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Jihadis Networks and their Backgrounds
Words: 821 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64280902
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Jihadis Networks and their BackgroundsWhat is a jihadis network?A jihadis network is a structure that has an informal, fluctuating leadership, and flexible membership that is made up of nodes who are Moslems practicing "jihads" and by the links that are created through these nodes (Canals, 2009). Despite the informal structure, there is a definite pattern of connections between nodes, and they communicate intending to achieve a common objective (Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations, 2006). An example of this is the West African Boko Haram terror network.Where does your selected group primarily operate? (cite specific geographic locations such as country, region or province)Boko Haram began and still has its primary operations in Nigeria. The group's official name is Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awatu wal-Jihad, Arabic for "people committed to the propagation of the prophet's teachings and Jihad" (Chothia, 2016). Mohammed Yusuf founded Boko Haram in 2002, and its operations were…


Canals, J. J. M. (2009). Fourth-generation warfare: Jihadist networks and percolation. Mathematical and computer modeling, 50(5-6), 896-909.

Chothia, F. (2016). Who Are Nigeria\\\\\\'s Boko Haram Islamist Group?. BBC News, November 24.

Duncan, A. (2018). Revitalizing US strategy in Nigeria to address Boko Haram. The Strategy Bridge, 6.

Logical Model for Counterterrorism in Africa
Words: 753 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83129870
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In order to effectively neutralize the Boko Haram in Nigeria, I suggest a combination of strategies including the use of military force combined with education and economic empowerment programs. The Nigerian authorities need to incorporate partnerships and conduct a host of operations mentioned above within the Boko Haram strongholds. This model describes the aims and contribution of the various stakeholders. The implementation of such a model, collectively, will enable the authorities to undermine the strengths of Boko Haram on economic, psychological and military front (Siollun, 2015).

Although the military alone cannot stop the insurgency, it has a critical role to play in the equation. The military can be used to buy quiet time for the government to roll programs that will handicap the group's operations and legitimacy among its populations. The Nigerian military can be deployed to either suppress the insurgency or compel the fighters into a ceasefire. For…

Working for International Peace
Words: 1293 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93243834
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Mitigating Lawless African Acts

Problem Definition and Intervention Description

Boko Haram is a militant Islamist organization that it terrorizing large portions of Nigeria, since at least 2011 (Uhrmacher and Sheridan, 2106). Their methods are fairly typical of terrorists. These include suicide bombings, kidnappings, and attacks on everyday civilians. The crux of their methodology is that they are targeting civilians since they do not have the means to battle the largely Christian government via conventional warfare. Therefore, they have resorted to terrorist attacks to cause residents to flee and to attempt to gain territory in such a manner.

The principle means of intervening in this activity is to aid the Christian government of Nigeria with forces that are opposed to terrorism. This aid will include those marshaled and containing troops from the United States, Western Europe, and the United Nations in general. It is critical to supply the Nigerian government with…

Modern Problems in Nigeria
Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25182939
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There is a multitude of stakeholders in the case study of Boko Haram in the counterterrorism in Africa movement. The main stakeholder is the Christian government in Nigeria that is systematically losing territory to this terrorist organization. Another prominent stakeholder is the lawful citizens of that government. These citizens are routinely losing family members to instances of kidnapping at the hands of this organization (Burke, 2016). They are also being injured and murdered by the terrorist efforts of this organization (Urmacher and Sheridan, 2016). Finally, Boko Haram itself is a stakeholder in this case study. Its very livelihood depends on engaging in the very acts of terror that this case study is seeking to counteract and ultimately, undermine.


The roles in the evaluation process of the Nigerian government is pivotal to the success of this case study. It must comply with the needs of…

Counter Terrorism in Africa Policy Design
Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86667353
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.....ending terrorism in Africa, the methods employed should be oriented towards measuring outputs. The outputs that are expected with this particular study are the ending of terrorism in Africa. The inputs are the various strategies and programs that are implemented in order to bring about this outcome. The outcome has to be measured in a quantitative manner in order that a statistical analysis can be performed. Thus, the type of quantitative study that could be utilized here may depend upon the type of evaluation that is to be undertaken.

Two types of evaluations could be used here -- a vertical evaluation or a horizontal evaluation. A vertical evaluation is used to measure "specific programs from inception to outcome" while a horizontal evaluation is used to assess "the efforts undertaken by multiple agencies and entities to support a specific government action plan or strategy" (Romaniuk, Fink, 2012, p. 13).

A correlational…

The Shiite Islamic Sect in Nigeria
Words: 6077 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90828462
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Shi'ism in the World & the Shiite Islamic Sect in Nigeria

Shi'ism in the World

History, Objectives & General Outlook

Shiite Muslims make up the second biggest denomination of Islam, with the biggest numbers being represented by the Sunnis. The Shiite Muslims form about fifteen percent of Muslims. However, they are dominant in the nations of Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq and Bahrain. In addition, Muslims have a plurality in Yemen and Lebanon too (Cave, 2006). These two distinct groups within the Islam community first differed and deviated from each other following the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632. The divide arose from the fact that the followers were not able to come to an agreement as to whether it was right to select bloodline successors or able leaders most capable of following and propagating the tenets of the Muslim faith (Fuller and Francke, 2000).

The Shiite community commenced during the 650s,…


Akhavi, S. (1983). The ideology and praxis of Shi'ism in the Iranian revolution. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 25(02), 195-221.

Campbell, J. (2015). "Massacre" of Shia in Northern Nigeria an Opening for Iran. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from: 

Cave, D. (2006). Telling Sunni from Shiite. The New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from:s

Center for Security Policy. (2014). Will Sunni-Shia tensions spread to Nigeria? Retrieved 5 January 2016 from:

Is the New Terrorism That Much Different From the Old Terrorism
Words: 3803 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25386203
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New Terrorism -- Risk Management

In the aftermath of the carnage created by terrorists on September 11, 2001, in which 2,977 people were killed (in the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and in hijacked commercial jetliners), the United States government initiated a "war on terror." That war has yet to be won, and may never be won because terrorists have found new ways of launching attacks and where there once was just Osama bin Laden's al Qaeda to cope with, now there are numerous jihadist offshoots like ISIS and oko Haram, among others. Some observers call this current era "new terrorism" and in general when a previously unknown terror group makes its bloody mark on innocent people, those actions could also be called new terrorism. However, this paper looks at the concept of what is known as new terrorism, at the realities created by the terrorism witnessed in the news…


Ackerman, S.2015. 'FBI chief wants 'backdoor access' to encrypted communications to fight ISIS'. The Guardian. Retrieved July 28, 2015.

Baranoff, E.G. 2004. 'Risk Management: A Focus on a More Holistic Approach Three Years After September 11. Journal of Insurance Regulation, 22(4), 71-80.

Crenshaw, M. 2007. 'The Debate over "New" vs. "Old" Terrorism'. Center for International Security and Cooperation. Stanford University. Retrieved July 28, 2015, from

Lemyre, L., Turner, M.C., Lee, J.E.C., and Krewski, D. 2006. Public Perception of Terrorism Threats and Related Information Sources in Canada: Implications for the Management of Terrorism Risks. Journal of Risk Research, 9(7), 755-774.

How Has Terrorism Changed
Words: 1964 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 59354021
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Define and discuss terrorism. Who chooses to participate in a terrorist campaign, and why? Evaluate such mitigating factors as politics, nationalism, and religion.

'Failed states' are defined as states that can no "longer perform basic functions such as education, security, or governance, usually due to fractious violence or extreme poverty" (Failed states, 2012, Global Policy). This has potentially disastrous consequences not simply for the residents of the state itself but for all nation-states. "Within this power vacuum, people fall victim to competing factions and crime" such as terrorism (Failed states, 2012, Global Policy). The beliefs of terrorists can be linked in some instances to the mentality spawned by a failed state -- that personal accomplishments are meaningless and the only hope can be found in the hereafter.

I would define terrorism as violent actions outside of the context of the conventional rules of war that specifically target civilians or…

Ola, L. (2014). Boko Haram offers to swap kidnapped Nigerian girls for prisoners. Reuters.

Retrieved from:

Reasons for Conflict
Words: 1461 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74836713
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eligion and War

As long as religion has been part of human history, it has been the cause of several kinds of conflict. These conflicts could be minor disagreements between individuals, such as the one regarding a certain point of theology. Arguments could also arise among groups, such as different denominations of Christianity. This is much like the above-mentioned theological differences; only on a wider scale. On a less friendly footing, extreme types of conflict such as intolerance towards other religions and certain social groups is also not unusual among religions. The most extreme form of religious conflict is probably war. Here too, there are many examples, including the Christian Crusades spawned by Constantine and one of his visions. In ancient Old Testament times, the Israelites were constantly battling other nations in the name of their God. A victory would then mean that God has favored them, while a defeat…


Abizadeh, A. (2011, May) Hobbes on the Causes of War: A Disagreement Theory. American Political Science Review. 105 (2). Retrieved from: 

Casimir, A., Nwaoga, C.T., and Ogbozor, C. (2014). Religion, Violence, Poverty and Underdevelopment in West Africa: Issues and Challenges of Boko Haram Phenomenon in Nigeria. Open Journal of Philosophy. 4(1). Retrieved from: 

Glaser, S. (2012, Apr. 12). State and Religion: Austrian Quaker Nazi Identity in World War II. Thesis retrieved from: 

McCullough, M. (2011, May). "My Brother's Keeper": Civil Religion, Messianic Interventionism, and the Spanish-American War of 1898. Thesis retrieved from:

Terrorism Homeland Security
Words: 1528 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83282242
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Terrorism/Homeland Security

Terrorism / Homeland security

Terrorism is a global phenomenon that needs urgent research to address its effects on people. Scholars on terrorism argue that terrorism is a disputed term. These scholars contend that those individuals referred to as terrorists may be guerrilla fighters, resistant fighters, freedom fighters or militants. They further state that terrorism is a tactic employed to pass out propaganda of deeds thus causing psychological and social impacts on individuals. In addition, people in these places feel the direct effects of the violent act of the terrorists group. Experts dispute whether the start of terrorism is in the first century. There is a view that it started in the 11th century during the time of Sicarrii Zealots. Others are of the opinion that Al-Hashshashin's time was the time when terrorism began (Howard, 2002).

Terrorism in Middle East

Terrorism organizations in the Middle East are mostly religious…


Howard, M. (2002). What's in a name? How to fight terrorism. Foreign Affairs, 81 (1), 8-13.

Bruce, R. (2007). Al Qaeda strikes back. Foreign Affairs, 84 (3), 24-70.

Scott, D.M. (2002). Somebody else's civil war. Foreign Affairs, 81 (1), 22-42.

Zachary, A. (2003). Funding terrorism in Southeast Asia: Jemaah Islamiya and Al Qaeda the financial network . Contemporary Southeast Asia, 25 (2), 169-199.

Terrorism Human Trafficking and More Anti-Social Behaviors
Words: 1565 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17298717
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International Relations

According to the Oxford ibliographies research, there is not one specific definition of "nonstate actors" that fits all situations. Nonstate actors are defined in relation to international law, because they are "…often able to impact legal values and must accordingly be regulated" (Santarelli, 2005). Throughout history, nonstate actors have "impacted international law" and they have also participated in "international legal processes," which is why Santarelli believes there should be more study of nonstate actors. One scholar claims that nonstate actors include "all entities" that are different from states; or are entities that are operating outside the legal jurisdiction of the government. That definition would include think tanks in the U.S. On the one hand and violent, bloodthirsty extremists such as ISIS, the Taliban and al Qaeda on the other hand (Fisher, 2014).

A typical nonstate actor can also be viewed as a nongovernmental organization (NGO); examples of NGOs…


Arquilla, John. "Of Networks and Nations." The Brown Journal of World Affairs. (2009).

XIV (1). Accessed December 27, 2014, from EBSCO.

Axworthy, Thomas, and Dean, Ryan. "A Scan of Existing Arms Control Treaties with Lessons Learned. Interaction Council. (2011). Accessed December 27, 2014, from .

Federal Bureau of Investigation. "Definitions of Terrorism in the U.S. Code." (2006):

Terrorism From an International Governance View
Words: 2643 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 74874442
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Terrorism in elation to International Governance

The 9/11 terrorist attacks on the United States highlighted the global threat of terrorism since it changed the ways in which the world views terrorism. Actually, the attacks demonstrated the evolution of the threat of terrorism that has become a major security threat across the globe. Given the global dimension of terrorism, state actors and the international community has become increasingly concerned and developed various ways to deal with the threat of terrorism from a national and international level. Domestic and international law has altered policy towards terrorism, leading to an evolution of counterterrorism efforts. However, the effectiveness of these counterterrorism efforts requires an understanding of what terrorism is, its impact on countries, and international laws. Since terrorism is a global concern, international response may be crucial to resolving such a troubling issue.

Description of the Issue

Terrorism has continued to evolve in recent…


Bachmann, S. & Gunnerisson, H. (2014). Terrorism and Cyber Attacks as Hybrid Threats: Defining a Comprehensive Approach for Countering 21st Century Threats to Global Peace and Security. The Journal on Terrorism and Security Analysis, 1-37.

Bogdanoski, M. & Petreski, D. (2010). Cyber Terrorism -- Global Security Threat. International Scientific Defense, Security, and Peace Journal, 59-72.

Ervine, P. (2010, November 15). Does Terrorism Pose a Real Threat to Security? Retrieved May 14, 2016, from 

Gaibulloev, K., Sandler, T. & Santifort, C. (2011). Assessing the Evolving Threat of Terrorism. Retrieved from Homeland Security Center -- University of Southern California website:

Criminal Justice Systems and Terrorism
Words: 1970 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83918304
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Globlal Organized Crime, ISIS and Criminal Justice

The impact of globalization has not just been felt around the planet in economic, political and social terms: it has also been felt in the sector of criminology. The current crimes and criminal issues that impact the criminal justice system on a global basis are, in other words, not as isolated or unconnected as they were a century ago. Today's world is connected in complex ways, especially thanks to the ease of communication that the digital era has provided. In places where the digital divide exists, crimes and criminal issues are more unique and remote (examples include genocide, such as that conducted by Boko Haram for instance in Africa). But in countries where there is no digital divide, the crimes and criminal issues that impact the criminal justice system range from counterfeiting to human trafficking to various forms of cyber crime and terrorist-related…


BBC. (2015). Facebook, Google, and Twitter agree German hate speech deal.

BBCNews. Retrieved from 

Baksi, C. (2015). China tackles problem of counterfeit goods head-on. Raconteur.

Retrieved from

Cyber Terrorism The Greatest Risk in the US
Words: 2546 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 65308575
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Cyber Terrorism: The Greatest isk in the U.S.

Tremendous technological advancements have been made in the last few decades. Today, humans depend more on computer networks and information technology (IT) systems than on other means for information. From business to government, computer networks are relied upon to store, process, retrieve, and transfer critical information. Increased dependence on computer networks has, however, posed a major threat. Cyber terrorism is now arguably the biggest threat facing the U.S. (Harress, 2014; Thomas, 2016). Attacks against computer networks via computer viruses, worms, malware, and hacking have become increasingly common. The attacks are directed to information systems and infrastructures that support critical processes such as defense, transportation, banking, and energy production. This threatens the country's social, economic, and political stability. Nonetheless, there are often assertions that the risk of cyber terrorism is not as pervasive or substantial as often portrayed. Though there could be some…


Caplan, N. (2013). Cyber War: The Challenge to National Security. Global Security Studies, 4(1), 93-115.

Chen, T., Jarvis, L., & Macdonald, S. (2014). Cyberterrorism: understanding, assessment, and response. New York: Springer.

Geers, K. (2012). Strategic Cyber Defense: Which Way Forward? Journal of Homeland Security & Emergency Management, 9(1), 1-10.

Harress, C. (2014, February 2). Obama says cyberterrorism is country's biggest threat, U.S. government assembles "cyber warriors." International Business Times. Retrieved from: - government-assembles-cyber-warriors-1556337

culture clash of civilizations and global conflict
Words: 1043 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Other (not listed above) Paper #: 18156333
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Post: Global Conflict: Mass Population Migration and the EU

The Brexit crisis reflects ongoing tensions in the European Union related to a complex of problems including the decreased relevance of national sovereignty within the European Community and also the increased relevance of immigration policy in light of mass population migrations into Europe. Individual European nations have also contended with domestic crises linked to the same cluster of issues, which at the risk of oversimplification can be boiled down to economics. The Greek economic crisis shows that while national and cultural identity do matter, economics matters far more in the fomentation of international crises. Crises generally emerge over perceived or real resource scarcity: those resources can be tangible such as land, water, oil, money, or minerals. However, often those resources are intangible or symbolic as with power, clout, and status. The United Kingdom has for centuries wielded considerable power, retaining global…


Chua, A. (2014). A world on the edge. Wilson Quarterly, 38(1), 101-122. ? direct=true&db=a9h&AN=94318652&site=ehost-live

Fox, J. (2001). Two civilizations and ethnic conflict: Islam and the West. Journal of Peace Research, 38(4), 459- 472. Retrieved from: 

Huntington, S. P. (1993). The Clash of Civilizations. Foreign Affairs, 72(3). 22-49. Retrieved from: - 408bb26072f4%40sessionmgr4007&vid=1&hid=4105

Ending Terrorism in Africa
Words: 2124 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16280324
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In the three regional organizations in Africa discussed here, it is important that these entities reaffirm their commitment in joining the war against crime and the fight against terrorist groups; which are an obstacle to the success of Africa's economies (Fulgence, 2015). There is a lot of work cut out for sub-Saharan African countries which are grappling with abject poverty. They have plenty of work to do to attain middle income status in their economies.

The terms of economic cooperation vision would have been trained on food production to fight hunger among populations that are growing fast, reducing poverty levels through a host of economic interventions aimed at reducing unemployment and boosting production. With respect to political cooperation, the organizations in question have plenty of work to do in areas of the rule of law and reduction of abuses against human rights (Fulgence, 2015). Incidence of civil unrest, wars; both…

African Cuisine
Words: 3878 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 55277217
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African estaurant evival

New York is home to people from all over the world, and it is well-known that they often bring with them cuisine from their homelands. Foodies descend on food courts in subterranean malls in Queens, ussian bakeries in Brooklyn, and ethnic food trucks pretty much anywhere throughout the five boroughs. For being a cosmopolitan city with such cosmopolitan tastes, surprisingly little attention is paid to the diversity of African food. The continent of Africa is rich in food tradition and, increasingly, we are seeing these traditions manifest throughout New York. This trend is occurring in many places, in particular Manhattan and Brooklyn. In fact, several openings over the past few years have dramatically altered the African dining scene, and this development is very much worthy of coverage. This citywide exposure to the African food trend makes it an excellent topic heading into the summer eating season.



Kugel, S. (2007, March 18). Sampling a Continent at Home. Retrieved from 

Laing, N. (2013, October). New York's First African Restaurant Week Offers New Flavors and a Dash of Culture. Retrieved from 

Pearlman, E. (2014). Ponty Bistro. Retrieved from

Spiropoulos, R. (2014, June 28). Dining African: 3 Restaurant Biz Success Stories Savor N.Y. African Restaurant Week. Retrieved from

Challenges of Opening NYC Restaurant
Words: 4930 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 66820861
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NYC African Restaurants

African Restaurants

African Restaurants in NYC

The restaurant's soft industrial lighting makes the chrome gleam. A soft and expansive backdrop of blue gives the space a cool and slightly futuristic industrial like a hip loft in the future. Exposed brick walls are tinged in a blue sheen and the distressed wood chairs and tables have been stained steel gray and have marble table tops. In three weeks, Cisse Elhadji, the owner of Ponty Bistro in Midtown, will open his new restaurant La Terengea. Located at 144 West 139th St., the restaurant us nestled in between the Hudson and Harlem rivers a few blocks west of the City College of New York. The location of the restaurant is quite lucrative given its relative proximity to both Central Park as well as Yankee Stadium.

Though Elhadji has succeeded once with an African restaurant, La Teregenga is still a gamble.…