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Define metabolism, anabolism, and catabolism in full details
The cell is a complex organisms in which many chemical reaction take place so as to maintain normal cellular function. Cell metabolism can be defined as the process through which cells manufacture ATP which provides energy to the cells. Cells have evolved to form highly efficient metabolic mechanisms which differ depending on the cell. Aerobic respiration is responsible for cellular energy needs in animals while photosynthesis is the energy source for plants. The biochemical processes taking place in a cell are influenced by enzymes. Enzymes are catalysts made of proteins and they speed up the reactions in the cells (Porth, Carol & Carol, 2011).
Anabolism and catabolism comprise the two sets of chemical reactions that make up metabolism. During Anabolism, the cells of living organisms synthesize complex molecules from simple molecules through the use of energy. The main aim of…
Calladine, C.R. (2008). Understanding DNA the molecule & how it works. Amsterdam [etc.], Elsevier Academic Press.
Engel, P.C. (2009). Pain-free biochemistry an essential guide for the health sciences. Chichester, UK, Wiley-Blackwell.
Garrett, R., & Grisham, C.M. (2010). Biochemistry. Belmont, CA, Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Hartl, Daniel L. (2011). Essential genetics: a genomics perspective. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Cell Junctions - Tight Junctions and Adherens Junctions
There are a number of specialized junctional complexes in epithelial cells, formed by molecules that are different from CAMs and SAMs. These comprise of tight junctions, gap junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes; gap junctions can in addition form stuck between cell aggregates in condensing mesenchyme. All of these are well-formed and sometimes elaborate supramolecular structures carrying out various functions, ranging from electrical and chemical cell-cell message (gap junctions) to sealing apical surfaces of epithelia (tight junctions) or linking defined regions of cell-cell contact with cytoskeletal elements (adherens junctions, desmosomes). We will regard these structures in order, paying nearly all attention to their possible functions in embryogenesis and morphogenesis.
These are comprised from oligomeric membrane protein subunits that unite in defined structures (connexons). Connexons interrelate throughout the space stuck between apposed cells and allow straight pathways (channels) for communication from cell…
Alejandro, V.S.,W. J. Nelson, P. Huie, R.K. Sibley, D. Dafoe, P. Kuo, J.D. Scandling, Jr., and B.D. Myers. (1995) Postischemic injury, delayed function and Na/K-ATPase distribution in the transplanted kidney. Kidney Int. 48: 1308 -- 1315.
Anderson, J.M., and C.M. Van Itallie. (1995) Tight junctions and the molecular basis for regulation of paracellular permeability. Am. J. Physiol. 269 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 32): G467 -- G475.
Babbin BA, Sasaki M, Gerner-Schmidt KW, Nusrat A, Klapproth JM. (2009). The bacterial virulence factor lympho-statin compromises intestinal epithelial barrier function by modulating rho GTPases. Am J. Pathol 174:1347-1357.
Bacallao, R., A. Garfinkel, S. Monke, G. Zampighi, and L.J. Mandel. (1994) ATP depletion: a novel method to study junctional properties in epithelial tissues. I. Rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. J Cell Sci. 107: 3301 -- 3313.
1. How does temperature affect enzyme function?
Every enzyme demonstrates maximum activity at a particular temperature known as its optimum temperature. Generally, all enzymes are inactivated at temperatures below 10°C and get denatured (lose its three-dimensional protein nature) above its optimum temperature (Seager & Slabaugh 2010).
Experiments conclude that enzyme activity increases by almost ten percent coupled to each degree rise in temperature until it reaches its optimum state and declines beyond it as they start denaturing (Seager & Slabaugh 2010).
2. Do plants and animals have an enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide? How could you test this?
The process of converting toxic hydrogen peroxide into harmless substances occurs at a very slow rate; therefore, both plants and animals have enzymes to catalyze it. Catalase is an enzyme that is present in animal cells; however, plants possess enzyme peroxidase to carry out this decomposition (Seager & Slabaugh 2010).…
Balloon diameter is directly related to the temperature. As increase in temperature causes expansion of gas molecules, therefore, the volume and thus the diameter of balloon also increases (Seager & Slabaugh 2010).
7. Do you expect more enzyme activity if the substrate concentration is increased or decreased? Draw a graph to illustrate this relationship.
With an increase in substrate concentration, enzyme activity will significantly increase at initial values. However, as the active sites of enzymes get occupied by substrate molecules, the rate of reaction will not remain dependent prominently on the amount of substrate as then substrate molecules have to queue
Cell Phones Should Be Banned
In the contemporary era, cell phones have turned out to be one of the most essential every day requirements. There was a time when possessing a cell phone was regarded a luxurious thing. However, in the present times, it has become really common to own a cell phone. It is not an untold secret that children, especially the teenagers, are using the cell phones just like adults. They use their cell phones to do almost everything. Not only are cell phones used to stay in contact with friends and family, they are also used for watching videos, text-messaging, playing games and listening music. Cell phones that have cameras are also used for taking pictures that are later shared with friends. The introduction of smartphones such as Blackberrys and iPhones has allowed them to connect with their friends around the clock on Facebook. In addition, cell…
Obringer, S.J., & Coffey, K. "Cell Phones in American High Schools: A National Survey." Journal of Technology Studies 33.1 (2007): 41. Print.
Rover, D.T.. "Closing the Distance."Journal of Engineering Education 95.2 (2006): 175+. Print.
Sturgeon, J. "Talkin' Up a Storm: The Debate over Integrating Cell Phones into Instruction Rages: Do Potential Security Risks and Classroom Disruptions Negate the Promise of Academic Gains? A North Carolina Pilot Program May Soon Have the Answer." THE Journal (Technological Horizons In Education) 34.11 (2007): 16+.Questia. Web. 31 July 2013. .
The industry has had many players, but the top one that has emerged have had to play smart to get to the top. In today's world with the increasing need for faster and effective mode of communication, the cell phone has become an essential. The market has also grown incredibly over the year Gregory ()
. The competition is extremely stiff since the products serve the similar purposes. Product differentiation has therefore become a strong marketing strategy with the company with the highly differentiated products taking the lead. This explains why it has been difficult for any company to maintain complete dominance in the industry. For instance, Nokia which has been dominant for more than a decade it is now slowly losing its dominance to Samsung. On the hand, Samsung is facing a stiff competition from Apple Company in the Smartphone area.
http://mobithinking.com/mobile-marketing-tools/latest-mobile-stats>"Global Mobile Statistics 2012: All Quality…
http://mobithinking.com/mobile-marketing-tools/latest-mobile-stats >"Global Mobile Statistics 2012: All Quality Mobile Marketing Research, Mobile Web Stats, Subscribers, Ad Revenue, Usage, Trends.." 2012. February. 2012.
Cell Phone and the Brain
Cell phone usage has become part of daily life for many Americans. As with any new technology, health risks associated with cell phones are not always apparent and take time to surface. As popularity of this technology increases, so does the research surrounding this topic. One concern leading to an increase in research surrounding this topic is the amount of radiation emitted by a mobile device. This radiation is known as radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (F-EMW) (Agarwal, 2009). According to Agarwal (2009), cell phone companies claim this radiation safe, yet numerous studies on both animals and humans have shown cause for concern. Areas for concern include, but are not limited to, change in cognitive ability and even tumors (Agarwal, 2009; Hardell, 2006). Although federal regulations limit the amount of radiation emitted by one device, studies remain inconclusive as to the safety of these devices at even…
Agarwal, A. (2009). Cell phones: Modern man's nemesis? Reproductive Biomedicine Online 18(1), 148-157.
Betts, K.S. (2010). First combined analysis from INTERPHONE inconclusive. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(7), A290-A291.
Cell Phone Use- Is it Safe? An Interview with Devra Lee Davis, PhD, MPH. (2011). Alternative and Complementary Therapies, 17(4), 202-205.
Hardell, L.M. (2006). Tumour risk associated with use of cellular telephones or cordless desktop phones. World Journal of Surgical Oncology 4(74) .
Also, there will be an availability of high quality audio and video that will render mobile phone a portable entertainment centre (Team Digit 2006).
An operating system (OS) is the computer program which translates user input into instructions for the hardware components of a computer or other www.mahalo.comtechnological device. An OS provides a graphical interface through which a user can manage file systems, maintain hardware and install additional programs. At least, three mobile phone operating systems are widely used nowadays. They are Microsoft Windows Mobile, Symbian OS and the Palm OS. Windows Mobile is Microsoft's operating system for mobile devices which include PDAs, Smartphones, palm and pocket PCs, and automobiles and due to its widespread use, Windows Mobile can be found on nearly every major Internet-connected device.
On the other hand, Symbian OS is an operating system specifically designed to be implemented in smartphones. Although the operating system is developed…
Miceli, a. (2003) Wireless Technician's handbook. Norwood, Massachusetts: Artech
Mishra, a.R. (2004). Fundamentals of Cellular Networking Planning and Optimization.
West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
"The initial response to acute inflammation includes a rapid drop in numbers of circulating eosinophils, a rapid accumulation of eosinophils at the periphery of the inflammation site and an inhibition of egress of eosinophils from the bone marrow" (Bass, 1976, p.870).
Basophils- Basophils are one of the least common granulocytes and they make their appearance during certain inflammation, especially those that deal will allergies. They have two main functions during inflammation. The heparin substance found in basophils reduces blood clotting while vasodilator histamine in basophils increases blood flow to the tissues and organs.
Neutrophils -- Neutrophils are the most common white blood cells found in the human body and they are present in large numbers at the site of an inflammation. It produces destructive oxidizing agents that can convert dioxygen into hydrogen peroxide and in the process, they kill the bacteria or fungi that is causing the inflammation. They are…
Pokorski, P.L. No date. Cell Injury and Cell Death. University of Michigan-Dearborn
Department of Natural Sciences Medical and Environmental Toxicology. Available at: http://www.umd.umich.edu/casl/natsci/bio/B452-552W06/cellinjury.pdf . [Accessed April 29, 2011].
Cobb, J.P; Hotchkiss, R.S; Karl, I.E; Buchman, T.G. 1996. Mechanisms of Cell Injury and Death. British Journal of Anesthesia. Vol 77, pp3-10.
McCance, Kathryn L.; Huether, Sue E. 2010. Pathophysiology. The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children 5th Edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier Mosby.
All of these aspects increased the usage levels and acceptance of cell phones.
Third generation or 3G technology refers essentially to the most recent technological innovations in cell phone technology. A distinction should be made however, in that 3G does not refer to a standard in cell phone development but rather to a number of requirements that networks and providers follow. (hat is the History of Cell Phones?) the two main requirements for 3G are that they include 2 Megabits of maximum data rate indoors and 384 kbits for outdoor use. (hat is the History of Cell Phones?)
The most important aspect of 3G technology is that it allows for the input of much more than the conventional data on 2G cell phones. This aspect has made mobile phones popular and leads to aspects of modern convergence between different communications technologies. In this regard, one can mention the SMS revolution…
Works Cited billion mobile phones by 2008. March 6, 2008. http://www.mobiletracker.net/archives/2004/02/12/2_billion_mobil.php
Trillion Mobile Messages in 2008. March 6, 2008. http://mybroadband.co.za/news/Cellular/2283.html
Bellis, Mary. Selling the Cell Phone Part 2: Wireless PCS. March 6, 2008.
Global Mobile Forecasts to 2010-4th Edition. March 6, 2008. http://shop.telecoms.com/marlin/30000000861/MARKT_EFFORT/marketingid/20001163820/?proceed=true&MarEntityId=1204405387891&entHash=1005eae29a1&UType=true
In 2002, researchers partnered with the cell phone industry to conduct significant scientific studies on the health risks of cell phones. The FDA supported many studies in response to public concerns that radiation from cell phones may pose health risks. The contract between the FDA and the Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association (CTIA) allows the FDA to select scientists and oversee the projects, while the CTIA provides funding. Both entities were adamant that the cellular industry should not influence the research.
Because cellular communication is a relatively new innovation, health experts are divided on the reliability of the most recent conclusions drawn by researchers. Still, while most current studies are inconclusive, many recommend precautions. The FDA suggests separating the body and antenna as possible (Yi, 2001). Shin recommends using phones with less radiation. "Of the test results I have come across, the Ericsson T20 line has had poor results in…
Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA). (1990). An Evaluation of the Potential Carcinogenicity of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs). Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.microwavenews.com/epa.html .
Medscape. (June 31, 2000). "Scientific Progress - Wireless Phones and Brain Cancer: Current State of the Science. Retrieved from the Internet at:
George Carlo and Martin Schram. (2002). Cell Phones: Invisible Hazards in the Wireless Age: An Insider's Alarming Discoveries about Cancer and Genetic Damage," Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN: 078670960X.
Virtually any observation of people in public would reveal two very distinctive styles of cell phone use. There is one category of user who seems to make every possible effort to conduct cell phone conversations discretely and without unnecessarily broadcasting the content of their conversations to strangers.
Unfortunately, there seems to be a much greater preponderance of the second category of user: those who seem to do the exact opposite, speaking in inappropriately loud voices and (typically) especially in connection with any topic or theme that might be considered impressive to others or inspire envy in them. However, there is one particular aspect of cell phone use, overuse, and addiction that actually presents a verifiable public danger whose importance goes far beyond social politeness or consideration: namely, cell phone use while driving.
Cell Phones and Driving
Cell phone use has been empirically demonstrated to increase the chances of vehicular accidents…
Bulzomi, M.J. "Search Incident to Arrest in the Age of Personal Electronics." FBI Law
Enforcement Bulletin; Sept 2007, Vol. 76 No.9.
Corbett, S. "Can the Cellphone Help End Global Poverty?" The New York
As Gale (1986) notes: "There is a silent enemy lurking there."
Alarm Grows over Mobile Phone Cancer Connection." The Daily Mail (London, England) 3 June 1996: 23.
Booker, Susan M. "NTP May Test Cell Phones." Environmental Health Perspectives 108.8 (2000).
Brown, Carolyn M. "Bad for Your Health." Black Enterprise Mar. 2000: 59.
Cooley, Mason. (1988). City Aphorisms, Fifth Selection, New York. The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. http://www.bartleby.com/66/71/13571.html.[02 December 2006].
Dees, Craig. "adiation and Life." World and I June 2000: 166.
Gale, obert Peter, (1986). Time 23 Jun 86. Simpson, James B., comp. Simpson's Contemporary Quotations. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1988. www.bartleby.com/63/25/3125.html." http://www.bartleby.com/63/25/3125.html.[02 December 2006].
Holmes, Oliver Wendell. Sr. (1872/1996). The Poet at the Breakfast-Table, Chapter 10 (1872). The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. http://www.bartleby.com/66/85/28785.html.[02 December 2006].
How Cell-phone adiation Works." (2006). http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/cell-phoneradiation1.htm.…
Alarm Grows over Mobile Phone Cancer Connection." The Daily Mail (London, England) 3 June 1996: 23.
Booker, Susan M. "NTP May Test Cell Phones." Environmental Health Perspectives 108.8 (2000).
Cell Phones for Outside Salesman
The objective of this letter is to propose that our pharmaceutical sales team be brought into the twenty first century by becoming equipped with company sponsored cell phones. The initiative will meet the company's high standards of ethics and integrity and would increase our ability to meet the responsibility we have to our customers, their families, our employees, the environment and to the societies we serve on a global scale. Our responsibilities deem that we do not take professional or ethical shortcuts and our interaction with society must reflect these extremely high standards that we profess. This initiative would certainly help our sales team eliminate shortcuts by allowing them to be fully integrated into our organization's web of communications and thus keeping the sales team fully abreast of all company communications.
Our organization should remain concerned with our sales teams' ability…
, 2006). The authors used "meta-analytic" techniques in this research; twenty-three studies were fed into the meta-analysis strategies and the outcome indicates that there are "clear costs" associated with driving and speaking on a cell phone simultaneously. The biggest "cost" (to driver safety) found through these analyses was "reaction time"; to a lesser degree, lane-keeping performance also carries with it a "cost" when using a cell phone and driving simultaneously.
hat is a meta-analysis? This is a strategy that takes a number of studies that address a single hypothesis (for example, driving and talking on cell phones is not safe) and combines those studies "to provide a single estimate of the reliability and magnitude of the effect supporting (or refuting) that hypothesis" (Horrey, p. 197). The positive part of using meta-analysis, the authors explain, is that it allows researchers to combine data from "separate experiments that may have differences in…
Hafner, Katie. "Texting May Be Taking a Toll." The New York Times. Retrieved June
9, 2009, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Hannan, Larry. "Florida, Georgia have yet to ban texting, talking on cell phone while
Driving." News/Jacksonville. 2009. Retrieved June 10, 2009, from http://jacksonville.com .
These two cases were examined at two discount rates (5% and 10%) which generated four permutations in total. More specifically, the basic outputs for the analysis relied upon four Kaldor-Hicks Tableaus (representing two impact cases and two discount rates), as indicated in Table 1 and Table 2 respectively. Aggregated net-benefits are represented in the lower right-hand bottom cell and the rest of the tableau illustrates the manner in which each of the major stakeholders is affected according to the statistical analysis.
Fundamental assumptions included the following specific types of economic benefits and costs associated with the proposal:
Benefits -- prevention of consequences of vehicular accidents caused by cell phone use, prevented loss of human life, prevented medical costs necessitated to treat accident victims, prevention of property damage, prevention of lost work productivity, prevention of lost wages, and prevention of court costs necessary to administrate justice after the fact.
Cohen, J.T. And J. Graham (2003). A Revised Economic Analysis of Restrictions
on the Use of Cell Phones While Driving. Risk Analysis 23(1): 5-17.
Hahn, R.W., & Tetlock, P.C. (1999). The economics of regulating cellular phones in vehicles. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies.
Cell Phones and News Ways of Communicating
Over the last two decades, the pace of technological development has far outpaced the rate at which human society has developed the terms and expressions necessary for truly understanding the ramifications of this new technology and media environment. In turn, this confusion has led to something of a division, between those who might argue that the way humans communicate in the 21st century has not changed, but rather only the tools they use, and those who actually understand just how fundamentally mobile communication technology has altered the way humans think about their environment, communication, and authority. In order to understand the reason for this divide as well as the disruptive and transformative technologies which lie at the heart of it, one must examine not only the ways in which mobile communication technologies facilitate new ways of communicating, but also the ways in which…
Erjavec, K. & Kovacic, M.P. (2009), "A Discursive Approach to Genre: Mobi News," European
Journal of Communication, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 147-164.
Lee, S.K.. (2006), "Generational and Lifestyle Differences in Mobile Phone Usage ," University
of Kansas, vol., no. pp. 1-24.
" "It lets the parents follow up and make sure their kids have arrived somewhere," said George Grobar, general manager of Disney Mobile.
But Pam Dickey, a parent in San Francisco who works for a major pharmaceutical company, says "e hardly have any privacy as it is now - you go to a gas station and there's a camera on you." You go to a neighbor's house and they have cameras outside their homes, she continued; and her company now requires employees in its national sales force to carry phones that allow supervisors to monitor where they are and how long they have been there. "It's too much of an invasion of privacy," she complained.
Meanwhile, if you're a person concerned with privacy issues, the latest cell phone technology has gone quite a bit past just providing parents with a way to keep track of their children. Indeed, for those…
Koerner, Brendan I. (2003) Your Cellphone is a Homing Device. Legal Affairs. Retrieved April 27, 2007 at http://www.legalaffairs.org/printerfriendly.msp?id=414 .
Public Broadcast Service. (2007). GPS Technology Helps Parents Track Teens. Retrieved April 27, 2007 at http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra .
Richtel, Matt. (2006). Selling Surveillance to Anxious Parents. The New York Times. Retrieved April 27, 2007, at http://www.nytimes.com .
They are composed of a double membrane, one side of which separates it from the cytosol, and the other side of which contains the material that it is transporting. Their membranes can be joined with the plasma membrane to deliver material into and out of the cell, and can be fused with other organelles to gather material for digestion, storage, or transport.
Cilia: Along with the flagella, the cilia are used to move the cell or to move material around the cell. They are tin, fingerlike protusions from the surface of the cell. Their name comes from the Latin for "eyelash."
Flagella: The flagella are tail-like structures that protrude from the surface of cells. With the cilia, they help to move the cell and to move debris and fluids around the cell. The name comes from the Latin word for "whip."
Cytoskeleton: The cytoskeleton refers to the interwoven protein filaments…
"Cell Biology and Microscopy." Molecular Expression. Florida State University. Web. Retrieved 2 Sept 2011 from http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/search/index.asp
"Cell and Molecular Biology." The British Society for Cell Biology. Web. Retrieved 3 Sept. 2011 from http://www.bscb.org/?url=softcell/index
Cell Phones Public Places
Technological advances during the last fifty years of human history have given billions of people instant access to unprecedented communication methods. Individuals are no longer limited to letter writing and sending telegrams to convey a verbal message. E-mails, text messaging, video chat, instant messenger, and various social media outlets are all platforms for human communication in the modern world. One of the most significant communication devices to surface from the technological serge is the cellular telephone. Every individual with a cell phone has the ability to call any person, place, or agency at anytime as long as the individual is within the service provider's coverage area. The prevalence of cell phone owners has increased the use of cell phones in public places, such as schools, restaurants, and theaters, and their use in public is associated with both positive and negative implications. Some argue cell phones should…
Parkes, S. "ITU sees 5 billion mobile subscriptions globally in 2010." International Telecommunication Union. International Telecommunication Union, 02 Feb 2010. Web. 1 Jan 2012. .
CELL & ITS COMPONENTS
Biologists, researchers, and professionals of many disciplines study the nature of the cell. The drive to understand the nature of the cell aligns with urges to understand the nature of the atom, the molecule, DNA and other entities of astronomically small size. In many instances, studying the extremely small provides profound insight and clarification on how bodies of much larger sizes including societies and galaxies work in analogous manners. Barabasi and Oltvai explain how the study of biology, specifically the cell, informs other fields and what the proportionate influence upon cellular biology is:
Help along the way is provided by the rapidly developing theory of complex networks that, in the past few years, has made advances towards uncovering the organizing principles that govern the formation and evolution of various complex technological and social networks. This research is already making an impact on cell biology. It…
Barabasi, A-L., & Oltvai, Z.N. (2004) Network Biology: Understanding the Cell's Functional Organization. Nature Reviews -- Genetics, 5, 101 -- 114.
Hartwell, L.H., Hopfield, J.J., Leibler, S., & Murray, A.W. (1999) From molecular to modular cell biology. Nature, 402, C47 -- C52.
Cell Phone Use Should e anned While Driving
Cellular telephones are fast becoming an important factor in highway safety. "Cellular phones are becoming increasingly universal, marked by a 1,685% increase in the number of users from 1988 to 1995." (Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association). There are many studies currently being made looking into the risks involved with driving vehicles and talking on cellular phones. Many states are even experimenting with the idea of tickets for talking and driving. Such ticketing would affect a great deal of people. The number of business people using their cellular phones in their every day job, which often involves a lot of travel is constantly increasing. Nearly 75% of the 120 million cell phone users (approximately 34 million subscribers) in the United States rely on their cellular phones to conduct business or talk to family, friends, and loved ones while driving. (Garrett p. 6; Cellular…
Alston, H. "A Risky Call: Employer Limitation of Employee Cell Phone Use." Ford & Harrison LLP Management Update. Dec. 1999.
Buris, M. And A. Cain. "Investigation of Mobile Phones While Driving." Tampa, FL: University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research, April 1999.
Garrett, Jerry. "Driving Distracted: How Many Tasks Do You Tackle While at the Wheel?" The San Diego Union-Tribune. Oct. 26, 2001.
Hahn, Robert, Tetlock, Paul, and Burnett, Jason. "Ban Cell Phones in Cars?" December 29, 2000.
ELL Cycle Control
Cell Cycle Control
The cell cycle involves a series of events that occur within a cell that results to the division of the cell and its duplication which leads to the production of two daughter cells. For prokaryotic cells-those that do not contain a nucleus the cell cycle occurs through a process known as binary fission. On the other hand for eukaryotic cells-those that contain a nucleus the process occurs in three stages. These are the interphase stage whereby the cell grows, accumulates the nutrients it requires for mitosis in preparation for the cell division and replication of the DNA. The mitotic phase is where the cells begin splitting itself forming tow separate cells and finally the cytokinesis phase whereby the new cell is completely divided.
The cell cycle control mechanism is a crucial process for the survival of the cell. This includes various things such as…
Sunkel, C & Pinheiro, D. (2012). Mechanism of Cell Cycle Control. Retrieved September 23, 2014 from http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fcanalbq.spb.pt%2Fdocs%2FCanalBQ_0009-4-17.pdf&ei=im4hVJqpHYmiO6mrgZAI&usg=AFQjCNHAAoZerDzhVOJ7XPc4rYDEsiGGuw&sig2=4eY4DyQdCfHGSUrFNyt2RQ "
Tumor Suppressor p53
The p53 tumor suppressor, also known as the TP 53 or tumor protein can be referred to as a gene that codes for a protein that is responsible for the regulation of the cycle of the cell and therefore acting as tumor suppression. It is significant for cells in multicellular organisms to suppress cancer, p53 has been referred to as ‘the guardian of the genome’ as extracted from its role in the conservation of the stability by hindering the mutation of the genome. The name p53 comes from the molecular mass that it has-53 kilodalton fraction of the cell proteins.
The research conceited with the cure for cancer and its management dates many decades ago, but in 1979 there was a significant breakthrough. There were six groups of investigators each working separately and independent of each other came to an amazing similar discovery of a 53 kDa…
Bioinformatics (2017). Primary Information of p53. Retrieved November 24, 2017 from http://www.bioinformatics.org/p53/introduction.html
Hollstein M. and Harris C.C., (1993). Clinical Implications of the p53 Tumor-Suppressor Gene. Retrieved November 23, 2017 from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199310283291807
Freed-Pastor W.A. & Prives C., (2017). Mutant p53: one name, many proteins. Retrieved November 23, 2017 from http://genesdev.cshlp.org/content/26/12/1268.full
Nature Education, (2014). p53 : The Most Frequently Altered Gene in Human Cancers. Retrieved November 24, 2017 from https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/p53-the-most-frequently-altered-gene-in-14192717
Structural Elements of a Functional Eukaryotic Chromosome
The three essential structural elements of a functional eukaryotic chromosome are centromere, telomeres, and origins of replication. Centromere serves as the attachment point for the spindle fibers. A centromere is a region of DNA responsible for the movement of the replicated chromosomes into the two daughter cells during meiosis and mitosis. Joining the sister chromatids is one of the major functions of the centromere. The two copies of the replicated chromosome are referred to as sister chromatids, and they stay joined together until they are physically pulled into the two future daughter cells, which ensures that each daughter cell will receive exactly one copy of each chromosome. The second major function of the centromere is to attach the microtubules in the mitotic spindle. The centromere will direct the formation of the kinetochore. The kinetochore is a special protein structure that attaches to the…
Hamperl, S., & Cimprich, K. A. (2014). The contribution of co-transcriptional RNA: DNA hybrid structures to DNA damage and genome instability. DNA repair, 19, 84-94.
Hennig, W. (2013). Structure and Function of Eukaryotic Chromosomes. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.
Mechanism of Membrane Transport
Describe the mechanism of membrane transport related to cellular intake and output
Membrane transport takes into account the gathering of mechanisms that facilitate the regulation of the passage of solutes like minute molecules and ions through membranes, which are lipid bilayers that comprise of proteins entrenched in them. The mechanisms that are usually involved in cellular intake and output are reliant on the characteristics of the substances that are meant to be transported. With respect to passive transport, miniscule, electrically charged molecules together with water, move easily through pores within the plasma membrane’s lipid layer. The other molecules are significantly massive to be transported through pores or are deemed to be ligands that are linked to receptors on the plasma membrane of the cell. Notably, a number of these molecules are transported in and out of the cell through active transport, which necessitates life, biologic activity…
Elgazzar, A. H. (2014). Synopsis of pathophysiology in nuclear medicine. New York: Springer.
Gozhenko, A. I., Gurkalova, I. P., Zukow, W., Kwasnik, Z., Mroczkowska, B., Zukow, W., & Kwasnik, Z. (2009). Pathology: Medical student\\\\'s library.
Klabunde, R. E. (2018). The Pharmacologic Treatment of Edema. Cardiovascular Pharmacology Concepts.
Kulbacka, J., Choroma?ska, A., Rossowska, J., We?gowiec, J., Saczko, J., & Rols, M. P. (2017). Cell Membrane Transport Mechanisms: Ion Channels and Electrical Properties of Cell Membranes. In Transport Across Natural and Modified Biological Membranes and its Implications in Physiology and Therapy (pp. 39-58). Springer, Cham.
Cells are known as the basic units of life. One thing that plant cells and solar cells have in common is that they are very important to humans and living things on earth. One main difference between plant cells and solar cells is how each harnesses solar energy. Plants harness solar energy to use photosynthesis. Solar cells harness solar energy to convert it to electricity.
One of the main duties of photosynthesis is changing solar energy into chemical energy. Anything that can be digested and all fossil fuels are products of photosynthesis. Many organisms are responsible for carrying out photosynthesis. Organisms carry out this task by converting CO2 or carbon dioxide to organic material. The outcome of this chemical reaction is electrons that are converted to protons and oxygen. The remaining energy from this chemical reaction is then absorbed by carotenoids and chlorophylls.
Solar cells are composed of many semiconducting…
" Farabee, M.J. (2001). Laws of Thermodynamics. Retrieved on January 26, 2010 from http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookEner1.html
STOEGER, WILLIAM R. "Thermodynamics, Second Law of." Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. The Gale Group Inc. 2003. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404200511.html
J. Whitmarsh and Govindjee (1995), "Photosynthesis" by published in Encyclopedia of Applied Physics (Vol. 13, pp. 513-532) by VCH Publishers, Inc.
To date, adoptive T-cell therapy have used peripheral blood, tumors, malignant effusions, and drained lymph nodes as sites for injecting the T-cells for adoptive transfer. Those are routinely used are allogenic bone marrow transplantation and peripheral blood stem cell infusion. It is possible that the bone marrow might be a good place too. It is also arguable which precise T-cells are the best to transfer, since T- cells are differentiated into many subsets.
Furthermore, in order to produce enough effectors T-cells, specific T-cells from peripheral blood or tumor specimens are isolated and generated in vitro, and these are then clonally expanded using various approaches. The T-cells are then reinfused into the patient with the expectation that they will then target antigens. There is much evidence that this approach works, although it also seems that this can be engineered in vivo under certain situations.
For most effective T-cell therapy, it has…
Greenberg, P.D. 1991, 'Adoptive T cell therapy of tumors. Ad. Immunol. 49, pp. 281-355.
Jamieson, B.D., & Ahmed, R. 1989,'T cell memory. J. Exp. Med. 169, pp. 1993-2005
June, C.H. 2007, 'Principles of adoptive T cell cancer therapy', J. Clin. Invest., 117, pp.11204-1212.
MedecineNet.com. Definition of T cell. Online. Available at: http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=11300
Are Cell Phones Safe?
The topic of this paper is cell phone radiation and whether or not it is harmful to a person’s health. My position on the topic is that cell phone radiation is harmful to people’s health, as has been shown in numerous studies (Nylund & Leszczynski, 2006; Gandhi, Morgan, de Salles et al., 2012). Two opposing viewpoints on the topic are that 1) cell phone radiation is not harmful to a person’s health—which is what the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has argued, and 2) there is just not enough information on the topic to make an informed decision.
Three reasons to support my position are: 1) that cell phones have been shown to affect brain development (Kesari, Siddiqui & Meena, 2013); 2) cell phones have been shown to affect fetal development and children’s development (Gandhi et al., 2012); and 3) cell phones have been shown to alter…
What type of layout would you use for the assembly of a television set? What are the reasons for this choice?
A product layout would be best suited for the assembly of a television set. Televisions sets, in general, are commodity products with very little differentiation between product classes. In many instances a Sony 32-inch high definition television will have many of the same components as the Sony 40-inch high definition television set. Conversely, auto manufacturers often use the same parts on similar vehicle types.
In regards to a television set, companies often mass produce these items to achieve economies of scale. Manufactures, such as those that create televisions, often have very high fixed costs associated with property, plant, and equipment. As such, the more television that are produced the cheaper on a per unit basis each television is. The manufacturer therefore has incentive to product a wide…
1) Hyer, Nancy and Wemmerlov, Urban. (2002). Reorganizing the Factory: Competing through Cellular Manufacturing, Portland, OR
2) Ohno, Taiichi (1988). Toyota Production System. Productivity Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-915299-14-3
3) Swamdimass, Paul M. And Darlow, Neil R. (2000). 'Manufacturing Strategy', in Paul M. Swamidass (ed.), Innovations in competitive manufacturing, Boston, Mass.; London: Kluwer Academic, 17-24
All living things are complex organisms that are made up of cells. Some are made up of a single cell while others comprise of numerous cells working together. Cells are the basic functional and structural units of living organisms and are known to be the building blocks of life. In humans it is from a group of cells that tissues are made and from tissues that organs are made which enable beings to live.
Cells obtain food and oxygen through their membranes and each membrane has a specific area which can serve contents of only a given volume. Any increase in volume of the cell requires that the area of the membrane increases. Basically, when cells grow the membrane becomes insufficient in aiding the movement of substances in and out and thus to maintain a favourable surface area to volume ratio, cell division must take place. Furthermore, cell…
Bolsover, S., E. Shephard, H. White, and J. Hyams. Cell Biology: A Short Course. 3. Wiley-
Blackwell, 2011. 432.
Conger, Krista. "Scientists turn skin cells into neural precursors, bypassing stem-cell stage." Stanford School of Medicine. n. page. Print.
Morgan, David. The Cell Cycle: Principles of Control. New Science Press, 2007.
Cell is important because it is the building block of the body. It is a replicating organism that has proteins and cytoplasm and nucleic acids inside a membrane Alberts (2002). Cells are in everything from humans to plants, though each representation of life has its own particular cells. Cells are very small and impossible to see with a microscopic lens. That is why the cell was not actually noticed until such technology came along in the 17th century. Indeed, the name cell, which means small room in Latin, comes from the discoverer of the cell, who thought they looked like the small rooms that monks in the medieval era used to live in, which were called cells (Karp, 2009). Essentially, all living organisms are made up of cells and if there were no cells there would be no life. So the cell is very important.
What do cells do? That…
Alberts, B. (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell. UK: Taylor and Francis.
Karp, G. (2009). Cell and Molecular Biology. UK: Wiley and Sons.
ATP is necessary for any cell to produce energy and perform specific actions. This involves using three different compounds that are connected with each other to achieve these larger objectives. The most notable include: C10H16N5O13 and P3.The process enables biologists to understand the way cells function. (Bergen, 2015) (Falls, 2012)
Describe how and where energy (ATP) is generated
The ATP is an enzyme that is used to transport energy to different parts of the cell where it is needed the most. This consists of purine compounds to store and retrieve the energy (via a process known as glycolic). As the food is consumed, this energy is released to numerous regions to perform various functions. The most notable include: the production of glucose, beta oxidation, fermentation, anaerobic respiration and for ATP production / recycling. These areas are important, as they are demonstrating how this helps it to…
Bergen, J. (2015). The New Power Brew. Fitness Magazine. Retrieved from: http://www.fitnessmagazine.com/health/energy-boosters/tips/healthy-energy-drinks/
Falls, W. (2012). Biology. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell:
There are two types of cells found, that originate from a common ancestor - The prokaryotes and eukaryotes. While Prokaryotes are organisms without a cell nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles and are mostly unicellular, but some exceptions are found. In contrast Eukaryotes have their cells have complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. The principal membrane bound structure is the nucleus. All animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes. (Diffen, 2013) Prokaryotes were the only form of life on Earth until the more complex eukaryotes evolved from them.
Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells:
The distinctions between these two types of cells create the differences in organisms Thus the groups of organisms that belong basically to the prokaryotes are non-membranous and in contrast the eukaryotes contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not. Though this is the basic difference, the…
Cooper, GM. (2000) "The Cell: A Molecular Approach." Sunderland (MA): Sinauer
Diffen. (2013) "Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell" Retrieved 18 April, 2013 from http://www.diffen.com/difference/Eukaryotic_Cell_vs_Prokaryotic_Cell
Gregory, Michael. (n. d.) "Protists" Lecture notes. Retrieved 18 April, 2013 from http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio%20102/bio%20102%20lectures/protists/protists.htm
Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells
Cells can be divided into two categories: prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are significantly smaller than eukaryotic cells. This size difference is due to the many contents inside a eukaryotic cell that prokaryotic cells do not have. To begin with, prokaryotic cells are always going to be unicellular, while eukaryotic cells can also be unicellular but are many times multicellular (Murray & Baron, 2007). Prokaryotic cells do not have any membrane-bound organelles inside them, such as the nucleus, mitochondria, or lysosome as eukaryotic cells do. The DNA of eukaryotic cells is linear and is contained within the nucleus, while DNA in prokaryotic cells is circular and is contained within the nuclear body, a non-membrane surrounded structure (Murray & Baron, 2007). The number of ribosomes inside a prokaryotic cell is a lot less than those contained in a eukaryotic cell. Prokaryotic ribosomes are about 70s while…
Murray, Patrick R., and Ellen Jo. Baron. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: ASM, 2007. Print.
Nester, E., Anderson, D., & Roberts, C.E. (2012).Microbiology: A human perspective. (7th ed). New York, New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
However, there would also need to be an extended period of longitudinal analysis of the effects of the therapy on the experimental group mice's health to see if the improvement continued and did not produce damaging side effects.
The MSCs in the liver therapy are not derived from human embryos and thus the objections to discarding human embryos are not a factor in the ethical discussion about the therapy. In fact, "the number of MSCs that can be obtained from a donor is significantly lower than the number needed for tissue regeneration. Therefore, MSCs are expanded ex-vivo in media supplemented with growth factors" and created in a lab ("MSC growth factors," R&D Systems, 2013). The main ethical objections to the use of MCSs revolve around the question of scientists' right to create new organs and the possible risks involved. The Japanese research team "relied on a 'cocktail' of so-called induced…
"Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)." R&D Systems. [7 Jul 2013]
"Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) growth factors." R&D Systems. [7 Jul 2013]
Problems to be addressed:
There are several problems associated with the issue of cell phone use while driving and the ineffective regulations to restrict the use of mobile phones on the road. First, the increased use of these devices while driving has significant impacts on driving performance. This is because mobile phone use during driving distracts the driver physically, cognitively, and visually. The distractions contribute to the inability of drivers to maintain required speed, lateral position, and throttle control on the road. Since the driving performance reduces, the risk of crashes and accidents on the roads increases. Studies have shown that drivers miss 13% targets when talking and 24% when dialing or texting (Brace, Young & egan, 2007).
Secondly, cell phone while driving contributes to a major social problem of increased crash risk since it endangers the lives of passengers, drivers, and passersby. In addition to the distractions it causes…
Bruce, C.L., Young, K.L. & Regan, M.A. (2007, April 17). Analysis of the Literature: The Use
of Mobile Phones while Driving. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://www.nsc.org/news_resources/Resources/Documents/Analysis%20of%20the%20Literature,%20The%20Use%20of%20Mobile%20Phones%20While%20Driving.pdf
Noder, S.L. (2009). Talking and Texting While Driving: A Look at Regulating Cell Phone Use
Behind the Wheel. Valparaiso University Law Review, 44(1), 237-282.
They cannot carry impulses as they do not have an axon and dendrites. The oligodendrocyte cells are more numerous than the neurons and make up almost 90% of the brain cells. Thus, to differentiate between a neuron and oligodendrocyte the researcher would have to eliminate the presence of the axon and dendrite and check the density of the presence of these cells within the brain sample. [Wikipedia, 2005]
ASTOCYTE: These are another type of Glial cells that can easily be differentiated through their star shape. The astrocytes are seen to contain many secondary filaments that function just like dendrites in neurons. When examined the nuclei of the astrocytes is seen as smaller than that of the oligodendrocytes. The glial cells are non-neural and can easily be distinguished from the neurons. [Glia, 2005]
Author Not Available, the Brain, Enchanted Learning.com http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/brain/Neuron.shtml,2005
Author Not Available, Glial Cell, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia,…
Author Not Available, the Brain, Enchanted Learning.com http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/brain/Neuron.shtml,2005
Author Not Available, Glial Cell, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glia
Author Not Available, Glia, 2005, http://www.mb.jhu.edu/tins/media/Neuroglia.txt
Dimitrios Karussis and Ibrahim Kassis, in the article, "Use of Stem Cells for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis," conclude,
"In the current review, the various types of stem cells, which were mainly studied in animal models, will be reviewed as a potential therapeutic approach for MS. The main and common mechanisms of action of all stem cells include induction of neuroregeneration and remyelination through the activation of resident stem cells, or production of new CNS cell lineage progenitors, paralleled by local and systemic immunomodulating effects" (Karussis & Kassis, 2007, Conclusion ¶).
The other diseases that are showing promise in treatments resulting from stem cells usage includes: as cancer, diabetes, osteopetrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, heart disease, immune system disorders, blood disorders; the list goes on (Diseases Treated by Cord lood, 2010).
Stem cells are a valuable weapon in the future treatment of disease and in…
"Adult stem cell Plasticity and Transdifferentiation." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.studentsguide.in/animal-biotechnology/stem-cell-technology/adult-stem-cell-plasticity-and-transdifferentiation.html
"Asymmetric Division of Stem Cells." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.molecular-plant-biotechnology.info/animal-biotechnology-genomics/pluripotent-stem-cell-lines/asymmetric-division-of-stem-cells.html
"Diseases Treated by Cord Blood." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.womens-health.co.uk/diseases_treated.html
Jessen, W. "Exactly What are Stem Cells?" 7, July 2008. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.highlighthealth.com/did-you-know/exactly-what-are-stem-cells/
Stem Cell Differentiation
The need to restore the lives of the individuals calls for more of transplantation than that which is available. There are fewer organs, which can help in the transplantation process, which means that overdependence on the process makes it to be reliable. Further, the process may also end up endangering the life of the donator. Transplantation is the only available process that can for the individuals having kidney and lung problems. However, the numbers of individuals who are suffering from kidney and lung failure are always more than those who are ready to supply the needed organs. This calls for an alternative way, which can help in compensating the loss that the individuals face. One of the major alternatives for the process of translation is stem cell differentiation that may occur in any body cell. The stem cells differentiation offer the possibility of a renewable source of…
Wang, J., Collins, J. et al., (2012). Functional analysis of transcription factor binding sites in human promoters. Genome Biology, doi:10.1186/gb-2012-13-9-r50
Guillot PV, Cui W, Fisk NM, Polak DJ. (2007). Stem cell differentiation and expansion for clinical applications of tissue engineering. J Cell Mol Med. 11:935-944.
Gerrard L, Rodgers L, Cui W. (2005). Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells to Neural
Lineages in Adherent Culture by Blocking Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling. Stem Cells 23: 1234-1241.
Different Fuel Cell Technologies
U.S Department of Energy (2010) provides the description of different fuel cell technologies. The fuel cell technologies are differentiated according to their efficiency, operating temperatures, costs and application. The classifications are based on 6 major groups:
Alkaline fuel cell (AFC),
Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC),
Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC),
Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC),
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC);
Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC).
Alkaline fuel cell (AFC)
The AFC generates electrical power using alkaline electrolyte KOH (potassium hydroxide) in water-based solution. The presence of hydroxyl ions within the electrolyte allows a circuit to extract electric energy. The illustration in Fig 2 reveals an alkaline fuel cell. As being revealed in Fig 2, two hydrogen gas molecules combines with 4 hydroxyl ions have a negative charge to release 4 electrons and 4 water molecules. The equation 4 reveals the reaction of oxidation that takes…
Andujar, J.M, Segura F. (2009). Fuel cells: history and updating. A walk along two centuries.
Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 13:2309 -- 22.
Grove, W.R. (1842). On a Gaseous Voltaic Battery. Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science .vol. XXI: 417 -- 420.
Kordesch, K.(1999). Alkaline fuel cells applications, innovative energy technology. Austria: Institute of High Voltage Engineering, U Graz.
Stem Cell Ethics
Debating the Ethics of Stem Cells
The term 'stem cells' can mean different things to different people. For some, it conjures images of medical miracles providing solutions for heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. For others, it terrifies with a future filled with cloned humans. Still others cringe at the thought of mass producing cultured human embryos for the sole purpose of providing organs and tissues for a paying public. As with most complex issues, news media coverage tends to exaggerate easily understood concepts at the expense of the overall truth and the public accordingly remains ignorant of the subtleties surrounding this debate. This seems to add fuel the emergence of polarized camps and a shrinking of a common middle ground. To better define this middle ground, this essay will discuss both sides of this debate and argue instead that the vast majority of people would likely support…
Antiniou, Michael. "The Case Against & #8230;" Nature Medicine 7.4 (2001): 397-399. Web. The author argues that the use of embryonic stem cells for research and medicine poses significant ethical and moral issues that cannot be overcome. Of particular concern is the potential for reproductive cloning, a door that the author believes was opened when the UK government approved the use of embryonic stems cells for research and medicine.
Blow, Nathan. "In Search of Common Ground." Nature 451.7180 (2008): 855-858. Web. The author presents several issues facing researchers who work with stem cells and discusses why they are important to advancing this field of research. Of primary concern is developing standard protocols for producing stem cells and creating the necessary protocols and reagents that will allow the therapeutic use of stem cells in humans.
Leeb, C., Jurga, M., McGuckin, C., Forraz, N., Thallinger, C., Moriggl, R. et al. "New Perspectives in Stem Cell Research: Beyond Embryonic Stem Cells." Cell Proliferation 44.1 (2011): 9-14. Web. The focus of this article is the promises and limitations of embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent stem cells, from the perspective of scientists working in this field. The ethical decisions concerning the use of embryonic stem cells are only mentioned in passing.
Power, Carl and Rasko, E.J. "Promises and Challenges of Stem Cell Research for Regenerative Medicine." Annals of Internal Medicine 155.10 (2011): 706-713. Web. The authors discuss in detail the three main types of stem cell technologies: embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent. Ethical issues are mentioned occasionally, but not discussed.
Intrinsically Photosensitive etinal Ganglion Cell
ecent studies on biological anatomy of the eye discovered an additional photoreceptor within the mammalian eye. The cells discovered mediate the primary non-image visual activities with the vision system. The functioning of these cells aids in various significant processes including the regulation of the papillary reflex activity in response to light, as well as, the circadian photo entrainment. These cells, called the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells respond to more than the absolute light. The ipGCs have a unique feature of activity, as they differ from the usual photoreceptor cells of cones and rods. The rods and cones mediate on the vision of images by signaling the contrasts in light after adaptation. Interestingly, the ipGCs also do adapt to light contrast. The cells show sensitivity to flash of light, as is the case with other photoreceptors. The factor of action of the intrinsically photosensitive ganglion…
1. Bellintani-guardia, B., & Ott, M. (2002). Displaced retinal ganglion cells project to the accessory optic system in the chameleon (chamaeleo calyptratus). Experimental Brain Research, 145(1), 56-63. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-002-1091-z
2. Ben Simon, G.,J., Hovda, D.A., Harris, N.G., Gomez-Pinilla, F., & Goldberg, R.A. (2006). Traumatic brain injury induced neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells to optic nerve crush. Journal of Neurotrauma, 23(7), 1072-82. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2006.23.1072
3. Engelund, A., Fahrenkrug, J., Harrison, A., & Hannibal, J. (2010). Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) is co-stored with PACAP in projections from the rat melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells. Cell and Tissue Research, 340(2), 243-55. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-010-0950-3
4. Henderson, D., & Miller, R.F. (2003). Evidence for low-voltage-activated (LVA) calcium currents in the dendrites of tiger salamander retinal ganglion cells. Visual Neuroscience, 20(2), 141-52. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/198275379?accountid=458
3). While additional research is needed in this area, these findings suggest that the attributes of non-thermal plasma hold significant promise for the regulation of mammalian cell activity and inducement of apoptosis in targeted cells. In this regard, Sensenig et al. conclude that, "Plasma-induced DNA damage in turn may lead to the observed plasma-induced apoptosis. Since plasma is non-thermal, it may be used to selectively treat malignancies" (2010, para. 4).
The foregoing findings were also congruent with previous research by Kligman et al. (2007). According to these researchers, the floating electrode dielectric barrier discharge plasma (FE-DBD) plasma treatment has been found to invoke apoptosis in melanoma cancer cell lines, and it accomplishes this without causing necrosis while still possessing the ability to initiate apoptosis in the targeted cells (Kligman et al., 2007). The "floating" designation in this application is derived from the manner in which the plasma is generated. Simply…
Clark, W.R. (2002). A means to an end: The biological basis of aging and death. New York:
Cleveland, C.J. & Morris, C. (2006). Dictionary of energy. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Di Quinzio, M.L., Dewar, R.A., Burge, F.I. & Veugelers, P.J. (2005). Family physician visits and early recognition of melanoma. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 96(2), 136-139.
Fridman, G., Shereshevsky, a., Jost, M.M., Brooks, a.D., Fridman, a., Gutsol, a., Vasilets, V. & Friedman, G. (2007). Floating electrode dielectric barrier discharge plasma in air promoting apoptotic behavior in melanoma skin cancer cell lines. Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, 27(2), 163-176.
Stem Cell Research / Parkinson's
Since Barack Obama has become president, the field of stem cell research has been given new life. One of Obama's campaign pledges
was to allow deeper research -- including the use of federal research funds -- into the use of pluripotent stem cells in order to find solutions for some of the terrible diseases Americans suffer from. Among those medical problems is Parkinson Disease (PD). This paper reviews and delves into the literature in terms of the potential of stem cell interventions into Parkinson Disease (also called "Parkinson's Disease").
ho is the leading authority on stem cell research?
There is no one "leading authority" reflected in the literature; however there are renowned scientists that are considered pathfinders in this field. Dr. Diane S. Krause, Associate Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Associate Director of Stem Processing at Yale University is "…one of the discoverers of previously…
Gallup Poll. (2011). Stem Cell Research. Retrieved March 7, 2012, from http://www.gallup.com/poll/21676/stem-cell-research.aspx .
Gogel, S. Gubernator, M., and Minger, SL. (2011). Progress and prospects: stem cells and Neurological diseases. Gene Therapy, 18(1), 1-6.
Krause, D.S. (2002). Plasticity of marrow-driven stem cells. Gene Therapy, 9(11), 754-8.
Lo, Bernard, and Parham, Lindsay. (2010). Resolving Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Clinical
Stem cells are a hot topic for the media today because our understanding of them has potential for incredible scientific advances in the field of biotechnology, yet we struggle because there are questions of morality raised by the methods by which they might be used. While in centuries past, it was commonly accepted within the scientific community to vivisect the mentally insane or criminally convicted for the purpose of scientific knowledge, today religious groups are concerned about the fate of single stem cells being used in experiments. Stem cells have paved the way to cloning and bioengineering of humans, allowing scientists to "bring... A sperm and ovum together to create an embryo, harvesting the cells, and then discarding the embryo." (Celia) The concern for many people is that working with embryonic stem cells especially may somehow he breaching the rights of people and taking science to a point where it…
Bell, H. (2000) "Case Study: The Uninsured" American Medical Student Association. < http://www.amsa.org/tnp/uninsured.cfm >
Calafut, T. (2000) "Emerging Applications in Human Stem Cell Therapy." Chemical Market Reporter, March 20.
Human Genome, Stem Cells, & Reparations
Stems Cells are the source of all body tissues. Growth and development of the human body arises from the stem cell and is maintained by it. Although all cells can divide or copy themselves, stem cells are unique because they can replicate and create all other types of cells. This ability of the stem cell to develop into any of the 220 cell types that make up the human body makes it a powerful tool for biological research and medicine. Scientists believe that stem cell research has the potential of leading to previously incurable diseases.
How are Stem Cells Formed?
When a sperm cell fertilizes an egg, a zygote (fertilized egg) is formed. The zygote divides itself almost immediately to form stem cells. These unspecialized stem cells have the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells…
James Harper. "About Reparations." [available online] at http://www.blackvoices.com/feature/reparations/trial/
Peter Viles. "Suit Seeks Billions in Slave Reparations." [Available online] at http://www.cnn.com/2002/LAW/03/26/slavery.reparations/index.html
2003). This was achieved with a channel only 750W and 400H, and power output remained consistent despite tests using 2M, 4M, and 8M methanol solutions as fuels (Lu et al. 2003). This shows that temperature has a much higher influence on performance than fuel solution or rate.
A more recent and in many ways more innovative use of silicon materials, in combination with others, shows potential to further increase the efficacy and efficiency of micro direct methanol fuel cells. By utilizing high-aspect-ratio carbon nanotubes as fuel delivery and reaction area structures for either the cathode or anode end of a micro direct methanol fuel cell, the reaction area and thus the efficiency of the fuel cell can be greatly increased (Wu et al. 2008). Though this conclusion has yet to be borne out by direct observational evidence, initial experimentation has shown that these nanotubes can be controlled in their growth…
Kamitani, a. Morishita, S.; Kotaki, H.; Arscott, S. (2008). "Miniaturized microDMFC using silicon microsystems techniques: performances at low fuel flow rates." Journal of micromechanics and microengineering 18.
Lim, S.; Kim, S.; Kim, H.; Ahn, J; Han, H.; Shul, Y. (2006). "Effect of operation parameters on performance of micro direct methanol fuel cell fabricated on printed circuit board." Journal of power sources 161, pp. 27-33.
Lu, G.; Wang, C. Yen, T.: Zhnag, X. (2003). "Development and characterization of a silicon-based micro direct methanol fuel cell." Electrochimica Acta 49, pp. 821 -- 828.
Mench, M.; Wang, Z.; Bhatia, K.; Wnag, C. (2001). "Design of a micro direct methanol fuel cell." Proceedings of the IMECE'01 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (IMECE) New York, New York USA November 11-16, 2001.
This controversial decision drew all kinds of reactions from different groups on each side of the issue. Some adversaries of hESC research expressed admiration for the decision limiting research to existing cell lines, while others said that no research should be allowed under any circumstances. Advocates of hESC research, meanwhile, generally praised the president for allowing some research to go forward, but criticized the restriction to existing cell lines as too strict, questioning whether enough research would be allowed.
Current U.S. Stem Cell Policy under President Obama
The March 9, 2009 EO changes the way the National Institutes of Health (NIH) can support and conduct human stem cell research. The Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS), through the NIH Director, is required to review existing NIH and other widely-recognized guidelines on human stem cell research and issue new NIH guidance within 120 days of the date of the EO…
AAAS Policy Brief: Stem Cell Research." 10 March 2009. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 27 March 2009 http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/stemcells/ .
Executive Summary." 2009. The National Institutes of Health resource for stem cell research. 27 March 2009 http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/execSum.asp .
Register, Federal. "Presidential Documents Executive Order 13505." 11 March 2009. Federal Register. 24 March 2009 http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2009/pdf/E9-5441.pdf .
Analysis of the Issues: The ethical concern for the rights and welfare of viable infants is certainly a legitimate concern, but the central ethical analysis that pertains to stem cell research revolves around the issue of defining human life appropriately. Objective criteria like anatomical development, cognitive awareness, and above all, sentience of any degree and in any form are all legitimate bases for the definition of life and for identifying the period of gestation corresponding to the earliest conceivable safeguards necessary to prevent suffering.
On the other hand, purely subjective doctrinal claims without objective criteria of any kind are wholly inappropriate bases for defining scientific concepts like when life begins. The fact that human development varies among individuals and that it may be impossible to know exactly where sentience and other elements of "humanness" first begin in the fetus does not mean that it is impossible to identify periods of…
Dershowitz, a.(2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age.
Boston: Little Brown, 2002
Healy, B. On Health: The Other Stem Cells; U.S. News & World Report (Jun. 14/04), p. 77.
Hellemans, a., Bunch, B. (1998) the Timetables of Science. New York: Simon & Schuster.
The authors did a comparison study of 682 adults with acute leukemia. All these patients received a hematopoietic stem-cell (HSC) transplant from a donor that was unrelated to them. The authors compared them to patients who received UCB instead of HSC. One of the important characteristics of UCB is that it does not have to match the donor, which makes it much more flexible in leukemia and other treatments.
The study covered two groups of people. The authors note, "98 received cord blood and 584 received bone marrow. The transplantations were performed from 1998 through 2002 and reported to Eurocord and the European Blood and Marrow Transplant Group" (ocha, V., et al., 2004. p. 2276). They traced participants' ages, weights, level of severity of the disease, and other influences to discover what treatment worked best in treating adults with leukemia. They found that rates of mortality and relapse were very…
Mauro, MJ., and Maziarz, R.T. (2006). Stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia: When should it be used? Mayo Clin Proc. March; 81(3):404-416.
Rocha, V., et al. (2004). Transplants of umbilical-cord blood or bone marrow from unrelated donors in adults with acute leukemia. New England Journal of Medicine 351; 22. 2276-2286.
Tse, WW, SL Zang, KD Bunting and MJ Laughlin. (2008). Umbilical cord blood transplantation in adult myeloid leukemia. Bone Marrow Transplantation 41, 465 -- 472.
Vago, L., et al. (2009). Loss of mismatched HLA in leukemia after stem-cell transplantation. New England Journal of Medicine. 361: 478-88.
On average, male skeletons are larger than female skeletons, but just as some women are larger than some males, this distinction does not hold firm in all instances. Female pelvic regions tend to be wider than male pelvic regions, an evolutionary feature that has made childbirth easier. Female bones tend to be thinner and less dense than male bones, and thus the female skeleton tends to be lighter than male skeletons.
The skull is one of the most notable sites of difference between male and female skeletons. The teeth of males tend to be larger, and above their eye sockets men tend to have a more visible brow ridge while women often have none. The male skull tends to have a squarer (as opposed to a pointed) chin and is more angular in its demarcations than the female skull. Women's nose openings are more apt to be pointed, rather than…
The cell cycle & mitosis tutorial. (1997). The Biology Project. University of Arizona. Updated 2004. Retrieved February 10, 2010 at http://www.biology.arizona.edu/Cell_bio/tutorials/cell_cycle/cells3.html
Cell division via mitosis. (2010). Ivy Rose UK. Retrieved February 10, 2010 at http://www.ivy-rose.co.uk/HumanBody/Cells/Cell-Division_Mitosis.php
Richards, a. (2002). Male and female skeletons. Retrieved February 10, 2010 at http://transwoman.tripod.com/skeleton.htm
Only if the cell can take in nourishment and excrete waste can the other components of the cell like the mitochondria engage in their essential tasks. hen a cell can take in nourishment and excrete wastes, this is the surest first sign of independent life
The problem is that the Cell-u-life Corporation wants an artificial cell that can do more than nourish itself. It wants a cell that can take the place of living stem cells and reproduce, and it is not certain of aerogels can do this. Thus another possibility is trying to create lipid-like structures to make cell membranes in the lab from fat cells in the body that do not come from human sources such as embryos but can reproduce like fat cells.
Team receives grant to study artificial cell membranes."(24 Aug 2005). Stanford News:
Press Release. Retrieved 3 Jun 2007 at h ttp://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2005/august24/aerogel-082405.html
Team receives grant to study artificial cell membranes."(24 Aug 2005). Stanford News:
Press Release. Retrieved 3 Jun 2007 at h ttp://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2005/august24/aerogel-082405.html
The primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found." (Info 2006)
Adult stem cells are replicators in such a way that they are able to duplicate a variety of different cells. "Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body, serving as a sort of repair system...they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cell...each new cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell." (Info 2006).
Researchers tout the belief that a manipulation of stem cells can be beneficial in curing many diseases as well as helping in creating or developing new life, which could be part of the reason why such…
Info Center. (2006) In Stem Cell Information. National Institute for Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, www.stemcells.nih.gov/info.defaultpage, Accessed November 13, 2006
Fuel Cells in Green Engineering
The energy tomorrow is beginning to be available today. Fuel cells, which just a very few years ago were a pipe dream, are becoming g a reality, and they are used in areas ranging from space exploration to toy motivation (Joy). The promise of the fuel cell can be seen in the fact that they use the most abundant source of energy on the planet, Hydrogen atoms (Birch). They are also being seen as the energy savior because they emit a common, non-toxic waste which can also be utilized as a saving grace around the globe, water (Joy; Patturaja). A fuel that uses the most abundant element on the planet and emits clean, pure water does seem like science fiction, but there are already being used with it as a motive force.
The space shuttle has always been powered by hydrogen fuel cells (Joy). Although…
Birch, Amanda Sue. "Microbial Fuel Cells: Converting Waste to Water and Watts." Engineering and Technology for a Sustainable World. (2010). Print.
Fields, Scott. "Making the Best of Biomass: Hydrogen for Fuel Cells." Environmental Health Perspectives. (2003). Print.
Joy, Linda E. "A Basic Overview of Fuel Cell Technology." Automotive Community. (2007). Web.
Khan, Abdul Majeed. "Electricity Generation by Microbial Fuel Cells." Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences. (2009). Web.
This means that their operation is totally opposite in direction, in fact a rechargeable battery can act as both a voltaic cell and an electrolytic cell depending on whether it is discharging or being charged. It is also practical to use the same type of metal as electrodes in an electrolytic cell while in voltaic cells the electrodes must be of different metals.
Since sodium is too reactive to freely occur naturally it exists in the earth's crust in a number of varied compounds such as halite. It can also be found in the form of sodium chloride and brine which are plentiful sea water. These compounds can be obtained by trapping the sea water or brine, or by mining rock salt. In order to obtain pure sodium metal, electrolysis of molten sodium chloride is done. This is achieved by using the molten sodium chloride as the electrolyte in an…
Asato, Robert. (2009). "Internet Chemistry." Electrochemical cells. Kapiolani Community
College. Retrieved on March 4, 2010 from http://library.kcc.hawaii.edu/external/chemistry/everyday_electro.html
Bodner Research Web (2009). Electrolytic cells. Retrieved on March 4, 2010 from http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch20/faraday.php
Sodium. (2006). World of chemistry. Retrieved on March 4, 2010 from http://www.bookrags.com/research/sodium-woc/
Study of human embryonic stem cell will lead to major advances in human biology, specifically:
Embryonic stem cell research will provide critical insights into mechanisms of cell differentiation, growth, and death (Young, 2006).
Understanding stem cells may provide keys to why people age (Young, 2006).
Scientists are interested in stem cells because they have the potential to become very practical in a way that any other kind of cell in the body might be used to replace tissues that have failed (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3144925.stm,2003).
And lastly, scientists believed that if they become successful in finding cure for lymphoma, and leukemia with this study, there is a great possibility that they can also cure diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, diabetes among others in the near future (http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/engage/materials/presentation1.ppt,2006).
Mitalipova, Maisam et. al. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Discarded Embryos 2003. AlphaMed Press. 7 October 2006. http://stemcells.alphamedpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/5/521
Young, ise. Morality of…
Mitalipova, Maisam et. al. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Discarded Embryos 2003. AlphaMed Press. 7 October 2006. http://stemcells.alphamedpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/5/521
Young, Wise. Morality of Stem Cells.. 7 October 2006. http://carecure.rutgers.edu/Lectures/Morality/StemCells_Notes.ppt
Embryonic Stem Cells; an Introduction to Science ethics and Legislation.. 7 October 2006. http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/engage/materials/presentation1.ppt
Mining Stem Cells.. 7 October 2006. http://arts.usask.ca/policynut/courses/soc292-8.ppt
Marketing Plan for Combined Home and Cell Phones:
Home and cellular phones have transformed the communications arena since they have revolutionized the perceptions of people regarding voice communications. Traditionally, home phones have been the most commonly used tools for voice communications while cellular phones remained inaccessible to many customers because of their high costs. However, in the past few years, both home and cell phones have been widely used as communication gadgets. The use of cell phones has been fueled by the investment of time and resources to develop the system's capacity and lessen their costs as well as the emergence of several cellular phone companies. While the traditional home phones are still in use across many residential places, cell phones have become increasingly common because they have been developed into large-scale consumer products. The focus on marketing both home and cell phones acts as a new positioning and beneficial…
"Cell Phones Retailer Business Plan." (n.d.). Bplans: Your Business Starts Here. Retrieved April
6, 2012, from http://www.bplans.com/cell_phones_retailer_business_plan/executive_summary_fc.php
"Cellular Marketing Strategies." (2006, January 10). Phone Dog. Retrieved April 6, 2012, from http://www.phonedog.com/cell-phone-buying-guide/cellular-marketing-strategies/
Maxwell et, al. (2007, May 22). iPhone Marketing Plan. Retrieved April 6, 2012, from http://www.iphoners.com/threads/iPhone-marketing-plan.141/
"Given the rising prevalence of obesity with age in both childhood and adult life, the prevalence of adult obesity cannot be predicted from childhood data, but increasing childhood obesity heralds a greater health burden in adult life"(James & al 2001, p. 232S). Thus, the future focus is on child obesity and how it can be treated to bring well-being for the adult.
esearch for adipose cells is not at the beginning, but has become increasingly intensive in the last years. Obesity is rapidly spreading across the globe but all the scientific breakthroughs won't do magic in the presence of disinterest and neglect towards the human body, so the first step should come from each individual.
Albright, AL & Stern, JS 1998, "Adipose Tissue," Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science, vol. 15
Bosello, O & al. 1980,"Adipose tissue cellularity and weight reduction forecasting," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 33,…
Albright, AL & Stern, JS 1998, "Adipose Tissue," Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science, vol. 15
Bosello, O & al. 1980,"Adipose tissue cellularity and weight reduction forecasting," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 776-782
Gomillion, CT & Burg, KJL 2006, "Stem cells and adipose tissue engineering," Biomaterials, no. 27, pp. 6052 -- 606
Greenberg, AS & Obin, MS 2006, "Obesity and the role of adipose tissue in inflammation and metabolism," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 461-465
The main side effect of colchicines on animals is nausea. The use of colchicines on animals has also generated numerous concerns regarding the toxicity of bone marrow because of the ability of these substances to interfere with cell division. Furthermore, these substances are also likely to cause urine dip stick to wrongly read positive for blood. Colchicines can not only enhance the level of alkaline phosphatase as recorded on a blood chemistry panel but also diminish the body of vitamin B-12 in certain cases.
Since cytochalasins bind actin monomers and prevents their congregation into microfilaments, the already formed microfilaments slowly depolymerize. The main effect of these substances on animal cell division is that they inhibit cytoplasmic division but do not interfere with nuclear division or DNA synthesis. As a result, these substances contribute to the accumulation of large multi-nucleate cells (Gurdon & Fairman, p. 78.). In addition to the probability…
"Colchicine." Mar Vista Animal Medical Center. Publishing Professionals, n.d. Web. 23 Nov. 2012. .
GURDON, J.B., and S. FAIRMAN. "Muscle Gene Activation by Induction and the Nonrequirement for Cell Division." Development - Dev.biologists.org. The Company of Biologists Limited, 1986. Web. 23 Nov. 2012. .
Deliberately reducing the amount of PO2 circulating in the breathable atmosphere around a person -- such as Kara accomplishes at sea-level with her tent -- ultimately produces a lowered rate of hemoglobin oxygenation in the arterial blood. This condition, hypoxia, can be dangerous and can, of course, impair aerobic physical exercise -- however the trick that Kara is taking advantage of is the body's ability to undergo acclimatization, in which the body's physiology and metabolism will engage in adjustments that improve the body's ability to tolerate the low-PO2 levels through different means, such as adjusting its own acidity (to change the level of interior biochemical reactivity in order to boost absorbable oxygen levels) but also -- more importantly for Kara and her endurance training -- by improving metabolism on the cellular level and blood circulation (to maximize the value of the oxygen actually obtained) and, most importantly, by "increased synthesis…
McCardle, WD, Katch, F, and Katch, VL (2009). Exercise physiology. 7th ed. New York: LWW.
Murphy, K. (2011). Janeway's immunobiology. 8th ed. New York: Garland Science.