders at 20 and 42 months of age: stability of clinical and ADI-R diagnosis. Journal of Child Psychiatry and Psychology, 40, 719-732.
Sadly, the real risk is a global recurrence of the disease as, one at a time, people begin to reject vaccinations because they are associated with controversy, not real medical findings.
US CDC Stand:
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have an informative fact sheet that demonstrates, very briefly the establishment of fear and states unequivocally that there is no known connection between MM and autism and goes further to state that the 12 cases in the 1998 (12 child) study may have just by chance simultaneously began symptoms of the autism disorder, around the time they received the vaccinations. As the onset of autism usually does correspond with the age group of vaccinating children there is a major point of validity with this argument. The CDC also points out two other important facts, that no other studies have been able to link the two and that the…
Autism Ruled out by Largest Study of MMR Vaccine Cases. (2001, January 13). The Birmingham Post (England), p. 6.
CDC, October 18, 2007. "Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) Vaccine and Autism Fact Sheet" Retrieved October, 22, 2007 at http://www.cdc.gov/od/science/iso/concerns/mmr_autism_factsheet.htm
Gupta, C. (September 14, 2004) MMR and AUTISM: The link really has been established Retrieved October 15, 2007 at http://www.newmediaexplorer.org/chris/2004/09/14/mmr_and_autism_the_link_really_has_been_established.htm
Izakson, O. (2003, May/June). Measuring Risk: Vaccines Save Lives, but Also Cause Health Problems. E, 14, 40.
Autism: Discrimination Learning
Autism is no longer a condition that can be wished away or ignored in the American society today but has to be tackled efficiently. As a matter of fact autism prevalence is estimated to be at one child for every 110 children counted. These statistics that puts autism at a higher prevalence rate than a combination of cancer, pediatric AIDS and diabetes among the children. Effectively, there is an estimated 1.5 million Americans with autism another ten of millions across the world. The American government estimates that the condition increases at a rate between 10% and 17% each year. Though there is no solid evidence and explanation given to this rise in the numbers, it is thought that the perfection of the diagnosis process makes the medical fraternity keener on the condition hence with the increase in the medical science and practitioners awareness, the there is more…
Autism Speaks Inc., (2011). What is Autism? Retrieved October 4, 2011 from http://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism
Dermot M. Bowler, (2007). Autism spectrum disorders: psychological theory and research. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., West Sussex. Retrieved October 4, 2011 from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=Ds_4-8JmJCoC&pg=PA132&lpg=PA132&dq=Discrimination+Learning+Process+in+Autism+Spectrum+Disorders&source=bl&ots=3Qgo6WHY0v&sig=X-C3MuGcAk8J-bOJd2Npv6Q9sro&hl=sw&ei=B0aMTt7AKM3OswblouiwAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDMQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=Discrimination%20Learning%20Process%20in%20Autism%20Spectrum%20Disorders&f=false
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, (1985). Visual Discrimination Learning with Variable Irrelevant cues in Autistic Children. Vol. 15, No. 4, 399-408, DOI: 0.1007/BF01531784 Retrieved October 4, 2011 from http://www.springerlink.com/content/h326264543nl2588/
Mary McDonald, (2010). Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention in Autism. Retrieved October
Introduction to the Problem
Designing effective support services for students with autism remains one of the most pressing needs in special education (Creswell, 2013). Autism is described as being a spectrum because of its diverse manifestations. Therefore, students with autism spectrum disorders comprise a heterogeneous group. Being a heterogeneous group makes it harder to design effective support services that meet the needs of all persons. Research consistently shows that although students with autism spectrum disorders do not necessarily have concurrent intellectual or learning disabilities, and many have the potential for high academic achievement, these students are “at risk of scholastic underachievement,” (Clarke, Hill & Charman, 2016; Creswell, 2013). According to White, Elias, Salinas, et al. (2016), many individuals with autism spectrum disorder have above-average intellectual ability and yet are less likely to enroll in postsecondary education such as college or university. In addition to being at risk for scholastic underachievement,…
Brown, K. R., & Coomes, M. D. (2015). A spectrum of support: current and best practices for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) at community colleges. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 40(6), 465–479. doi:10.1080/10668926.2015.1067171
Clarke, C., Hill, V., & Charman, T. (2016). School based cognitive behavioural therapy targeting anxiety in children with autistic spectrum disorder: a quasi-experimental randomised controlled trail incorporating a mixed methods approach. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(12), 3883–3895. doi:10.1007/s10803-016-2801-x
Creswell, J. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Elias, R., & White, S. W. (2017). Autism Goes to College: Understanding the Needs of a Student Population on the Rise. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 48(3), 732–746. doi:10.1007/s10803-017-3075-7
Mackay, B. A., Shochet, I. M., & Orr, J. A. (2017). A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of a School-Based Resilience Intervention to Prevent Depressive Symptoms for Young Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Mixed Methods Analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(11), 3458–3478. doi:10.1007/s10803-017-3263-5
Matthews, N. L., Ly, A. R., & Goldberg, W. A. (2014). College Students’ Perceptions of Peers with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(1), 90–99. doi:10.1007/s10803-014-2195-6
Van Hees, V., Moyson, T., & Roeyers, H. (2014). Higher Education Experiences of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Challenges, Benefits and Support Needs. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(6), 1673–1688. doi:10.1007/s10803-014-2324-2
Wei, X., Wagner, M., Hudson, L., Yu, J. W., & Javitz, H. (2015). The Effect of Transition Planning Participation and Goal-Setting on College Enrollment Among Youth With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Remedial and Special Education, 37(1), 3–14. doi:10.1177/0741932515581495
What Is Autism?
Autism, also referred to as autism spectrum disorder, is a disorder that takes into account a variety of conditions signified by challenges with social abilities, repetitive manners, speech and nonverbal communication, in addition to distinctive strengths and differences (Autism Speaks, 2018). Delineated by a set of behaviors, autism impacts persons in dissimilar ways and to varying magnitudes. There is no acknowledged sole cause of autism, but increased cognizance and early diagnosis or intervention and accessibility to suitable services give rise to substantially augmented results (Autism Society, 2016).
What is the history of autism?
1887- Dr. John Langdon Down, the first to describe Down's syndrome, researched mental retardation and this is what would be classified as having Autism today
1911- Eugen Bleuler used the word autism to describe a symptom of schizophrenia
I943 and 1944 – Leo Kanner and Hans Asperger develop Infantile Autism and Asperger’s Syndrome
Lord, C., Risi, S., DiLavore, P. S., Shulman, C., Thurm, A., & Pickles, A. (2006). Autism from 2 to 9 years of age. Archives of general psychiatry, 63(6), 694-701.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Screening and Diagnosis. Retrieved 20 June, 2018 from: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/screening.html
Doheny, K. (2018). Autism Cases on the Rise; Reason for Increase a Mystery. WebMD.
Autism Society. (2016). What is Autism? Retrieved 20 June, 2018 from: http://www.autism-society.org/what-is/
Autism Speaks. (2018). What is Autism? Retrieved 20 June, 2018 from: https://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism
Project Autism. (2018). History of Autism. Retrieved 20 June, 2018 from: http://projectautism.org/history-of-autism
Autism is a disorder that mainly occurs on children from birth and if not diagnosed or treated early, can impede the development of the child in terms of learning and interaction with their peers. Research shows that it might be genetic since offspring often inherit some of their parents’ characteristics when born. Even though the research is not conclusive, it is believed that autism is spread through vaccinations. Autism is just but one syndrome that currently falls under the umbrella of autism spectrum disorders. There were previous disorders are now classified under umbrella diagnosis of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or as a social communication disorder (Mayo Clinic, 2017). The main threat of autism is communication disorder for the child. The child will find difficulty in learning, interacting with peers and being in mood swings that are unnatural for an infant and this needs to be diagnosed and treated…
Autism spectrum disorder. (2017, November 26). Retrieved from Mayo clinic: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/autism-spectrum-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20352928
M Elsabbagh, G. D. (2012). Autism spectrum. Global prevalence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders, 33-40.
Services for Children and Young People on the Autism Spectrum. (2017, October 15). Retrieved from research autism: http://www.researchautism.net/autism/children-and-young-people-on-the-autism-spectrum/autism-services-children
Volkmar, F. R. (2016). autism spectrum. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1-15.
MMR vaccination and relationship to autism among children study proposal
The MMR vaccine is meant to give protection against measles, mumps and rubella diseases. The vaccine contains live measles, mumps and rubella viruses which have been significantly weakened or attenuated. These attenuated viruses trigger or stimulate the human immune system but does not cause disease in a healthy individual. This vaccine should not be given to individuals with suppressed immunity or immune-suppressed people due to some underlying illness or due to drug treatment. These exception groups include the babies whose mothers, during their pregnancy or during the days of breastfeeding had immunosuppressive treatment. The reason for their exclusion from the vaccine is due to the possibility of the vaccine strain replicating too much hence causing serious infection (Oxford Vaccine Group, 2018).
There have been a good number of misconceptions about the MMR vaccine with the major one…
CDC, (2015). Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) Vaccine Safety. Retrieved June 20, 2018 from https://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/vaccines/mmr-vaccine.html
Gritt E., (2018). What is the MMR vaccine, when was it introduced, what are the side effects and why was it linked to autism? Retrieved June 20, 2018 from https://www.thesun.co.uk/fabulous/5181092/mmr-vaccine-autism-side-effects-introduced-jab-injection/
Health Line Journal, (2018). The Truth about the MMR Vaccine. Retrieved June 20, 2018 from https://www.healthline.com/health/mmr-vaccine#side-effects
Health Link, (2018). Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) Vaccine. Retrieved June 20, 2018 from https://www.healthlinkbc.ca/healthlinkbc-files/measles-mumps-rubella-vaccine
Offit P., (2018). Does the MMR vaccine put my child at greater risk for autism? Baby Centre. Retrieved June 20, 2018 from https://www.babycenter.com/404_does-the-mmr-vaccine-put-my-child-at-greater-risk-for-autism_11518.bc
Oxford Vaccine Group, (2018). MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps and Rubella Vaccine). Retrieved June 20, 2018 from http://vk.ovg.ox.ac.uk/mmr-vaccine
What is the correlation between children who do not get the MMR vaccine and end up Developing Autism?
1. Describe/ explain in detail the purpose of the research and will it be qualitative or quantitative?
While a significant pool of research spanning the past fifteen years has failed to relate the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine to ASD (autism spectrum disorder), parents as well as other entities continually associate the two. Parents refuse or postpone inoculating their children claiming that inoculation (in general) and the MMR shot (in particular) are ASD- causing factors. Decreased inoculation levels are a public health threat as they reduce individual as well as group immunity, besides being linked to numerous recent measles outbreaks, mostly in the non- inoculated population. Parents with ASD- diagnosed children are potentially especially concerned about the reported relationship between ASD and MMR, in spite of scant evidence indicating this association. Surveys of ASD-…
Buchanan, E. A. (2004). Readings in virtual research ethics: Issues and controversies. Hershey, Pa: Information Science Publ.
Elfil, M., & Negida, A. (2017). Sampling methods in Clinical Research; an Educational Review. Emergency, 5(1), e52.
Fombonne, E., & Chakrabarti, S. (2001). No evidence for a new variant of measles-mumps-rubella–induced autism. Pediatrics, 108(4), e58-e58.
Jain, A., Marshall, J., Buikema, A., Bancroft, T., Kelly, J. P., & Newschaffer, C. J. (2015). Autism occurrence by MMR vaccine status among US children with older siblings with and without autism. Jama, 313(15), 1534-1540.
Mrozek-Budzyn, D., Kie?tyka, A., Majewska, R., & Augustyniak, M. (2013). Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination has no effect on cognitive development in children–The results of the Polish prospective cohort study. Vaccine, 31(22), 2551-2557.
SABIN VACCINE INSTITUTE. (2017). Vaccines Don\\\\'t Cause Autism. Retrieved July 6, 2018, from https://www.sabin.org/updates/blog/vaccines-dont-cause-autism-0
Setia, M. S. (2016). Methodology Series Module 1: Cohort Studies. Indian Journal of Dermatology, 61(1), 21–25. http://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.174011
Smeeth, L., Hall, A. J., Fombonne, E., Rodrigues, L. C., Huang, X., & Smith, P. G. (2001). A case-control study of autism and mumps-measles-rubella vaccination using the general practice research database: design and methodology. BMC public health, 1(1), 2.
Cannabinoid Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adolescents
According to the Autism Society of America, no single cause has been identified for autism spectrum disorder (hereinafter alternatively “autism”) to date, but a growing body of research confirms that the disorder is characterized by several developmental disabilities that typically begin during early childhood that adversely affect the ability to interact with others appropriately including most especially severe deficits in communication (Autism overview, 2018). Furthermore, there are currently no pharmacological regimens available that can cure autism or even treat its symptoms with proven efficacy (Treatment of autism, 2018). Despite these challenges, studies have shown that early interventions that help children learn how to walk, talk and interact with others during the first 3 years can significant improve childhood development (Treatment of autism, 2018). In addition, some novel experiments using cannabinoids derived from medical marijuana have shown significant promise in treating…
There have been several incidences of claims and counter claims about the relationship between Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) vaccine and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). There is a significantly large group of people who believe that MMR vaccine causes ASD, hence heightening their fear for the vaccine and making them shy away from presenting their children for the vaccine. Worse still, the families with history of ASD in the family grow bigger discomfort on the use of the vaccine since they fear that the genetic exposure, coupled with the vaccine that may predispose their children to ASD, is almost a sure way of getting the ASD affecting their children. It is a health danger that faces the nation since the children, who are not vaccinated, risk developing measles that may result in death, mumps that may lead to other complications of the organs in the body and rubella which may expose…
Gabriel A., (2013). Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Theoretical Framework. Retrieved July 08, 2018 from http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/theoreticalframework
Jain A. et.al, (2016). Autism Occurrence by MMR Vaccine Status Among US Children With Older Siblings With and Without Autism. American Medical Association.
Zimlich R., (2014). Nurses play key role in vaccination success. Retrieved July 08, 2018 from http://healthcaretraveler.modernmedicine.com/healthcare-traveler/content/tags/measles/nurses-play-key-role-vaccination-success
Childcare Patterns and Issues for Families of Preschool Children with Autism
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are the most rapidly growing student population served in special education. As a result, several early childhood programs targeting such students have been established in the education sector. These programs are established to help meet the special needs of these children while promoting and enhancing their academic growth and achievements. In addition, family members play a critical role in the development and growth of these children with respect to meeting their special needs. Mereiou, Bland & Niemeyer (2015) state that the increase in diagnosis of ASD among children has made families and policymakers to champion for initiatives that enhance knowledge and understanding of their needs. Understanding these needs is essential toward improving the effectiveness of interventions and related services. Additionally, understanding the needs of these children help families to adopt suitable childcare patterns…
1) Connor (2002) states that studies report findings that mothers of children with Autism "who showed greater satisfaction" in life were those "who made the clearest redefinitions and who were most willing to follow alternative ways of gaining self-fulfillment." (p. 1)
II. EFFECTS on LIFE of FAMILY in NORMAL ACTIVITIES
In the work entitled: 'Autism and the Family" reported is a study conducted in a 12th grade classroom at 'Our Lady of Loures High School through survey instruments completed by the children of mothers with autistic children in the age range of 4 to 36 years of age. This study reports that family outings "can be quite an ordeal for these families." (Hart, nd, p.1) for instance, when these families go on an outing, in families where it is possible two cars travel to the outing in case the child needs to be suddenly removed from the public setting due…
Greenspan, Stanley I. (2008) Understanding Autism. Parent & Child. 2008. Online available at: http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=10118
Parents of Autistic Children Twice as Likely to be Mentally Ill (2008) Fox News 5 May 2008. Online available at: http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,354192,00.html?sPage=fnc/health/mentalhealth
Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Best Practice Guidelines for Screening, Diagnosis and Assessment (2002) California Department of Developmental Services: 2002. Online available at: http://www.athealth.com/Consumer/disorders/Autism.html
Gold N. 1993 Depression and social adjustment in siblings of boys with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 23 147-163
The moral of the article's story is that teachers of autistic children with limited spoken languages may indeed need more training to get the most out of their students.
Still on the subject of therapy for autistic children, another article in the journal Autism (Vismara, et al. 2009) reports that professionally led training sessions with the parents of autistic children were helpful in getting the children to respond and communicate. The study was a 12-week research investigation, one hour per week; and what took place was the parents of eight "toddlers" (who had been diagnosed with autism) were brought together with their children and therapists. These parents were taught how to implement "naturalistic therapeutic techniques" based on the "Early Start Denver Model" (ESDM) (Vismara 93). The ESDM model focuses on "creating an affectively warm and rich environment to foster positive relationships between children and adults" (Vismara 99). The training with…
Chiang, Hus-Min. (2009). Naturalistic observations of elicited expressive communication
Of children with autism. Autism, 13(2), 165-178.
Donovan, Susan. Entrepreneur Thorkil Sonne on what you can learn from employees
With autism. Harvard Business Review, 86(9), 32-32.
The overall purpose of this book is to assist teachers and educators to understand the often complex world of autism as it relates to "social and emotional development, communication, cognition and behavior" in a classroom setting. It also addresses the overwhelming needs of autistic children related to "communication and flexibility of thought and behavior" and how these needs "might be overcome or circumvented" both at home in a classroom environment (TheNile.co.uk, Internet).
4. Mesibov, Gary B., et al. (1998). utism: Understanding the Disorder. New York: Kluwer cademic Press. 105 pages.
ccording to the Journal of pplied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, this book offers "a comprehensively referenced guide to autism," created in part by TECCH, " a forerunner in research and treatment for individuals" afflicted with autism, such as children and young adults. Overall, this book contains a very detailed overview of autism, such as its clinical history, diagnosis, biological causes,…
According to the Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, this book offers "a comprehensively referenced guide to autism," created in part by TEACCH, " a forerunner in research and treatment for individuals" afflicted with autism, such as children and young adults. Overall, this book contains a very detailed overview of autism, such as its clinical history, diagnosis, biological causes, neuropsychological mechanisms and treatment options (Amazon.com review, Internet). For educators, Mesibov, one of the most recognized experts on autism, provides many in-depth solutions on how to teach and inform autistic children, both in the classroom and at home. This book was also written with parents in mind as a guide to raising, educating and maintaining strong relationships with autistic children.
5. (2006). The Culture of Autism. Autism Independent UK. Internet. Available at http://www.autismuk.com/index3sub1.htm .
This excellent website, owned and operated by the Autism Independent Group of the United Kingdom, points out that educational services for children with autism should be composed of two specific goals, being to "increase their understanding and make the environment more comprehensible." This website also contains a very in-depth section on learning aids for teachers and educational professionals, such as sensory integration, setting the proper climate for learning, innovative software for speech, stages learning materials for speech and language, educational toys for children with autism and related disorders, and a comprehensive link for parents and teachers that provides free learning aids. Overall, this website is invaluable for not only parents but also teachers and other educational specialists who study, treat and educate children with autism.
In fact, the CDC continues, a scientific review by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) has concluded that there is no justification for believing that "a casual relationship" exists between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism (CDC).
The CDC believes that "about 1 in 150 children have ASD" (autism) -- quite a different number in comparison with the NAA's data -- and the CDC explains that it is approaching the research into the causes of autism in three important areas: a) understanding the trends and the frequency of autism spectrum disorders; b) the CDC is conducting advanced research in the causes and potential treatments of ASD; and c) the CDC is very involved in research that can help parents and teachers understand the symptoms so early detection and diagnosis is possible.
Meanwhile, Lisa Jo Rudy writes in the New York Times' online publication, About.com, that it is scientifically proven that in "some cases"…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Concerns about Autism: CDC Statement on Autism and Thimerosal. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/concerns/autism/index.html .
National Autism Association. (2010). Thimerosal. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.nationalsutismassociation.org/thimerosal.php.
Rudy, Lisa Jo. (2010). What Causes Autism? About.com. Retrieved November 20, 2011, from http://autism.about.com/od/whatisautism/p/autismcauses.htm?p=1 .
Far from being too simple an explanation for autism, Ramachandran notes that single causes often do lead to multiple symptoms. Ramachandran's hypothesis has been tested using a variety of brain imaging techniques including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Brain imaging did reveal dysfunctional mirror neurons in children with autism vs. those without it. In fact, Ramachandran calls the research using TMS "conclusive evidence" that mirror neuron function is the root cause of autism (p. 142). The study of embodied cognition enhances research into how mirror neurons impact autism syndromes.
Ramachandran also notes that mirror neuron deficiencies can cause dysfunctional language acquisition. After all, infants acquire language knowledge first from listening and then mimicking mother, father, and others. Autistic children struggle with mimicry. Mirror neurons play a role in language mimicry as does mu-wave suppression, which is why autistic children have trouble both with certain audio stimuli and with mimicking phonemes.…
hile Dr. Asperger called the condition "autistic psychopathy" and described it as a personality disorder primarily marked by social isolation, today Asperger's Syndrome is identified as a brain, communication, or neurological disorder like autism, not a personality disorder like, for example, antisocial personality disorder ("Asperger's Syndrome fact sheet," 2008, NINDS).
Like autism, Asperger's Syndrome is characterized by repetitive routines, rituals, and movements, poor social skills, and odd ways of communicating that do not take into consideration the other person's feelings and needs. The distinguishing feature of Asperger's, in contrast to classical autism, is that the individuals all have normal IQ but show "limited interests or an unusual preoccupation with a particular subject to the exclusion of other activities" ("Asperger's Syndrome fact sheet," 2008, NINDS). Unlike autistic individuals who show little interest in others, Asperger children may seek out companionship, but may drive other people away because of their refusal to…
Autism." (11 Apr 2008). National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
NINDS). Retrieved 10 Apr 2008 at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/ disorders/autism/detail_autism.htm
Autism spectrum disorders (Pervasive developmental disorders)." (3 Apr 2008).
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Retrieved 10 Apr 2008 at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/autism/complete-publication.shtml
Identifying Autism Loci and Genes by Tracing Recent Shared Ancestry. Science 321(5886): 218-23.
This article begins with a discussion of autism spectrum disorders and the social and mental impairments that typify the disorder, setting up an approach that is inherently humanistic and person-centered. Despite the highly technical and quantified nature of the ultimate research question and data collected and analyzed in this study, this person-centered focus and tone is observable throughout this research article. Immediately following a brief description of the impacts of autism spectrum disorders on individuals that have these disorders, the authors launch into a discussion regarding the evidence for a hereditary pattern in the development of the disorder and the ability to trace the disorder and its impact through families.
The authors follow this with a discussion about one of the general methodologies they ultimately employ in this research, known as "homozygosity mapping," which essentially is…
Autism and Dementia
Description of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Dementia
Behavioral Criteria for Autism and Dementia
The Incidence ates and Causes
Options for Treatment Based on Theoretical Models
Description of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Dementia
Autism Spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder which is essentially a brain dysfunction that has the potential to affect emotion, learning ability and memory that gradually comes to light as an individual grows up. This is generally evident in children and sometimes, if undetected and untreated, can manifest in adults also. Autism Spectrum disorder can include brain dysfunctions due to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, Down syndrome and intellectual developmental disorder. In modern medicine, Autism and ADHD are also considered to be Autism Spectrum disorders (http://aadmd.org, 2015).
The root of autism seems to be in the very early brain development. Since it is a brain developmental condition that becomes prominent as an individual continuous to grow…
Barnham, K., & Cherny, R. (2011). Metal chaperones: A holistic approach to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 7(4), e54. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.09.221
CDC - Facts about Autism Spectrum Disorders - NCBDDD,. (2015). Facts About ASDs. Retrieved 27 July 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/data.html
Corcoran, M. Neurocognitive disorder (NCD).
Corrada, M., Brookmeyer, R., Paganini-Hill, A., Berlau, D., & Kawas, C. (2010). Dementia incidence continues to increase with age in the oldest old: The 90+ study. Annals Of Neurology, 67(1), 114-121. doi:10.1002/ana.21915
Autism: Home-Based Treatment of Young Children
Over time, research findings have shown that behavioral intervention (intensive) instituted early enough impacts significantly on the trajectory (developmental) of children having autism. In a big way, such findings have informed quite a number of treatment programs targeting youngsters with autism. Some of the main approaches that have been adopted as far as the treatment of autism is concerned include the school-based approach, the center-based approach and the home-based approach. In this text, I concern myself with treatment (home-based) of children with autism.
According to Sheinkopf and Siegel (1998), parents and professionals have often encountered difficulties formulating appropriate treatment approaches for youngsters with autism. This is mainly as a result of the variations that exist when it comes to the treatment of the condition. Indeed, Sheinkopf and Siegel (1998) note that many children with autism end up receiving a cocktail of modalities in regard…
Schopler, E. & Mesibov, G.B. (1984). The Effects of Autism on the Family. Springer.
Sheinkopf, S.J. & Siegel, B. (1998). Home-Based Behavioral Treatment of Young Children with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28 (1), 15-16, 22.
Volkmar, F.R., Paul, R., Klin, A. & Cohen, D.J. (2005). Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Assessment, Interventions, and Policy. John Wiley and Sons.
Autism is a very complex neurodevelopmental disorder previously classified in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders -- fourth edition -- text revision (DSM -- IV -- T) as a pervasive developmental disorder (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). In 2013 the diagnostic scheme for pervasive developmental disorders was changed and that term was deleted from the DSM-5 (APA, 2013). The new designation became Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD's) and now represents a heterogeneous set of disorders that clinically present as a spectrum of developmental issues ranging from severe cognitive impairment to functional cognitive impairment. The diagnosis of ASD replaces the previous diagnoses of autistic disorder (often called autism), Asperger's disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, and the rather vague category of pervasive developmental disorder that is not otherwise specified (APA, 2013). ASD's are characterized by varying levels of deficits in social skills (these skills are identified as being deficits in skills of…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders -- fourth edition -- text revision. Washington DC: Author.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders -- fifth edition. Washington DC: Author.
Jain, A., Marshall, J., Buikema, A., Bancroft, T., Kelly, J.P., & Newschaffer, C.J. (2015).
Autism occurrence by MMR vaccine status among U.S. children with older siblings with and without autism. JAMA, 313(15), 1534-1540.
autism disorder. The writer explores what it is and how it manifests itself. The writer also discusses the teaching methods that have been used to allow the autistic student to take part in a public education. There were ten sources used to complete this paper.
Each year millions of American couples add to their family with the birth of a baby. The pregnancy is spent getting ready for the newcomer. Names are chosen, baby items are purchased and stored and other people's children are discussed as examples of what might be produced by this child. The family becomes ready as they read up on the milestones that they can expect the baby to make at various times of the first few years of development.
By the time the baby is born the parents have studied the progress that can be expected and are ready to start their life as a…
Address: Richard L. Simpson, University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Special Education, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160-7335.
Simpson, Richard L.-Myles, Brenda Smith, Effectiveness of facilitated communication with children and youth with autism.. Vol. 28, Journal of Special Education, 01-01-1995, pp 424.
Murray, John B., Psychophysiological aspects of autistic disorders: overview.. Vol. 130, The Journal of Psychology, 03-01-1996, pp 145(14).
Simpson, Richard L.-Myles, Brenda Smith, Effectiveness of facilitated communication with children and youth with autism.. Vol. 28, Journal of Special Education, 01-01-1995, pp 424.
A brief but insightful article that stresses the importance of communication is Autistic Kids Benefit from Dads' Involvement. This also applies to the issue of parental stress but echoes other studies that emphasize the importance of communication skills in treating autistic children. There article notes that autism is a disability or disorder that appears during the first three years of life and is characterized by problems interacting and communicating with others. elated to this is a discussion of the father's role in communication. esearchers found that, …teaching fathers how to talk to and play with their autistic children in a home setting improved communication, increased the number of intelligible words the youngsters spoke by more than 50% and helped dads get more involved in their care."
( Autistic Kids Benefit from Dads' Involvement)
An article that explores the issue of communication, nursing and the autistic child is Observing communication skills…
'Autistic Kids Benefit from Dads' Involvement', [Online] Available at:
Azeem M. And Imran N. 2007, Autism: Assessment and Management, [Online]
Available at: http://pjms.com.pk/issues/octdec207/article/reviewarticle2.html
For now, however, the cause of autism remains a mystery
The objective of this proposal is to assess the effects of autism on girls and women and their education. The eight female subjects will be grouped. Group A will include four female subjects who had been diagnosed with autism when they were very young, and Group . would include four female subjects who were skipped over and not diagnosed with autism until a later age. The full treatment and education records would be available for each subject.
There will be a total of four sessions, one subject from Group A and one subject from Group . In each session.
For gathering the data here, a quantitative approach would not be appropriate since quantitative data may be misleading. A good example is a recent study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in which the rates of autism…
Mercer, Jean (2010). Child development: myth and misunderstandings. California: Sage Publications, Inc.
www. Organization for Autism Research, April 13, 2010.
At long last, here is a book that provides women on the autism spectrum the opportunity to tell the world about their experiences, good and bad. heir candid reflections will warm your heart while giving you a backstage pass to another realm. Leading professionals in the field punctuate this masterpiece with fascinating articles that offer insightful advice. Finally, autism literature isn't just a "man's world."
Buliller, K. (2008, Summer). Quirky citizens: Autism, gender, and reimagining disability. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 33(4), 967-991.
"Feminist disability scholarship has raised new issues about identity formation and social exclusion (Garland-homson 2005). By evoking a notion of disability that fundamentally disputes the assumption of disablement as natural or a detriment, these studies follow critiques of the social construction of gender and race and also chart out new grounds to extinguish socially disabling categories. his scholarship has unsettled how feminists conceptualize gender,…
The majority of those diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders are boys and men, the voices of girls on the spectrum have been practically inaudible -- until now. At long last, here is a book that provides women on the autism spectrum the opportunity to tell the world about their experiences, good and bad. Their candid reflections will warm your heart while giving you a backstage pass to another realm. Leading professionals in the field punctuate this masterpiece with fascinating articles that offer insightful advice. Finally, autism literature isn't just a "man's world."
Buliller, K. (2008, Summer). Quirky citizens: Autism, gender, and reimagining disability. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 33(4), 967-991.
"Feminist disability scholarship has raised new issues about identity formation and social exclusion (Garland-Thomson 2005). By evoking a notion of disability that fundamentally disputes the assumption of disablement as natural or a detriment, these studies follow critiques of the social construction of gender and race and also chart out new grounds to extinguish socially disabling categories. This scholarship has unsettled how feminists conceptualize gender, sexuality, genetic and reproductive issues, and the role of women as caretakers. It has renewed interest in the question of how to promote diversity in all its manifestations and to further a more inclusive society. As a consequence, people with disabilities are asserting their place in democratic societies as identifiable groups and making demands for inclusion. One group whose struggles raise important issues for democratic participation is people with autism. While the number of people diagnosed with autism, a neurological disability with consequences for social functioning, is small relative to other disabilities such as motor impairments, according to most reports of epidemiological data the number of children being diagnosed with this disorder is rapidly escalating.
Every step of the process needs to be broken down into its simplest elements: putting the sanitary napkin in a purse, bringing the purse to the bathroom, sitting on the toilet, removing the paper from the back of the pad, etc. You could have the young female change her pad up to eight times a day during the school hours. With puberty comes a new sensations in the body, and topic of masturbation is one that fraught with shades of gray. As almost everything in autism, you have to address on a case by case basis.
Young females and women need a rigorous curriculum and need to be pushed harder than most of us in our lives. They need to learn how to identify familiar people, make a snack, sort laundry, simple task so one day they can enter into the real world and function to the best of their…
American Psychiatric Association.: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning Press.
National Institute of Neurological Disorders: Autism, Retrieved on March 28, 2010 from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/
Mirror Neuron Dysfunction in Autistic Disorder
Autistic disorder is characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction. Autistic children also often display restricted behaviors and repetitive behaviors. These signs of autism usually appear before the age of three. The inability to display empathy and imitate others in autism, a skill crucial to learning communication and social skills, has been hypothesized to result from defects in the mirror neuron system (Williams, Whiten, Suddendorf, & Perrett, 2001). The role of mirror neuron system and how dysfunctions in this system may relate to the deficits observed in autistic disorder are discussed.
Mirror neurons fire when animals or people act or observe the same action performed by another. In humans, brain activity consistent with that of mirror neurons is located the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the primary somatosensory cortex, and the inferior parietal cortex (izzolatti & Craighereo, 2004). There are two chief…
Dawson, G., Toth, K., Abbott, R., Osterling, J., Munson, J., Estes, A., & Liaw, J. (2004). Early Social Attention Impairments in Autism: Social Orienting, Joint Attention, and Attention to Distress. Developmental Psychology, 40, (2), 271 -- 283.
Hadjikhani, N., Joseph, R.M., Snyder, J., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2006). Anatomical Differences in the Mirror Neuron System and Social Cognition Network in Autism. Cerebral Cortex, 16, 1276-1282.
Receveur, C., Lenoir, P., Desombre, H., Roux, S., Barthelemy, C., & Malvy, J. (2005). Interaction and imitation deficits from infancy to 4 years of age in children with autism: a pilot study based on videotapes. Autism, 9, (1), 69-82.
Rizzolatti, G. & Craighereo, L. (2004). The mirror neuron system. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 169 -- 192.
Mary Law entitled: "Autism Spectrum Disorders and Occupational Therapy' states of the autistic child that this child "may be the child who is standing in the middle of the field at recess spinning around in circles, or she may be the child who can't stand the way a certain fabric feels on her body or the way a certain texture of food feels in her mouth, or it may be the child who is throwing a severe temper tantrum because they just can't communicate their needs." (Law, 2006) According to Law, Autism Spectrum Disorder is characterized by four main categories:
1) Impairment in social interaction;
2) Impairment in verbal and nonverbal communication;
3) Restricted repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and interests and activities; and 4) Delays in development. (2006)
Law states that occupational therapy focuses on assisting individuals to "participate in daily occupations, including taking care of oneself, contributing to society…
Bellini, Scott and Pratt, Cathy (2006) Early Intervention for Young Children on the Autism Spectrum: Parent's Perspective. IRCA Articles 2006. Online available at http://www.iidc.indiana.edu/irca/education/EarlyIntervention.html
Law, Mary (2006) Autism Spectrum Disorders and Occupational Therapy. Briefing to the Senate Standing Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology. Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists. 9 Nov 2006. Online available at http://egfl.net/Teaching/Issues/startingpoints/ASD%20docs/11%20tchng%20Social%20Skills.doc
Benson, Bernadette and Dewey, Deborah (2008) Parental Stress and Needs in Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. International Journal of Disability, Community & Rehabilitation Volume 7, No. 1. Online available at http://www.ijdcr.ca/VOL07_01_CAN/articles/benson.shtml
Stahmer, Aubyn C. (2007) the Basic Structure of Community Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autism: Provider Descriptions. Journal of Autism Development Disorder. 2007. August 37(7). Online available at http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2084486
Children with autism can be hard to assess. Many children who fall under the criteria needed to determine autism, may be in fact be socially awkward, shy, among other things. As the CDC websites explains: "Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability caused by differences in the brain" (CDC, 2014). Some have even identified a gene that could play a role in the development of autism. This however does not speak for the majority of children diagnoses with autism so therefore other assessment tools as well identification methods must be used to determine whether a child has autism.
"A diagnosis of ASD now includes several conditions that used to be diagnosed separately: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome. These conditions are now all called autism spectrum disorder" (CDC, 2014). Along with the new guidelines for proper diagnosis comes a set of identification methods…
CDC. (2014, March 20). Signs and Symptoms. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved April 28, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/signs.html (tags: none | edit tags)
Meisels, S. (n.d.). Performance Assessment. Performance Assessment. Retrieved April 30, 2014, from http://teacher.scholastic.com/professional/assessment/perfassess.htm
Rather than heeding the advice of doctors or researchers, parents may find it easier to accept the claims of those who offer easy solutions to the complex problem of autism. Because few scientific interventions claim miracles, parents are more likely to shun them in favor of a fantastical one.
A fear of pharmaceuticals, often justified, is another reason why some parents might shun scientific data. Although some pharmacological interventions do not have longitudinal research attached to them that might reassure parents that the drug is not going to cause any serious side effects, the suspicion that drugs might do children harm remains strong. Parents are wise to mistrust the blind faith in pharmaceuticals, but some medications can be used to help autistic children.
Finally, the cost of autism interventions is enormous. Parents who cannot afford continued therapy or interventions might opt for unproven, pseudoscientific methods that are less expensive. However,…
Kogan et al. (2009) report that the increasing prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) makes the identification of these disorders a public health priority. Many of the studies of the prevalence of ASD are taken from clinical data; the researchers believe that this data inaccurate. The researchers review all of the current research used to determine the prevalence of ASD and point out several flaws in each of these studies. In order to get an accurate point prevalence measurement the researchers used the National Survey of Children's Health (N = 78, 037) that utilizes parental reports of children aged three to seventeen years old to determine the prevalence of ASD. The study would help identify demographic variables associated with ASDs.
The researchers considered a child in the study to have ASD if a physician had told their parents at one time or another that the child had an ASD diagnosis.…
Dawson, G., Munson, J., Webb, S.J., Nalty, T., Abbott, R., & Toth, K. (2007). Rate of head growth decelerates and symptoms worsen in the second year of life in autism. Biological psychiatry, 61(4), 458-464.
Kogan, M.D., Blumberg, S.J., Schieve, L.A., Boyle, C.A., Perrin, J.M., Ghandour, R.M., ... & van Dyck, P.C. (2009). Prevalence of parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder among children in the U.S., 2007. Pediatrics, 124(5), 1395-1403.
Oberman, L.M., & Ramachandran, V.S. (2007). The simulating social mind: the role of the mirror neuron system and simulation in the social and communicative deficits of autism spectrum disorders. Psychological bulletin, 133(2), 310-327.
Research a specific disability: Autism -- trace the effect of policy, practices/services, and perspectives related to that disability over time in the United States and in another country. Compare and contrast now and then in the United States with regard to the disability in terms of policy, practices, and perspectives and draw comparisons and contrasts to the other country at similar times in history. Complete the graphic organizer with your research notes and sources.
Autism in the United States
Policies in the United States changed towards granting more grants to autism research to understand what may cause autism and what can be done to diagnose autism earlier. In 1997, NAAR awarded three grants ($150,000) to help five scientists research autism. That same year the Autism Genetic Research Exchange was founded by CAN. As more and more organizations sprang up to research autism, people now understand what autism is…
The author of this report has been asked to review and assess a functional behavior assessment that was completed for a patient. Within this brief summary, the behavior itself and the function of the same behavior will be analyzed and summarized. Parts of the description will include the background of the student, a narrative description of the behavior, the setting or settings within which the behavior occurs, the frequency of the behavior, the intensity of the behavior, the duration of the behavior, previous attempted interventions and the educational impact of all of the above. For the function of the behavior, this would include the affective regulation/emotional reactivity, the cognitive distortion, the reinforcement, the modeling, the family issues, the psychological/constitutional issues, the communicative need and curriculum/instruction facets of the behaviors and outcomes thus far. While the situation with the student could be much worse, there are some troubling signs…
Check all that apply x ( Observation | x ( Student Interview |x
Interview With a Child
Bill is a 12-year-old child, Caucasian, ethnicity unknown. He is the only son of Sandra and Dave, who are divorced. They separated when Bill was 9. He currently lives with Sandra in their home. Dave moved to a different city and is rarely seen by Bill.
Sandra is very protective of Bill. She homeschooled him for two years after she and Dave separated, but now she feels that Bill may need some sort of outside stimulation. He is often withdrawn and uncommunicative and she fears he may be depressed or suffering from autism.
Bill has always been sensitive to sounds and to touch. He did not begin speaking until he was almost 3 years old and then he had to take speech lessons. When he was 10, he told his psychiatrist that he hated his parents because they fought all the time and that they hated…
Beck, J. (2011). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Basics and Beyond. NY: Guilford Press.
McKay, D. et al. (2015). Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-
compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 225(3): 236-246.
Rogers, C. (2012). On Becoming a Person: A Therapist's View of Psychotherapy. NY: Houghton Mifflin.
Autism is one of the most severe and disruptive of all childhood disorders - a level of disruption that of course lasts well into adulthood. With both genetic and environmental elements at work, autism (which affects boys at least three times more often than girls and is found in all races and throughout the world) is a communicative disorder that interferes with an individual's ability to form social relationships as well as to communicate with others.
The inability to communicate easily with others is devastating for many children with autism. Being disconnected from other members of the human community is always a difficult condition, but it is especially difficult to the young. An adult who finds himself or herself unable to communicate will already have established connections with other people.
But a child with autism often has the greatest possible difficulties communicating and so establishing those connections to begin with.…
Einfeld, S., & Tonge, B. (1994). The Developmental Behavior Checklist: The development and validation of an instrument to assess behavioral and emotional disturbance in children and adolescents with mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25, 81-101. http://www.behavior.org/autism/index.cfm?page=http%3A//www.behavior.org/autism/autism_causes.cfm http://cecp.air.org/fba/default.htm
Koegel, R., Rincover, A., & Egel, A. (1982). Educating and Understanding Autistic Children. San Diego: College-Hill.
Kozloff, M. (1983). Reaching the autistic child: A parent teaching program. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.
Paluszny, M. (1979). Autism: A Practical Guide for Parents and Professionals. NY: Syracuse University Press.
Autism is one of the most severe and disruptive of all childhood disorders - with a high level of disruption that of course lasts well into adulthood. With both genetic and environmental elements at work in it, autism (which affects boys at least three times more often than girls and is found in all races and throughout the world) is a communicative disorder that interferes with an individual's ability to form social relationships as well as to communicate with others. As might well be expected to be the case with any severe condition the etiology of which is understood a number of "folk" explanations for the condition have developed, including the idea that childhood vaccinations (and especially the mercury-based preservative Thimerosal that is used in the formulation of many vaccines) is responsible for triggering the condition. This paper argues against any connection between Thimerosal and autism (or rather argues that…
Barak, Y., etal. (Spring 1998). "Autistic subjects with comorbid epilepsy: a possible association with viral infections." Child Psychiatry and Human Development 29 (3): 245-51
Comi, A.M. et al. (June 1999). "Familial clustering of autoimmune disorders and evaluation of medical risk factors in autism." Journal of Child Neurology 14 (6): 388-94. http://www.fda.gov/cber/vaccine/thimerosal.htm#thi
Kiln, M.R. (May 1998), "Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine." Lancet 351 (9112): 1358.
Paluszny, M. (1979). Autism: A Practical Guide for Parents and Professionals. NY: Syracuse University Press.
The differences between a medical diagnosis of Autism and an educational diagnosis of Autism often have implications for the individualized educational prospects of an autistic student in public schools. Often even when a child has a medical diagnosis of autism parents still go through the diagnostic process of the school to determine what, if any, educational adjustments can or should be made. Diagnosis is made more difficult by the fact Autistic symptoms vary widely in individuals and often tend to manifest themselves in many different combinations (Lenne, 2001, P. 71). Autistic impairment includes social, communicative, and behavioral development challenges. An autistic child may have trouble with nonverbal language, poor eye contact, and difficult making and retaining friends (Lenne, 2001, P. 71). n terms of communication, there may be delays in speaking difficulty using or imitating language and incorrect use of words (Lenne, 2001, P. 71). Repeated body movements and…
In 2000, a set of guidelines were formulated by the American Academy of Neurology. (Blackwell, 2001). The panel's guidelines are widely recommended and urge providers to carryout diagnosis in several stages. In the very first stage of investigation clinical practioners are urged to screen for any children who may display behavior or characteristics which may place the child at risk for any developmental delays (Blackwell, 2001). The second investigative step is to screen for those children who are specifically at risk for autism so that they can be differentiated from those children who have other developmental disorders (Blackwell, 2001). Blackwell, et. al argue that before the diagnosis of autism is attempted all primary care physicians should routinely, when necessary, use developmental screening tests on their patients. Unfortunately, less than 1/3 of "primary care providers have been shown to conduct a standardized developmental screening test in child office visits" (Blackwell, 2001, p. 534).
The AAN guidelines urge that when a child has delayed language development or motor skills, the primary care provider should immediately engage in audio logical assessment to rule out any ear or auditory issues, followed by using the CHAT, Autism Screening Questionnaire (Blackwell, 2001, p. 535). At this stage, one of two things must happen, either the child passes or fails the test; if the child passes, then the child still must undergo a formal diagnostic procedure including a neurological evaluation, if the child fails the doctors must communicate the need for early child-hood intervention with the school district in addition to the formal diagnostic evaluation (Blackwell, 2001, p. 535). Although Blackwell, et. al do not detail the specific diagnostic indicators of autism their overview of the AAN guidelines are important in order to demonstrate the relationship between the school and the medical provider.
Whereas the medical diagnosis focuses on the symptoms the educational diagnoses often focus on the relationship between the symptom and its impact on the child in the class room. An individualized education plan is dependent on significant impairment in the classroom which is more than just behavioral in nature. Often behavioral problems in school are seen as acting out rather than a symptom
Autism Spectrum Disorders
esearch shows that in today's society, the awareness of Autism has went from something that people were ashamed of, all the way to the forefront of education. It is also noted that research is increasing due to the rising amount of people and children that are suffering from Autism Spectrum disorders. However, this disorder is gaining attention all over the world. With that said, this paper will challenge and explore the mystery of this condition, and expectations for the future, concerning this disorder in an ever developing and expanding society.
What is Autism?
Autism came on the scene in 1943. At first, the condition is was believed to be some kind of a mental retardation condition. Some even categorized this condition as someone that is insane. However, Leo Kanner recognized that these children did not fall into the category of emotionally disturbed children. Instead, he recorded patterns…
Andrea L Roberts, K. L.-E. (2016). Maternal exposure to intimate partner abuse before birth is associated with autism spectrum disorder in offspring. Autism, 26-36.
Attwood, T. (2003). Attwood, T. (2003). Why does Chris do that?: Some suggestions regarding the cause and management of the unusual behavior of children and adults with autism and Asperger syndrome. Shawnee Mission, KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons, Inc.
Debbaudt, D. (2012). Debbaudt, D. (2002). Autism, advocates, and law enforcement professionals: Recognizing and reducing risk situations for people with autism spectrum disorders. . Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Frymiare, M. A. (2012). Does the Autistic Brain Lack Core. Journal of Developmental and Learning, 9, 3-16.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Gender -- Male
Ben is currently being raised by a single mother who has two additional children. The mother has worked full time for a number of years while the biological father is absent and rarely offers support or sees his children. The mother currently reports high levels of stress that are in part due to Ben's ASD symptoms and his behavior at home. These symptoms include requiring considerable amounts of attention, difficulties with communication, mood swings and frequent outbursts, and trouble with school and homework.
Ben has had many problematic behaviors since birth including poor sleeping habits. Currently, Ben has entered the first grade and is experiencing tremendous difficulties in school which has prompted the school to moving Ben to an individualized educational program (IEP). Although there are many problematic behaviors that have been reported at school, the primary problem that the…
Brown, A., & Elder, J. (2014). Communication in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Guide for Pediatric Nurses. Pediatric Nursing, 219-225.
Davis, N., & Carter, A. (2008). Parenting Stress in Mothers and Fathers of Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Associations with Child Characteristics. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1278-1291.
Diehl, S., Wegner, J., & Rubin, E. (2010, January). Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Three Case Studies. Retrieved from ASHA Leader: http://leader.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?articleid=2289534
Sappok, T., Gual, I., Bergmann, T., Dziobek, I., Bolte, S., Diefenbacher, A., & Heinrich, M. (2014). The Diagnostic Behavioral Assessment for autism spectrum disorder -- Revised: A screening instrument for adults with intellectual disability suspected of autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 362-375.
Autism, first identified in around the 1930s, has been described as a clinical disorder that is characterized by impairment in individuals towards social interaction and communication. Such individuals are also restricted and stereotyped in the patterns of interests and behaviors . At present, the prevalence of autism in the population in the United States is around one in every 68 children; which include roughly 1 in every 42 boys identified (2) Such figures have increased significantly over the years. When compared to the similar figures in the early 1970s, the rates of prevalence of diagnosed autism were estimated to be about 1 in 2,500 in the early 1970s  which is many times lower than the present rates.
While the above numbers suggest that there has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of diagnosed autism over the past few decades, it has also fueled an ongoing debate and an…
Fombonne, E. (2003). The Prevalence of Autism. Journal Of American Medical Association, 289(1), 87.
Nevison, C. (2014). A comparison of temporal trends in the United States autism prevalence to trends in suspected environmental factors. Environmental Health, 13(1), 73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-069x-13-73
Rice, C., Rosanoff, M., Dawson, G., Durkin, M., Croen, L., Singer, A., & Yeargin-Allsopp, M. Evaluating Changes in the Prevalence of the Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Public Health Reviews, Vol. 34(No 2), 7-28.
Vitamin a for Autism Spectrum Disorder
The Theory of Using Vitamin a as Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders
There is widespread linkage of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Oxytoxin. There are reports that any decrease in the pathway of Oxytocin, is a possible causative factor to the development of autistic situation (Munese-et-al., 2008). Decrease in Oxytocin comes about because of mutations in its receptors, which lead to a reduction on the amount of Oxytocin released to the body posing possible chances for the development of autistic conditions (Lerer et-al., 2008). There is partial dependency of Oxytocin secretion to a protein found, in the cellular membranes of certain red blood cells. The scientific reference of these proteins is CD38, and whenever they mutate there develops a risk of Autism. Mice engineered without the oxytocin receptor gene have been shown to display socially anomalous behavior such as a deficiency of maternal behavior…
Andari-et-al. (2009). Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high functioning autism spectrum disorders Department of Psychiatry 1-6
Ebstein R., Mankuta D. Yirmiya N., Maravasi F. (2011). Are retonoids potential therapeutic agents in disorders of social cognitions including Autism. EEBS letters: journal homepage. 1529-1536
Campbell et-al. (2010). Association of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variants with multiple phenotype domains of autism spectrum disorder J. Neurodevelop Disord 101-112
Higashida H., Kikuchi M., Yokoyama S., Munesue T. (2012). CD38 and its role in Oxytocin secretion and social behavior Hormones and behavior journal homepage 351-358