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Limitations of Stem Cell esearch
The primary objection to stem cell research in the United States is based on the belief that commonly held social, moral, and ethical boundaries will be breached in the effort to ensure adequate supplies of embryonic stem cells (Hoffman, et al., 2004; eeves, 2001) Because of the potential medical and economic implications of stem cell research, executive level governmental decisions have been made regarding acceptable limits for stem cell research (Hoffman, et al., 2004; eeves, 2001) These limits have changed as the national executive leadership has changed (Hoffman, et al., 2004; eeves, 2001) Presidents have issued Executive Orders regarding stem cell research that reflect their personal beliefs and the beliefs expressed by voices dominating the American press at any given time (Hoffman, et al., 2004; eeves, 2001) epresentation of stem cell researchers and those who potentially would benefit from stem cell research have been less…
2006 Ballot Measure: Constitutional Amendment 2: Stem Cell Initiative, submitted October 11, 2005. Retrieved http://www.sos.mo.gov
Ertelt, S. (2009, March 2). IPS Cells, An Embryonic Stem Cell Research Alternative, Make Major Advance, LifeNews. Retrieved http://www.lifenews.com/
Gretchen Vogel (2008, September 26). A New, Improved Stem Cell Recipe. ScienceNOW. Retrieved http://sciencenow.sciencemag.org/
Hoffman, D.I., et al. (2003, May). Cryopreserved embryos in the United States and their availability for research. Fertility and Sterility, 79 (5). Accessed at: How many frozen human embryos are available for research? Law & Health Initiative, (2003). Retrieved http://www.rand.org
Ethics of Stem Cell esearch
Stem Cell esearch Ethics
The Ethics of Stem Cell esearch: A Nursing Perspective
The Ethics of Stem Cell esearch: A Nursing Perspective
When the world-famous cloned sheep, Dolly, was euthanized at the relatively young age of 6-1/2 years she was suffering from advanced aging and lung disease (Meek, 2003). In human years, Dolly was only about 40-years old and had been suffering from arthritis for many years. This outcome is consistent with the claims of some scientists that current cloning technology does not accurately replicate natural sexual reproduction and disproportionately generates debilitating and sometimes lethal genetic defects. Dolly was the product of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), which involved removing the DNA from a sheep somatic (adult) cell, inserting it into an egg, and then transferring the egg to a receptive womb. This technology is very similar to what is currently being developed by stem…
ANA. (2007). American Nurses Association Position Statement on Stem Cell Research. Retrieved 13 Mar. 2014 from http://gm6.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/EthicsStandards/Ethics-Position-Statements/StemCellResearch.txt.
ANA. (2009). ANA comments on stem cell research. Retrieved 13 Mar. 2014 from http://nursingworld.org/FunctionalMenuCategories/MediaResources/PressReleases/2009-PR/ANA-on-Stem-Cell-research.pdf .
Armstrong, A.E. (2006). Towards a strong virtue ethics for nursing practice. Nursing Philosophy, 7, 110-124.
Arnason, V. (2010). Bioethics in Iceland. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 19(3), 299-309.
Analysts agree that Proposition 71 will at least pay for itself over the life of the bonds.
According to Somers (2004): "The economists from Stanford University and the Analysis Group predict that the initiative would generate at least $6.4 billion. They say it would generate $2.2 billion to $4.4 billion if it could expand the state's biotechnology industry by about 5%, with new jobs, construction of new buildings and increased revenue. If the research could reduce health care spending by 1% to 2%, the direct savings in health care costs to the state government would be $3.4 billion to $6.9 billion, on just the care and treatment of patients suffering from six of the medical conditions scientists think could benefit from new stem-cell therapies."
Still, there is no guarantee that life saving, cost-saving therapies will be found (Somers, 2004). Even if they are, scientists say it is many years away.…
Associated Press. (November 4, 2004). Californians approve stem cell research funding. USA Today. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.usatoday.com/news/politicselections/vote2004/2004-11-02-ca-initiative-stem-cell_x.htm .
Cahill, Lisa Sowle. (2001). Stem Cells: A Bioethical Balancing Act." America 184.10: 14-19.
Friedrich, MJ. (2000). Debating Pros and Cons of Stem Cell Research.JAMA 284.6 (2000): 681-82.
Honolulu Advertiser. (October 27, 2004). Stem cell research is worth exploring. Honolulu Advertiser. Retrieved from the Internet at http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2004/Oct/27/op/op02p.html .
Even paralysis such as from diving and motor vehicle accidents will probably be able to be cured by stem cell applications (Sagan, 1997).
Legal and Ethical Issues:
Despite their tremendous potential for benefiting human health and welfare, many oppose the use of fetal stem cells because of their religious beliefs. According to many
Christians in particular, both abortion and the use of any fetal tissue for medical purposes is immoral because human life begins at conception (Dershowitz, 2002; Levine, 2007).
According to this view, even the embryos produced in-vitro fertilization clinics must not be used for research purposes, even with the consent of the patients who donated the sperm and egg.
The previous presidential administration of George Bush outlawed the federal funding of any stem cell research of this (most valuable) type in 2001 and, as a result, the United States has lost years of tremendously important research in that…
Dershowitz, A.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New
York: Little Brown & Co.
Kinsley, M. (2007). "Commentary: Why Science Can't Save the GOP" Time (Dec.
The ban needs to be used to prevent the sale of embryos, use of cloning and the production of embryos for the sole purpose of research. Cures for debilitating diseases will hopefully result and healing is supposed to be the driving factor in medicine. It is a poor argument to talk of murder, destruction and disrespect of human life when the United States continues to utilize capital punishment, the legal murder of a human being for purposes of criminal punishment. This type of dichotomy results in irrational or illogical positions in contrast to developing a truer position. In addition, legal issues are at stake and the fact that abortion is legal in the United States should be a critical part of the discussion. Since personal choice is the key to legal abortions, it seems that the same person can and should be allowed to consent to medical research following the…
Fumento, M. (n.d.). Michael Fumento: Embryonic Research Driven by Greed, not Science. Michael Fumento.com. Retrieved November 11, 2010, from http://www.fumento.com/biotech/greatstemcell.html
Guenin, L. (n.d.). ISSCR:: Public: Perspective: Ethics of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research . International Society for Stem Cell Research. Retrieved November 11, 2010, from http://www.isscr.org/public/ethics.htm
Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research. (n.d.). The National Academies Press. Retrieved November 11, 2010, from http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11278&page=45
Santa Clara University Web Site. (2001, October 21). The Ethics of Human Cloning and Stem Cell Research. Retrieved November 11, 2010, from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/cloning.htm
Genetic Technology - Stem Cell esearch
There has been an abundance of controversy over the past several years regarding the research of stem cells. Proponents of this particular branch of research claim that the usage of stem cells can create virtually unparalleled medical advantages for future generations. Opponents of the utilization of stem cells cite the fact that the research is unethical, primarily since it causes death in embryos to produce the advances which can significantly affect the future of health and wellness. However, careful consideration of bioethics, and in particular that of the consequentialist philosophy known as utilitarianism, indicates that stem cell research is both ethical and beneficial to the preservation of human kind.
Utilitarianism is the branch of philosophy pioneered by both John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham that judges the morality of a particular action by its result. If an action produces more good than…
Klimanskaya I, Chung Y, Becker S, Lu SJ, Lanza R (2006). "Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from single blastomeres." Nature444 (7118): 481 -- 5.
Clout, Laura; and Agencies (2007-09-01). "Scientists report alternative stem cell source." The Daily Telegraph (London).
Do patients understand what it means to donate tissue to science? Not only that, but use of EG cells confuses stem cell research with the debate over abortion, bring up the risk of biasing emotions (McDonald 7).
So, while stem cell research is an exciting new field that holds much promise, ethical problems arise to delay research, discovery of benefits or dangers, and involve many who have no knowledge of the complexities of the field. Though controversies usually accompany new discoveries in science, this biotechnological process involves manipulating the basis of life itself in embryonic stem cells. But the field is rapidly changing. hat is true today may be outmoded tomorrow. A neutral substitute for stem cells may be discovered that will prove to be the answer to these ethical questions.
Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. "Financial incentives in recruitment of oocyte donors." Fertil…
Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. "Financial incentives in recruitment of oocyte donors." Fertil Steril 2004; 82:Suppl 1:S240-S244.
Hwang, W.S., Roh, S.I., Lee, B.C., et al. -- Patient-specific embryonic stem cells derived from human SNCT blastocysts." Science 2005;308.
Magnus, David and Cho, Mildred K. "Issues in oocyte donation for stem cell research." Science Express Magazine, Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics and Department of Pediatrics, Vol. 308. no. 5729, June 2005. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/308/5729/1747 .
McDonald, Chris. "Stem cells: a pluripotent challenge." BioScan Vol. 13, Iss. 4, (Toronto Biotechnology Initiative.) Fall 2001.
To date, adoptive T-cell therapy have used peripheral blood, tumors, malignant effusions, and drained lymph nodes as sites for injecting the T-cells for adoptive transfer. Those are routinely used are allogenic bone marrow transplantation and peripheral blood stem cell infusion. It is possible that the bone marrow might be a good place too. It is also arguable which precise T-cells are the best to transfer, since T- cells are differentiated into many subsets.
Furthermore, in order to produce enough effectors T-cells, specific T-cells from peripheral blood or tumor specimens are isolated and generated in vitro, and these are then clonally expanded using various approaches. The T-cells are then reinfused into the patient with the expectation that they will then target antigens. There is much evidence that this approach works, although it also seems that this can be engineered in vivo under certain situations.
For most effective T-cell therapy, it has…
Greenberg, P.D. 1991, 'Adoptive T cell therapy of tumors. Ad. Immunol. 49, pp. 281-355.
Jamieson, B.D., & Ahmed, R. 1989,'T cell memory. J. Exp. Med. 169, pp. 1993-2005
June, C.H. 2007, 'Principles of adoptive T cell cancer therapy', J. Clin. Invest., 117, pp.11204-1212.
MedecineNet.com. Definition of T cell. Online. Available at: http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=11300
Stem Cell Research / Parkinson's
Since Barack Obama has become president, the field of stem cell research has been given new life. One of Obama's campaign pledges
was to allow deeper research -- including the use of federal research funds -- into the use of pluripotent stem cells in order to find solutions for some of the terrible diseases Americans suffer from. Among those medical problems is Parkinson Disease (PD). This paper reviews and delves into the literature in terms of the potential of stem cell interventions into Parkinson Disease (also called "Parkinson's Disease").
ho is the leading authority on stem cell research?
There is no one "leading authority" reflected in the literature; however there are renowned scientists that are considered pathfinders in this field. Dr. Diane S. Krause, Associate Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Associate Director of Stem Processing at Yale University is "…one of the discoverers of previously…
Gallup Poll. (2011). Stem Cell Research. Retrieved March 7, 2012, from http://www.gallup.com/poll/21676/stem-cell-research.aspx .
Gogel, S. Gubernator, M., and Minger, SL. (2011). Progress and prospects: stem cells and Neurological diseases. Gene Therapy, 18(1), 1-6.
Krause, D.S. (2002). Plasticity of marrow-driven stem cells. Gene Therapy, 9(11), 754-8.
Lo, Bernard, and Parham, Lindsay. (2010). Resolving Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Clinical
Analysis of the Issues: The ethical concern for the rights and welfare of viable infants is certainly a legitimate concern, but the central ethical analysis that pertains to stem cell research revolves around the issue of defining human life appropriately. Objective criteria like anatomical development, cognitive awareness, and above all, sentience of any degree and in any form are all legitimate bases for the definition of life and for identifying the period of gestation corresponding to the earliest conceivable safeguards necessary to prevent suffering.
On the other hand, purely subjective doctrinal claims without objective criteria of any kind are wholly inappropriate bases for defining scientific concepts like when life begins. The fact that human development varies among individuals and that it may be impossible to know exactly where sentience and other elements of "humanness" first begin in the fetus does not mean that it is impossible to identify periods of…
Dershowitz, a.(2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age.
Boston: Little Brown, 2002
Healy, B. On Health: The Other Stem Cells; U.S. News & World Report (Jun. 14/04), p. 77.
Hellemans, a., Bunch, B. (1998) the Timetables of Science. New York: Simon & Schuster.
3.3 Data Collection
Is maternal UE3A active following iPS treatment: Data will be gathered on the iPS-treated mice via positron emission tomography, and in vivo brain slice preparation, and Western lot Analysis. H1 will essentially be ascertained following these tests.
Does iPS treatment rescue the motor and cognitive deficits associated with Angelman Syndrome: Data will be gathered from testing the treated mice in scientifically recognized tests of cognitive ability in a mouse model. This project proposes using the water maze test, the electric shock test, and the submerged platform test. H2 will effectively be answered using the data gleaned from these tests.
4.1. Potential Therapeutic and Other Considerations
The potential of using iPS treatment to rescue/alleviate the severe motor and cognitive deficits witnessed in Angelman Syndrome is theoretically viable. Reliable mouse models of AS exist with which to run the tests. The technology needed to tease iPS stem…
Abuhatzira, L., Shemer, R., & Razin, A. (2009). MeCP2 involvement in the regulation of neuronal alpha-tubulin production. Human Molecular Genetics, 1415-1423.
Condic, M.L., & Rao, M. (2008). Regulatory Issues for Personalized Pluripotent Cells. Stem Cells, 2753-2758.
Dindot, S., Antalffy, B., Meenakshi, B., & Beaudet, A. (2008). The Angelman syndrome ubiquitin ligase localizes to the synapse and nucleus, and maternal deficiency results in abnormal dendritic spine morphology. Human Molecular Genetics, 111-118.
Dobkin, B. (2007). Behavioral, temporal, and spatial targets for cellular transplants as adjuncts to rehabilitation for stroke. Stroke, 832-839.
For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."
Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.
Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…
http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5002068015' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Stem Cell Ethics
Debating the Ethics of Stem Cells
The term 'stem cells' can mean different things to different people. For some, it conjures images of medical miracles providing solutions for heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. For others, it terrifies with a future filled with cloned humans. Still others cringe at the thought of mass producing cultured human embryos for the sole purpose of providing organs and tissues for a paying public. As with most complex issues, news media coverage tends to exaggerate easily understood concepts at the expense of the overall truth and the public accordingly remains ignorant of the subtleties surrounding this debate. This seems to add fuel the emergence of polarized camps and a shrinking of a common middle ground. To better define this middle ground, this essay will discuss both sides of this debate and argue instead that the vast majority of people would likely support…
Antiniou, Michael. "The Case Against & #8230;" Nature Medicine 7.4 (2001): 397-399. Web. The author argues that the use of embryonic stem cells for research and medicine poses significant ethical and moral issues that cannot be overcome. Of particular concern is the potential for reproductive cloning, a door that the author believes was opened when the UK government approved the use of embryonic stems cells for research and medicine.
Blow, Nathan. "In Search of Common Ground." Nature 451.7180 (2008): 855-858. Web. The author presents several issues facing researchers who work with stem cells and discusses why they are important to advancing this field of research. Of primary concern is developing standard protocols for producing stem cells and creating the necessary protocols and reagents that will allow the therapeutic use of stem cells in humans.
Leeb, C., Jurga, M., McGuckin, C., Forraz, N., Thallinger, C., Moriggl, R. et al. "New Perspectives in Stem Cell Research: Beyond Embryonic Stem Cells." Cell Proliferation 44.1 (2011): 9-14. Web. The focus of this article is the promises and limitations of embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent stem cells, from the perspective of scientists working in this field. The ethical decisions concerning the use of embryonic stem cells are only mentioned in passing.
Power, Carl and Rasko, E.J. "Promises and Challenges of Stem Cell Research for Regenerative Medicine." Annals of Internal Medicine 155.10 (2011): 706-713. Web. The authors discuss in detail the three main types of stem cell technologies: embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent. Ethical issues are mentioned occasionally, but not discussed.
This controversial decision drew all kinds of reactions from different groups on each side of the issue. Some adversaries of hESC research expressed admiration for the decision limiting research to existing cell lines, while others said that no research should be allowed under any circumstances. Advocates of hESC research, meanwhile, generally praised the president for allowing some research to go forward, but criticized the restriction to existing cell lines as too strict, questioning whether enough research would be allowed.
Current U.S. Stem Cell Policy under President Obama
The March 9, 2009 EO changes the way the National Institutes of Health (NIH) can support and conduct human stem cell research. The Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS), through the NIH Director, is required to review existing NIH and other widely-recognized guidelines on human stem cell research and issue new NIH guidance within 120 days of the date of the EO…
AAAS Policy Brief: Stem Cell Research." 10 March 2009. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 27 March 2009 http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/stemcells/ .
Executive Summary." 2009. The National Institutes of Health resource for stem cell research. 27 March 2009 http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/execSum.asp .
Register, Federal. "Presidential Documents Executive Order 13505." 11 March 2009. Federal Register. 24 March 2009 http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2009/pdf/E9-5441.pdf .
The primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found." (Info 2006)
Adult stem cells are replicators in such a way that they are able to duplicate a variety of different cells. "Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body, serving as a sort of repair system...they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cell...each new cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell." (Info 2006).
Researchers tout the belief that a manipulation of stem cells can be beneficial in curing many diseases as well as helping in creating or developing new life, which could be part of the reason why such…
Info Center. (2006) In Stem Cell Information. National Institute for Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, www.stemcells.nih.gov/info.defaultpage, Accessed November 13, 2006
Study of human embryonic stem cell will lead to major advances in human biology, specifically:
Embryonic stem cell research will provide critical insights into mechanisms of cell differentiation, growth, and death (Young, 2006).
Understanding stem cells may provide keys to why people age (Young, 2006).
Scientists are interested in stem cells because they have the potential to become very practical in a way that any other kind of cell in the body might be used to replace tissues that have failed (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3144925.stm,2003).
And lastly, scientists believed that if they become successful in finding cure for lymphoma, and leukemia with this study, there is a great possibility that they can also cure diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, diabetes among others in the near future (http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/engage/materials/presentation1.ppt,2006).
Mitalipova, Maisam et. al. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Discarded Embryos 2003. AlphaMed Press. 7 October 2006. http://stemcells.alphamedpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/5/521
Young, ise. Morality of…
Mitalipova, Maisam et. al. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Discarded Embryos 2003. AlphaMed Press. 7 October 2006. http://stemcells.alphamedpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/5/521
Young, Wise. Morality of Stem Cells.. 7 October 2006. http://carecure.rutgers.edu/Lectures/Morality/StemCells_Notes.ppt
Embryonic Stem Cells; an Introduction to Science ethics and Legislation.. 7 October 2006. http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/engage/materials/presentation1.ppt
Mining Stem Cells.. 7 October 2006. http://arts.usask.ca/policynut/courses/soc292-8.ppt
While freedom of religion absolutely guarantees the right to refrain from choosing to submit to stem cell-based treatment, the same freedoms and the concept of separation of church and state absolutely preclude religious beliefs about when life "begins" (or about anything else) from dictating laws that affect other people who may not share those particular beliefs (Dershowitz, 2002).
Beneficence and Non-malfeasance
Certainly, both the concept of beneficence and non-malfeasance absolutely prohibit the use of fetal stem cells from any fetus that is sufficiently developed to be considered a "person" as well as from any fetus that is sufficiently developed to sense pain. Medical authorities may debate where the exact point is where "personhood" first becomes an issue, but in principle, that characterization must be a function of objective criteria and never subjective beliefs of laypeople, especially based in religion (Dershowitz, 2002).
Both beneficence and the duty to avoid malfeasance prohibit…
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Little Brown & Co.
Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. Dubuque, Iowa:
legislation introduced topic stem cell research. You find Library Congress website helpful research thomas.loc.gov. Pick a piece legislation interest give a summary bill.
The H.R.2433 -- 113th Congress (2013-2014) emphasizes the need for the U.S. To play a more significant role in achieving technological advancements in STEM-cell research. The act was introduced in June 19, 2013. The legislation relates to the idea of changing the Public Health Service Act with the purpose of introducing research processes that make use of human stem cells. The legislation is particularly interesting because of its studies in the field of stem cells involving human embryos.
Although the legislation bring forward problematic ideas because of the difficulty associated with actually coming in possession of human embryonic stem cells, the fact that there are numerous individuals willing to donate such resources with the purpose of promoting scientific advancement makes it possible for experts to progress in…
stem cells. It will consider the current moral discourse on the issue of stem cells and at the same time look at the basics or the foundation of stem cells themselves. How these cells can be utilized to conduct studies in cloning will be dwelt upon as well.
The pertinent issue on the floor of the U.S. congress in the deliberations on stem cell studies on humans is how to handle embryonic stem cell research (ESR), a kind of research that may generate crucial lifesaving therapies, which demands the damaging of embryos. Present national government regulations and policy documents tackle this issue basically via the limits on federal funding allocated to ESR (Aylesworth, 2010). The U.S. Department of Human Health Services is not permitted to spend any money on making human embryos for studies whereby the embryos will be damaged, thrown away, or intentionally be exposed to risks such as…
Scientists have been aware of the existence of these stem cells for many years but have only recently realized the potential medical applications of the cells. More than a decade ago, scientists discovered that if the normal connections between the early cellular progeny of the fertilized egg were disrupted, the cells would fall apart into a single cell progeny that could be maintained in a culture. These dissociated cells, otherwise known as embryonic stem cell lines, continue to divide in culture, producing large numbers of cells at a fast pace. However, these early embryonic cells would lose the coordinated activity.
Scientists quickly discovered that these cells retain the ability to generate a great number of mature cell types in culture if they are provided with appropriate molecular signals (Reaves, 2001). Scientists have made significant progress in discovering these signals and are still working on it. hile it is a difficult…
Colino, Stacey. (2001). Making Sense of Stem Cells. Lifetime.
Prescott, Bonnie. (2001). Animal Study Find Embryonic Stem Cells Can Repair Heart Muscle. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.
Reaves, Jessica. (2002). The Great Debate Over Stem Cell Research. Time Magazine.
Recer, Paul. (2002). Study says stem cells have fewer mutations than previously thought. AP Online.
Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the need to dissect cadavers for medical education entirely in secret (Levine, 2008).
Just as the news media are partially at fault today for their failure to distinguish legitimate concerns from ludicrous fears in connection with the ongoing political debate over American healthcare, they are equally responsible for allowing unfounded fears of "human cloning" in connection with the beneficial uses of stem cell science. Specifically, the main source of secular opposition to stem cell research is attributable to unnecessary fears of rampant misuse of human cloning technology to clone human beings. While human cloning is hypothetically possible, no responsible scientific researcher would ever misuse current biomedical technology in that fashion. The complexities of cloning entire organisms have been well documented in animal…
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Boston: Little
Brown & Co.
Friedrich, M. "Researchers Make the Case for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research"
The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 292(7); August 18, 2004:
This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:
1) Identify novel genetic sequences;
2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…
O'Connor, Sean M. (nd) Intellectual Property Rights and Stem Cell Research: Who Owns the Medical Breakthroughs?
Kadereit, Suzanne & Hines, Pamela J. (nd) Overview of Stem Cell Research New England Law Journal 2005 Mar 28. Online available at http://www.nesl.edu/lawrev/vol39/3/13%20Kadereit%20Final.pdf .
Chadwick, Ruth et al. (2004)HUGO Ethics Committee Statement of Stem Cells (2004) November
Legal Protection of Digital Information (2006) Chapter 5: Software-Based Inventions Online available at:. http://digital-law-online.info/lpdi1.0/treatise63.html
Stem cells are a hot topic for the media today because our understanding of them has potential for incredible scientific advances in the field of biotechnology, yet we struggle because there are questions of morality raised by the methods by which they might be used. While in centuries past, it was commonly accepted within the scientific community to vivisect the mentally insane or criminally convicted for the purpose of scientific knowledge, today religious groups are concerned about the fate of single stem cells being used in experiments. Stem cells have paved the way to cloning and bioengineering of humans, allowing scientists to "bring... A sperm and ovum together to create an embryo, harvesting the cells, and then discarding the embryo." (Celia) The concern for many people is that working with embryonic stem cells especially may somehow he breaching the rights of people and taking science to a point where it…
Bell, H. (2000) "Case Study: The Uninsured" American Medical Student Association. < http://www.amsa.org/tnp/uninsured.cfm >
Calafut, T. (2000) "Emerging Applications in Human Stem Cell Therapy." Chemical Market Reporter, March 20.
Human Genome, Stem Cells, & Reparations
Stems Cells are the source of all body tissues. Growth and development of the human body arises from the stem cell and is maintained by it. Although all cells can divide or copy themselves, stem cells are unique because they can replicate and create all other types of cells. This ability of the stem cell to develop into any of the 220 cell types that make up the human body makes it a powerful tool for biological research and medicine. Scientists believe that stem cell research has the potential of leading to previously incurable diseases.
How are Stem Cells Formed?
When a sperm cell fertilizes an egg, a zygote (fertilized egg) is formed. The zygote divides itself almost immediately to form stem cells. These unspecialized stem cells have the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells…
James Harper. "About Reparations." [available online] at http://www.blackvoices.com/feature/reparations/trial/
Peter Viles. "Suit Seeks Billions in Slave Reparations." [Available online] at http://www.cnn.com/2002/LAW/03/26/slavery.reparations/index.html
ithout a doubt, one of the most controversial topics of popular discourse is stem cell research. Indeed, one would be hard pressed to peruse the newspaper or magazine stand without encountering some reference to the global stem cell debate -- but what, exactly, are stem cells, and why are they so controversial?
Stem cells intended for use in human applications are harvested from humans, umbilical cords and embryos. The reason these cells are so valuable is because of their capability to produce or "become" other cell types -- for example, brain cells, heart cells, skin, etc. In short, these are "master cells," holding the ability to divide in cultures, and to be manipulated allowing it to transform into any type of cell. Of course, this is extremely important due to the fact that scientists can use this capability to either create organs (thereby helping to meet the tremendous…
Hall, MiMi and Kiely, Kathy. "Proponents of Stem-Cell Research Put on Pressure." USA Today. Online. July 2001. 10 April 2002. Retrieved from Web site on 15 March, 2004
Moral and Legal Questions of Stem Cell Research
Stem cell research is an experimental, and research-based study as to methods of repairing the human body. y introducing stem cells into a damaged, or degenerating area of the body, the medical profession hopes to prompt the body to regrow healthy tissue, and repair the damage. Degenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, or macular degeneration of a patient's eye retina are conditions in which the healthy tissues cease to function properly. There is no overt damage. There is not a disease which has physically destroyed the affected body part. ut for varying reasons, such as old age, wear and tear, or reasons medical science does not yet understand, the affected body part simply ceases to function properly. Stem cells are the type of cells, which are more numerous in, but not limited to, human embryos. They are the building blocks of the…
Answers to your questions about Stem Cells. 2001. ViaCord. Retrieved 15 Dec 2002. http://www.viacord.com/Preservation/Preservation.asp?section=1&s=sourceOfStemCells 2001>
Bush, George W. "The Bush Decision on Stem-Cell Research" National Review Online.
2002 Retrieved 15 Dec 2002. http://www.nationalreview.com/document/document081001.shtml
Critical Legal Studies." Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School. 2000. Retrieved 10 Dec 2002. http://www.law.cornell.edu/critical/theory.html
Unfortunately, a tremendous amount of valuable research has been put on hold ever since the ban of federal funding for stem cell research. In the United States, the vast majority of medical research of all types that eventually lead to cures for disease are funded by the federal government. The federal ban on stem cell research does not completely prohibit it, but the effect is nearly the same, just as it would be if the federal government withdrew funding for cancer or diabetes research.
The main opposition to stem cell research comes from the Religious Right who believe that any form of research using fetal stem cells is wrong, because according to their religious views, every fertilized human egg should be considered as much a human being as any living person, even a microscopic zygote consisting of nothing more than four cells of human tissue. Certainly, the concept of religious…
That is not to suggest that scientific criteria can necessarily pinpoint any specific instant or moment in time when a developing fetus can logically be considered a living human being, but only because such precision is impossible.
In principle, there is no doubt that medical science can identify the various stages of fetal development associated with the biological structures and processes that make us human. Likewise, they can identify the point where suffering becomes possible because neurological development produces the ability to perceive pain (Levine, 2008).
Therefore, the appropriate use of scientific criteria would be to link ethical concern for the fetus to sentience, and simply to err on the side of caution where pinpoint identification of sentience is impossible to know with certainty.
In principle, science (the discipline) is strictly objective; in practice, scientists are susceptible to human failings such as malice, egoism, and greed. The field of ethics…
Dershowitz, a.M. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Kinsley, M. (2007) "Commentary: Why Science Can't Save the GOP: Time (Dec. 10/07), p. 36.
Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th Ed. Dubuque Iowa: McGraw Hill.
Sagan, C. (1997) Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. New York: Random House
Also, there has been pressure in the different professions for every research design to follow these general procedures (Chadwick, Bahr, & Albrecht, 1984, pp. 19-20).
The researcher needs protection as well as the subject does. An important protection of confidentiality is testimonial privilege. This protection is not absolute and must yield to other concerns in some cases such as state's requirement that certain diseases (infectious diseases) or injuries (child abuse or neglect, gun shot wounds) be reported to prevent further injury. Written, informed consent to release information is the best defense against an allegation of a breach of confidentiality (Brent, 1997, p. 258).
Bioethics and informed consent extend beyond the area of research into that of medical practice, calling for medical personnel to inform patients of what treatment are being given and what options the patient may have. Such efforts are seen as both ethical and as empowering for patients,…
Bower, R.T. & de Gasparis, P. (1978). Ethics in social research: Protecting the interests of human subjects. New York: Praeger.
Brent, N.J. (1997). The home healthcare nurse and confidentiality and privacy. Home Healthcare Nurse, 15(4), 256-258.
Chadwick, B.A., Bahr, H.M., & Albrecht, S.L. (1984). Social science research methods. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall.
Heinrich, Bernd. "What Is Natural?" Discover (June 1994), 40-42.
Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of eligion and Public Life 25+.
Patel, K., & ushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.
Pickrell, J. (2006, September). "Instant Expert: Stem Cells." NewScientist.com news service. etrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/stem-cells/dn9982
Shapiro, .S. (2006). Bioethics and the Stem Cell esearch Debate. Social Education, 70(4), 203+.
Stem Cell Basics." (2006). Stem Cell Information from the National Institute of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. etrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/
Wagner, C.G. (2007, January/February). Values Conflicts in Stem-Cell esearch: Governments Struggle with Bioethical Issues. The Futurist, 41, 8+.
Precursor cells are also known as pluripotent cells, i.e., having the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells that make…
Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 25+.
Patel, K., & Rushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.
Pickrell, J. (2006, September). "Instant Expert: Stem Cells." NewScientist.com news service. Retrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/stem-cells/dn9982
Shapiro, R.S. (2006). Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate. Social Education, 70(4), 203+.
People with family histories of blood disease, for example, could benefit greatly from a private supply of compatible blood cells. Mixed-ethnicity children could also stand to benefit, since this population often experiences difficulty finding genetically compatible donors for organs or bone marrow (Peterson 56).
The sad reality is that despite its many benefits, the use of stem cells from umbilical cords is hampered by a lack of supply. There are private banks that extract and store a baby's umbilical stem cells for private use, but the costs are too prohibitive for most families. For many private banks, parents have to pay $1,300 up front for the extraction, and an additional $95 each year for storage. Also, many parents are simply unaware of the importance of umbilical stem cells. Sprage, a beneficiary of a cord stem cell transplantation, finds it disturbing that "most cord blood ends up as medical waste." (Peterson…
Peterson, Holly. "Cord-blood Controversy." Newsweek. August 18, 2003: 56.
Seppa, Natan. "Baby Rescue." Science News. May 21, 2005: 323-324.
Smith, Wesley J. "Umbilical Accord." Human Life Review. 31:4, Fall 2005: 87-89.
Value of Umbilical Stem Cell Research in Curing Disease
However, we can immediately see that their purposes are distinct from one another.
From a design standpoint, one grievance with Sanford Burnham is the shortage of active links to immediately usable information. First and foremost, it is of note that in a page with several eye-catching graphics pertaining to particular site destinations (the Center for Nanomedicine, Sanford Burnham's blog) none of these photographs is used as an active link. This is a missed opportunity for site usability that may be perceived as being of marginal importance but in reality can have significant impact on how long a visitor remains on a site and how many pages said visitor is inclined to click-through. This is a shortcoming easily resolved but does impact the site's relative dynamism.
The importance of such a matter is highlighted in a comparison between the two sites, with Research America ultimately compiling a site that is a…
Research America: http://www.researchamerica.org/stemcell_issue?gclid=COuYj67at5sCFQuU7QodsmBAAg
Are Cell Phones Safe?
The topic of this paper is cell phone radiation and whether or not it is harmful to a person’s health. My position on the topic is that cell phone radiation is harmful to people’s health, as has been shown in numerous studies (Nylund & Leszczynski, 2006; Gandhi, Morgan, de Salles et al., 2012). Two opposing viewpoints on the topic are that 1) cell phone radiation is not harmful to a person’s health—which is what the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has argued, and 2) there is just not enough information on the topic to make an informed decision.
Three reasons to support my position are: 1) that cell phones have been shown to affect brain development (Kesari, Siddiqui & Meena, 2013); 2) cell phones have been shown to affect fetal development and children’s development (Gandhi et al., 2012); and 3) cell phones have been shown to alter…
Statistical Evidence Used to Support Early Study Termination
Study population, comprising two clusters, namely AIDS patients and those suffering from AIDS-related complex, was a factor that supported early termination of the study. Statistical evidence employed was that AIDS patients who suffered from pneumonia many times were included in the study. On the other hand, patients who suffered multiple Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) episodes were excluded from the study. Thus, the research, comprising 27 participants who had spent 24 weeks in the study, 152 participants with16 weeks' participation and others had completed at least 8 weeks' of participation. At this point, 19 recipients of placebo and 1 recipient of 1 AZT (Azidothymidine) died during the study (Fischl et al., 1987).
Are you for or against the early termination and why?
The idea of early termination is not considered favorable, since the study proved valuable in treating the clinical condition, virus replication…
A Priority Research Agenda. (2010). Retrieved October 24, 2015, from https://www.iasociety.org/Web/WebContent/File/Consensus_Statement_Asking_the_Right_Question_March_2010.pdf
Brookmeyer, R. (2010, January 11). Measuring the HIV / AIDS Epidemic: Approaches and Challenges. Retrieved October 24, 2015, from http://epirev.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/1/26.full
Fischl, M. A., Richman, D. D., Grieco, M. H., Gottlieb, M. S., Volberding, P. A., Laskin, O. L., ... & King, D. (1987). The efficacy of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. New England Journal of Medicine, 317(4), 185 191.
Knox, R. (2010, November 4). The Lucky Genetic Variants That Protect Some People From HIV. Retrieved October 24, 2015, from http://www.npr.org/sections/healthshots/2010/11/04/131064382/the-lucky-genetic-variants-that-protect-some-peopleagainst-HIV
All living things are complex organisms that are made up of cells. Some are made up of a single cell while others comprise of numerous cells working together. Cells are the basic functional and structural units of living organisms and are known to be the building blocks of life. In humans it is from a group of cells that tissues are made and from tissues that organs are made which enable beings to live.
Cells obtain food and oxygen through their membranes and each membrane has a specific area which can serve contents of only a given volume. Any increase in volume of the cell requires that the area of the membrane increases. Basically, when cells grow the membrane becomes insufficient in aiding the movement of substances in and out and thus to maintain a favourable surface area to volume ratio, cell division must take place. Furthermore, cell…
Bolsover, S., E. Shephard, H. White, and J. Hyams. Cell Biology: A Short Course. 3. Wiley-
Blackwell, 2011. 432.
Conger, Krista. "Scientists turn skin cells into neural precursors, bypassing stem-cell stage." Stanford School of Medicine. n. page. Print.
Morgan, David. The Cell Cycle: Principles of Control. New Science Press, 2007.
Intrinsically Photosensitive etinal Ganglion Cell
ecent studies on biological anatomy of the eye discovered an additional photoreceptor within the mammalian eye. The cells discovered mediate the primary non-image visual activities with the vision system. The functioning of these cells aids in various significant processes including the regulation of the papillary reflex activity in response to light, as well as, the circadian photo entrainment. These cells, called the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells respond to more than the absolute light. The ipGCs have a unique feature of activity, as they differ from the usual photoreceptor cells of cones and rods. The rods and cones mediate on the vision of images by signaling the contrasts in light after adaptation. Interestingly, the ipGCs also do adapt to light contrast. The cells show sensitivity to flash of light, as is the case with other photoreceptors. The factor of action of the intrinsically photosensitive ganglion…
1. Bellintani-guardia, B., & Ott, M. (2002). Displaced retinal ganglion cells project to the accessory optic system in the chameleon (chamaeleo calyptratus). Experimental Brain Research, 145(1), 56-63. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-002-1091-z
2. Ben Simon, G.,J., Hovda, D.A., Harris, N.G., Gomez-Pinilla, F., & Goldberg, R.A. (2006). Traumatic brain injury induced neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells to optic nerve crush. Journal of Neurotrauma, 23(7), 1072-82. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2006.23.1072
3. Engelund, A., Fahrenkrug, J., Harrison, A., & Hannibal, J. (2010). Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) is co-stored with PACAP in projections from the rat melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells. Cell and Tissue Research, 340(2), 243-55. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-010-0950-3
4. Henderson, D., & Miller, R.F. (2003). Evidence for low-voltage-activated (LVA) calcium currents in the dendrites of tiger salamander retinal ganglion cells. Visual Neuroscience, 20(2), 141-52. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/198275379?accountid=458
This means that their operation is totally opposite in direction, in fact a rechargeable battery can act as both a voltaic cell and an electrolytic cell depending on whether it is discharging or being charged. It is also practical to use the same type of metal as electrodes in an electrolytic cell while in voltaic cells the electrodes must be of different metals.
Since sodium is too reactive to freely occur naturally it exists in the earth's crust in a number of varied compounds such as halite. It can also be found in the form of sodium chloride and brine which are plentiful sea water. These compounds can be obtained by trapping the sea water or brine, or by mining rock salt. In order to obtain pure sodium metal, electrolysis of molten sodium chloride is done. This is achieved by using the molten sodium chloride as the electrolyte in an…
Asato, Robert. (2009). "Internet Chemistry." Electrochemical cells. Kapiolani Community
College. Retrieved on March 4, 2010 from http://library.kcc.hawaii.edu/external/chemistry/everyday_electro.html
Bodner Research Web (2009). Electrolytic cells. Retrieved on March 4, 2010 from http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch20/faraday.php
Sodium. (2006). World of chemistry. Retrieved on March 4, 2010 from http://www.bookrags.com/research/sodium-woc/
The authors did a comparison study of 682 adults with acute leukemia. All these patients received a hematopoietic stem-cell (HSC) transplant from a donor that was unrelated to them. The authors compared them to patients who received UCB instead of HSC. One of the important characteristics of UCB is that it does not have to match the donor, which makes it much more flexible in leukemia and other treatments.
The study covered two groups of people. The authors note, "98 received cord blood and 584 received bone marrow. The transplantations were performed from 1998 through 2002 and reported to Eurocord and the European Blood and Marrow Transplant Group" (ocha, V., et al., 2004. p. 2276). They traced participants' ages, weights, level of severity of the disease, and other influences to discover what treatment worked best in treating adults with leukemia. They found that rates of mortality and relapse were very…
Mauro, MJ., and Maziarz, R.T. (2006). Stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia: When should it be used? Mayo Clin Proc. March; 81(3):404-416.
Rocha, V., et al. (2004). Transplants of umbilical-cord blood or bone marrow from unrelated donors in adults with acute leukemia. New England Journal of Medicine 351; 22. 2276-2286.
Tse, WW, SL Zang, KD Bunting and MJ Laughlin. (2008). Umbilical cord blood transplantation in adult myeloid leukemia. Bone Marrow Transplantation 41, 465 -- 472.
Vago, L., et al. (2009). Loss of mismatched HLA in leukemia after stem-cell transplantation. New England Journal of Medicine. 361: 478-88.
Fuel Cells in Green Engineering
The energy tomorrow is beginning to be available today. Fuel cells, which just a very few years ago were a pipe dream, are becoming g a reality, and they are used in areas ranging from space exploration to toy motivation (Joy). The promise of the fuel cell can be seen in the fact that they use the most abundant source of energy on the planet, Hydrogen atoms (Birch). They are also being seen as the energy savior because they emit a common, non-toxic waste which can also be utilized as a saving grace around the globe, water (Joy; Patturaja). A fuel that uses the most abundant element on the planet and emits clean, pure water does seem like science fiction, but there are already being used with it as a motive force.
The space shuttle has always been powered by hydrogen fuel cells (Joy). Although…
Birch, Amanda Sue. "Microbial Fuel Cells: Converting Waste to Water and Watts." Engineering and Technology for a Sustainable World. (2010). Print.
Fields, Scott. "Making the Best of Biomass: Hydrogen for Fuel Cells." Environmental Health Perspectives. (2003). Print.
Joy, Linda E. "A Basic Overview of Fuel Cell Technology." Automotive Community. (2007). Web.
Khan, Abdul Majeed. "Electricity Generation by Microbial Fuel Cells." Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences. (2009). Web.
These are subjective values that represent the altruistic view of ethical behavior, and they apply to corporations as well as individuals within the corporations. Thus, the employees of the organization that sell phones to individuals who fit the profile of a terrorist or criminal are acting unethically, and it is the corporation's responsibility to ensure that does not occur. They should require some kind of identification or registration from all customers, and they should maintain the records so they can be searched and identified if necessary. Moral pragmatism demands that the provider use common sense as one of its ethical solutions to problems, and it makes common sense for the provider to require some kind of identification to protect and serve others in the community.
In conclusion, this is a true ethical dilemma in every sense of the words. Ultimately, it seems senseless to allow cell phone companies to sell…
Frain, Jonathan. "Call in if You Suspect Terror Threat." The Birmingham Post. 27 Feb. 2008: 6.
Problems to be addressed:
There are several problems associated with the issue of cell phone use while driving and the ineffective regulations to restrict the use of mobile phones on the road. First, the increased use of these devices while driving has significant impacts on driving performance. This is because mobile phone use during driving distracts the driver physically, cognitively, and visually. The distractions contribute to the inability of drivers to maintain required speed, lateral position, and throttle control on the road. Since the driving performance reduces, the risk of crashes and accidents on the roads increases. Studies have shown that drivers miss 13% targets when talking and 24% when dialing or texting (Brace, Young & egan, 2007).
Secondly, cell phone while driving contributes to a major social problem of increased crash risk since it endangers the lives of passengers, drivers, and passersby. In addition to the distractions it causes…
Bruce, C.L., Young, K.L. & Regan, M.A. (2007, April 17). Analysis of the Literature: The Use
of Mobile Phones while Driving. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://www.nsc.org/news_resources/Resources/Documents/Analysis%20of%20the%20Literature,%20The%20Use%20of%20Mobile%20Phones%20While%20Driving.pdf
Noder, S.L. (2009). Talking and Texting While Driving: A Look at Regulating Cell Phone Use
Behind the Wheel. Valparaiso University Law Review, 44(1), 237-282.
However, there would also need to be an extended period of longitudinal analysis of the effects of the therapy on the experimental group mice's health to see if the improvement continued and did not produce damaging side effects.
The MSCs in the liver therapy are not derived from human embryos and thus the objections to discarding human embryos are not a factor in the ethical discussion about the therapy. In fact, "the number of MSCs that can be obtained from a donor is significantly lower than the number needed for tissue regeneration. Therefore, MSCs are expanded ex-vivo in media supplemented with growth factors" and created in a lab ("MSC growth factors," R&D Systems, 2013). The main ethical objections to the use of MCSs revolve around the question of scientists' right to create new organs and the possible risks involved. The Japanese research team "relied on a 'cocktail' of so-called induced…
"Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)." R&D Systems. [7 Jul 2013]
"Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) growth factors." R&D Systems. [7 Jul 2013]
Research Report on Apple Inc.
Apple Inc. -- Introduction
The Mission and Vision Statement of Apple Inc.
Apple CEO -- Tim Cook
SOT Analysis of Apple Inc.
The Four Functions of Management:
Apple -- Sales for the Year 2008 & 2007
Comparison and Analysis
Apple Inc. -- Introduction:
Apple Inc. is an American Multinational Organization engaged in the manufacturing, marketing, and sales of personal computers, cell phones, music players, software, networking solutions, and computer accessories. It was established in 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve ozniak, and Ronald ayne as a simple computer manufacturer with a former name of Apple Computers Inc. ith the passage of time, it enhanced the range of its product offerings and the size of its business operations to all the attractive markets of the world. The company has seen various rises and falls in…
Apple. Apple Info. 2012. Web. 3rd July, 2012.
Apple. Apple Leadership -- Tim Cook. 2012. Web. 3rd July, 2012.
Apple. Schedule of Revised Quarterly Income Statement Information. 2012. Web. 3rd July, 2012.
Ferrell, O., & Hartline, Michael. Marketing Strategy, 5th Edition. Australia: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.
Ethical Aspects in esearch Studies
The essential aspects of research are the concern and respect that the researchers offer to the participants. esearch is aimed at producing insights that are beneficial to the society. However, the research should be conducted ethically. The ethical concern in research adduces that it should not advance a society at the detriment of others especially the participants in the research. Ethics in research is vital because it guides the working principles of the researcher for the research to conform to the required standards. This is the case especially when research subjects in health or medical research are often human beings. Therefore, it is vital to respect these individuals. The guiding principles in research ethics focus on preserving the rights and dignity of the research participants. In this regard, ethics focus on ensuring consent is obtained, no harm is done, the participant's privacy is respected, and…
Austin, W. (2007). The Ethics of Everyday Practice: Healthcare Environments as Moral Communities. Advances in Nursing Science, Volume 30 - Issue 1 - p 81-88.
Bernadette M.M. & Ellen F.O. (2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing and health care: a guide to best practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Carol J.H. (2013). Professional Issues in Nursing: Challenges and Opportunities. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Corey-L., Patricia M., Anita J., Marlene Z., & Alison M. (1999). Healthcare Reform: Its Effects on Nurses. Journal of Nursing Administration, Volume 29 - Issue 3 - pp 30-37.
When DNA is damaged, cells can react through cell cycle checkpoints which allows repair to begin before further division can occur. There is also the prokaryotic SOS response which changes gene expression in bacteria as a result of DNA damage. This response is regulated by the production of certain proteins. Moreover, eukaryotic cells also react to DNA damage through producing proteins that begin the process of DNA repair.
8. Mice are often the favored mammalian in the testing of aging interventions. This is often because of the fact that there are many mice easily available for testing but also the fact that "generation time is short" (Yuan et al. 2011). Essentially, the aging process and testing in interventions can be done on a much shorter time scale then with tests using monkeys.
9. Enzymes may change the transcription patterns of a cell by adding chemical groups to histone proteins. This…
Books. W.R. Clark. (2009). Human genetic diseases that mimic the aging process. Progeria? The Progeria Project Foundation. Web. http://www.progeriaproject.com/progeria/mimic.htm
Conboy, I.M., Conboy, M.J., Wagers, a.J., Girma, E.R., Weissman, I.L., & Rando, T.A. (2005). Rejuvenation of aged progenitor cells by exposure to a young systemic environment. Nature, 17(433), 760-764.
Conti, Matteo. (2008). The Selfish Cell: An Evolutionary Defeat. Springer Publishing.
McClintock, D., Ratner, D., Lokuge, M. (2007). The mutant form of Lamin a that causes Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria is a biomarker of cellular aging in human skin. PLOS One, 2(2). Web. http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0001269
With our progressing knowledge in molecular biology and the increasing understanding of the various signaling pathways there is no question of doubt that in the near future the prognosis for OSCC would be considerably improved. As with any other disease, prevention is better than cure. Avoiding the well-known risk factors, a well-balanced nutritional plan and regular dental health checkups are the most effective means of preventing Oral cancers.
1) Michael King, Kourt Chatelain & Dustin Farris et.al, 'Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma proliferative Phenotype is modulated by Proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for Oral Cancer', MC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2007, 7:22, 19 June 2007 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/22
2) M. Chidzonga, L. Mahomva, 'Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, maxillary antrum and lip in a Zimbabwean population: A descriptive epidemiological study, Oral Oncology, 2006, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 184-189
3) National Cancer Institute, 'Oral Cavity', Accessed Jan 15th…
1) Michael King, Kourt Chatelain & Dustin Farris et.al, 'Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma proliferative Phenotype is modulated by Proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for Oral Cancer', BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2007, 7:22, 19 June 2007 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/22
2) M. Chidzonga, L. Mahomva, 'Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, maxillary antrum and lip in a Zimbabwean population: A descriptive epidemiological study, Oral Oncology, 2006, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 184-189
3) National Cancer Institute, 'Oral Cavity', Accessed Jan 15th 2010, available online at, http://oralcancerfoundation.org/dental/pdf/oral_cavity.pdf
4) Keyvan Nouri, 'Skin Cancer: Oral Cancer', McGraw-Hill Professional, 2007
Design Project -- A&P Lab
Ammonia (NH3) is produced by cells located throughout the body; most of the production occurring in the intestines, liver, and the kidney, where it is used to produce urea. Ammonia is particularly toxic to brain cells, and high levels of blood ammonia can also lead to organ failure. The imaginary organelle referred to as a hydrosome functions in a manner that decreases the blood ammonia levels in people, thereby circumventing the need for medications such as to treatment to prevent hepatic encephalopathy and conditions associated with a failing liver. The hydrosome functions similarly to a primary lysosome, also containing a highly acidic interior with lytic enzymes called hydrolases. However, the waste disposal that the hydrosome conducts serves to convert ammonia to a water-soluble waste that is then excreted by the kidneys.
About this Organelle
I came up with the idea for this organelle…
Batshaw ML, MacArthur RB, Tuchman M. Alternative pathway therapy for urea cycle disorders: twenty years later. Journal of Pediatrics. 2001; 138: S46-55.
Haberle J, Boddaert N, Burlina A, Chakrapani A, Dixon M, Huemer M, Karall D, Martinelli D, Crespo PS, Santer R, Servais A, Valayannopoulos V, Lindner M, Rubio V, and Dionisi-Vici C. "Suggested guidelines for the diagnosis and management of urea cycle disorders." Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2012: 7, 32. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-7-32. PMC 3488504. PMID 22642880 Retrieved http://www.ojrd.com/content/7/1/32
Interactive Concepts in Biochemistry - Interactive Animations. John Wiley & Sons Publishers, Inc. 2002. Retrieved http://www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/0470003790/animations/cell_structure/cell_structure.htm
Prasad S, Dhiman RK, Duseja A, Chawla YK, Sharma A, Agarwal R. "Lactulose improves cognitive functions and health-related quality of life in patients with cirrhosis who have minimal hepatic encephalopathy." Hepatology 2007: 45 (3): 549 -- 59.
Dimitrios Karussis and Ibrahim Kassis, in the article, "Use of Stem Cells for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis," conclude,
"In the current review, the various types of stem cells, which were mainly studied in animal models, will be reviewed as a potential therapeutic approach for MS. The main and common mechanisms of action of all stem cells include induction of neuroregeneration and remyelination through the activation of resident stem cells, or production of new CNS cell lineage progenitors, paralleled by local and systemic immunomodulating effects" (Karussis & Kassis, 2007, Conclusion ¶).
The other diseases that are showing promise in treatments resulting from stem cells usage includes: as cancer, diabetes, osteopetrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, heart disease, immune system disorders, blood disorders; the list goes on (Diseases Treated by Cord lood, 2010).
Stem cells are a valuable weapon in the future treatment of disease and in…
"Adult stem cell Plasticity and Transdifferentiation." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.studentsguide.in/animal-biotechnology/stem-cell-technology/adult-stem-cell-plasticity-and-transdifferentiation.html
"Asymmetric Division of Stem Cells." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.molecular-plant-biotechnology.info/animal-biotechnology-genomics/pluripotent-stem-cell-lines/asymmetric-division-of-stem-cells.html
"Diseases Treated by Cord Blood." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.womens-health.co.uk/diseases_treated.html
Jessen, W. "Exactly What are Stem Cells?" 7, July 2008. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.highlighthealth.com/did-you-know/exactly-what-are-stem-cells/
Stem Cell Differentiation
The need to restore the lives of the individuals calls for more of transplantation than that which is available. There are fewer organs, which can help in the transplantation process, which means that overdependence on the process makes it to be reliable. Further, the process may also end up endangering the life of the donator. Transplantation is the only available process that can for the individuals having kidney and lung problems. However, the numbers of individuals who are suffering from kidney and lung failure are always more than those who are ready to supply the needed organs. This calls for an alternative way, which can help in compensating the loss that the individuals face. One of the major alternatives for the process of translation is stem cell differentiation that may occur in any body cell. The stem cells differentiation offer the possibility of a renewable source of…
Wang, J., Collins, J. et al., (2012). Functional analysis of transcription factor binding sites in human promoters. Genome Biology, doi:10.1186/gb-2012-13-9-r50
Guillot PV, Cui W, Fisk NM, Polak DJ. (2007). Stem cell differentiation and expansion for clinical applications of tissue engineering. J Cell Mol Med. 11:935-944.
Gerrard L, Rodgers L, Cui W. (2005). Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells to Neural
Lineages in Adherent Culture by Blocking Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling. Stem Cells 23: 1234-1241.
Different Fuel Cell Technologies
U.S Department of Energy (2010) provides the description of different fuel cell technologies. The fuel cell technologies are differentiated according to their efficiency, operating temperatures, costs and application. The classifications are based on 6 major groups:
Alkaline fuel cell (AFC),
Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC),
Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC),
Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC),
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC);
Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC).
Alkaline fuel cell (AFC)
The AFC generates electrical power using alkaline electrolyte KOH (potassium hydroxide) in water-based solution. The presence of hydroxyl ions within the electrolyte allows a circuit to extract electric energy. The illustration in Fig 2 reveals an alkaline fuel cell. As being revealed in Fig 2, two hydrogen gas molecules combines with 4 hydroxyl ions have a negative charge to release 4 electrons and 4 water molecules. The equation 4 reveals the reaction of oxidation that takes…
Andujar, J.M, Segura F. (2009). Fuel cells: history and updating. A walk along two centuries.
Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 13:2309 -- 22.
Grove, W.R. (1842). On a Gaseous Voltaic Battery. Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science .vol. XXI: 417 -- 420.
Kordesch, K.(1999). Alkaline fuel cells applications, innovative energy technology. Austria: Institute of High Voltage Engineering, U Graz.
2003). This was achieved with a channel only 750W and 400H, and power output remained consistent despite tests using 2M, 4M, and 8M methanol solutions as fuels (Lu et al. 2003). This shows that temperature has a much higher influence on performance than fuel solution or rate.
A more recent and in many ways more innovative use of silicon materials, in combination with others, shows potential to further increase the efficacy and efficiency of micro direct methanol fuel cells. By utilizing high-aspect-ratio carbon nanotubes as fuel delivery and reaction area structures for either the cathode or anode end of a micro direct methanol fuel cell, the reaction area and thus the efficiency of the fuel cell can be greatly increased (Wu et al. 2008). Though this conclusion has yet to be borne out by direct observational evidence, initial experimentation has shown that these nanotubes can be controlled in their growth…
Kamitani, a. Morishita, S.; Kotaki, H.; Arscott, S. (2008). "Miniaturized microDMFC using silicon microsystems techniques: performances at low fuel flow rates." Journal of micromechanics and microengineering 18.
Lim, S.; Kim, S.; Kim, H.; Ahn, J; Han, H.; Shul, Y. (2006). "Effect of operation parameters on performance of micro direct methanol fuel cell fabricated on printed circuit board." Journal of power sources 161, pp. 27-33.
Lu, G.; Wang, C. Yen, T.: Zhnag, X. (2003). "Development and characterization of a silicon-based micro direct methanol fuel cell." Electrochimica Acta 49, pp. 821 -- 828.
Mench, M.; Wang, Z.; Bhatia, K.; Wnag, C. (2001). "Design of a micro direct methanol fuel cell." Proceedings of the IMECE'01 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (IMECE) New York, New York USA November 11-16, 2001.
3). While additional research is needed in this area, these findings suggest that the attributes of non-thermal plasma hold significant promise for the regulation of mammalian cell activity and inducement of apoptosis in targeted cells. In this regard, Sensenig et al. conclude that, "Plasma-induced DNA damage in turn may lead to the observed plasma-induced apoptosis. Since plasma is non-thermal, it may be used to selectively treat malignancies" (2010, para. 4).
The foregoing findings were also congruent with previous research by Kligman et al. (2007). According to these researchers, the floating electrode dielectric barrier discharge plasma (FE-DBD) plasma treatment has been found to invoke apoptosis in melanoma cancer cell lines, and it accomplishes this without causing necrosis while still possessing the ability to initiate apoptosis in the targeted cells (Kligman et al., 2007). The "floating" designation in this application is derived from the manner in which the plasma is generated. Simply…
Clark, W.R. (2002). A means to an end: The biological basis of aging and death. New York:
Cleveland, C.J. & Morris, C. (2006). Dictionary of energy. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Di Quinzio, M.L., Dewar, R.A., Burge, F.I. & Veugelers, P.J. (2005). Family physician visits and early recognition of melanoma. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 96(2), 136-139.
Fridman, G., Shereshevsky, a., Jost, M.M., Brooks, a.D., Fridman, a., Gutsol, a., Vasilets, V. & Friedman, G. (2007). Floating electrode dielectric barrier discharge plasma in air promoting apoptotic behavior in melanoma skin cancer cell lines. Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, 27(2), 163-176.
"Given the rising prevalence of obesity with age in both childhood and adult life, the prevalence of adult obesity cannot be predicted from childhood data, but increasing childhood obesity heralds a greater health burden in adult life"(James & al 2001, p. 232S). Thus, the future focus is on child obesity and how it can be treated to bring well-being for the adult.
esearch for adipose cells is not at the beginning, but has become increasingly intensive in the last years. Obesity is rapidly spreading across the globe but all the scientific breakthroughs won't do magic in the presence of disinterest and neglect towards the human body, so the first step should come from each individual.
Albright, AL & Stern, JS 1998, "Adipose Tissue," Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science, vol. 15
Bosello, O & al. 1980,"Adipose tissue cellularity and weight reduction forecasting," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 33,…
Albright, AL & Stern, JS 1998, "Adipose Tissue," Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science, vol. 15
Bosello, O & al. 1980,"Adipose tissue cellularity and weight reduction forecasting," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 776-782
Gomillion, CT & Burg, KJL 2006, "Stem cells and adipose tissue engineering," Biomaterials, no. 27, pp. 6052 -- 606
Greenberg, AS & Obin, MS 2006, "Obesity and the role of adipose tissue in inflammation and metabolism," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 461-465
3. Embryonic stem cells can be used to help human beings who suffer from debilitating diseases for which no other solution offers hope. For this reason alone, the research should be legal, considering that the embryos from which the stem cells are derived cannot be shown to possess any type of noticeable consciousness. There is no moral reason to favor the use of animals in medical research over the use of embryonic stem cells, considering that the former are fully developed creatures who clearly have the potential to feel pain, whereas the latter demonstrate little more than potentiality. Furthermore, most embryonic stem cells are culled from discarded tissues used for in vitro fertilization. If in vitro fertilization is legal then so too should be the proper use of the leftover cell mass.
Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology eb…
Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology Web Site: http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k4ch39repronotes.html
Irving, Dianne N. (2005). Framing the Debates on Human Cloning and Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Pluripotent vs. TOTIPOTENT. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_100debatecloning1.html
Kischer, C. Ward. (2004). Human Development and Reconsideration of Ensoulment. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/kisc/kisc_10humandevelopment.html
It also requires conscious effort at objective because of the inherent of the method applied. Sampling plans narrows its frame to that particular sample, this to shows the group of people who are participating in the study. It samples can be selected through probability and non-probability (Mack & Woodsong, 2005).
In most cases research design is used in the education sector and it takes different meaning depending with how it's applied. it's normally used interchangeable with the term research method. However, according to Berliner (2002) research design should reflect the whole process of research, starting from the conceptualizing main problem to the question of the research, methods and the conclusion. Identifying a study's research design is important because it communicates information about key features of the study, which can differ for qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods. However, one common feature across research designs is that at one or…
Berliner, D. (2002). Educational research: The hardest science of all. Educational Researcher, 31(8), 18 -- 20.
Harwell M, (2000). Research Design in Qualitative/Quantitative/MixedMethods
Morgan B, (2008). PTC 604 - Communication Theory and Research
Fritz K, (2008). Ethical Issues in Qualitative Research MPH Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Department of International Health
Society at large does not and would not permit risking harm to humans in order to avoid using animals for research (Animals pp).
The pharmaceutical industry uses animals only when research cannot be accomplished in other ways, and always with care (Animals pp). If society wants to relieve conditions such as epilepsy, asthma, multiple sclerosis, and heart disease, then animals will continue to be need for research (Animals pp).
Although it is important and morally right to minimize the use of animals for research, it would be morally wrong to place the concern for animals above the concerns and needs of people who are dying from and/or living with incurable and untreatable conditions that could benefit from such research (Animals pp).
Animals in Medicines Research Information Centre - AMRIC. http://www.abpi.org.uk/amric/introduction.asp
Animals in Medicines Research Information Centre - AMRIC. http://www.abpi.org.uk/amric/introduction.asp
esearch activities, whether clinical trial based, experimentally designed, or product oriented, must exhibit and command interest, enthusiasm, and passionate commitment. To this end the researcher must catch the essential quality of the excitement of discovery that comes from research well done. The first step in the attainment of the desired research goal is to develop a scientific approach toward that which is being investigated. A requirement within the scientific approach best-fit format that is oftentimes misunderstood, and consequently wrongly applied, is that of sampling.
In a rather philosophical approach to sampling Ohlson (1998) states that sampling is " ... But part of the whole. Check to make sure I fairly represent my larger connection " (p. 27). With these words Ohlson is informing the research enthusiast that sampling alone can skew testing results, infuse uncontrollable error into statistical processes, and violate the empirical premise under which the research investigation…
Ferguson, Geroge A. 1966. Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education. New York:
McGraw-Hill Book Company
Ohlson, E.L 1998. Best-Fit Statistical Procedures, ACTS Testing Labs. Chicago Thompson, David M., Kozak, Sharon E. And Sheps, Sam (1999). Insulin adjustment by a diabetes nurse educator improves glucose control in insulin-requiring diabetic patients: A randomized trial. CMAJ, 161(8):959-62
Van Dalen, Debold B. (1966). Understanding educational research. New York: McGraw-Hill
These need to be selected carefully in order to ensure the reliability and validity of the data obtained. Although the study by Segal and Cover is not experimental, the dependent variables in question relate to the availability of Supreme Court justices. The set of independent variables were therefore the publicly available votes cast by the justices. However, the dependent variables were reliant on the time period selected for the focus of the study as well as the source of variables selected, in the form of newspaper editorials in four major newspaper during the time of focus within the study. These variables are therefore dependent on the specific viewpoint held by the newspapers and their editors at the time, and could affect validity and consistency. Nevertheless, this problem is generally mitigated by the number newspapers and editorials selected.
To maximise concreteness, the researchers focused on a specific time and…
Dependent variables differ from independent variables in that they are manipulated either by the experimenter or by the situations surrounding them. These need to be selected carefully in order to ensure the reliability and validity of the data obtained. Although the study by Segal and Cover is not experimental, the dependent variables in question relate to the availability of Supreme Court justices. The set of independent variables were therefore the publicly available votes cast by the justices. However, the dependent variables were reliant on the time period selected for the focus of the study as well as the source of variables selected, in the form of newspaper editorials in four major newspaper during the time of focus within the study. These variables are therefore dependent on the specific viewpoint held by the newspapers and their editors at the time, and could affect validity and consistency. Nevertheless, this problem is generally mitigated by the number newspapers and editorials selected.
To maximise concreteness, the researchers focused on a specific time and area of study; civil liberties cases between 1953 and 1987. I am not, however, sure that the dependent variable selection is entirely conducive to maximum concreteness. Surely there were more than four newspapers reporting on the Supreme Court decisions of the time. Also, smaller newspapers might have provided valuable and comparable insights into the political views of the justices concerned. In order to obtain as high a level of concreteness as possible, it might therefore have been a better decision to include more data, especially as these data are dependent upon the viewpoints espoused by the specific papers involved rather than upon verifiable sources.
To reduce inventory management costs and errors, enterprise must form a strong, galvanizing connection with suppliers, buyers, internal production, and customers most of all. In conclusion, inventory management will always be part art and science, as tacit & implicit knowledge is needed to provide greater insight into the analysis generated fro enterprise software applications specifically designed to streamline inventory management. The inherent unquantifiable aspects of demand management will also make inventory management a continually difficult, complex problem enterprises must confront daily to stay profitable and grow.
Forecasting and Demand eferences
Leung, S. (2003, Oct 01). Where's the beef? A glutted market leaves food chains hungry for sites; finding spots for new outlets takes heaps of research and an eye for details; hint: Move next to Wal-Mart. Wall Street Journal, pp. a.1-a.1.
Meng, F., Tepanon, Y., & Uysal, M. (2008). Measuring tourist satisfaction by attribute and motivation: The case…
Mathaba, S., Dlodlo, N., Smith, a., & Adigun, M. (2011). The use of RFID and web 2.0 technologies to improve inventory management in south african enterprises. Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, 14(2), 228-241. Link:
Wang, H., & Yan, H. (2009). Inventory management for customers with alternative lead times. Production and Operations Management, 18(6), 705-720.
cell phone use while driving. Specifically it will discuss the increased use of cell phones in the United States, and the dangers of driving while talking on a cell phone. Talking on a cell phone while driving is dangerous. Studies show it is just as dangerous as drunk driving, and talking on a cell phone while driving should be banned nationally, not simply on a state-by-state basis.
CELL PHONES SHOULD E ANNED
Driving while talking on a cell phone has become quite controversial as more Americans use cell phones every day. Using cell phones in public can be annoying and downright rude, but driving while talking on a cell phone can be deadly. One analyst noted, "Driving and talking on a cell phone is like drinking and driving. In both cases, the driver's reaction time is slowed, especially in the event of a roadway mishap requiring urgent response. In addition,…
Author not Available. "Cell Phone Users Drive 'Blind'; Study Explains Why Hands-Free Phones Just as Bad As Hand-Held." U.S. Newswire, 01-27-2003.
Egan, Bob. "Commentary: Common Sense and Cell Phones." CNET.com. 23 May 2001. http://news.com.com/2100-1033-258172.html?legacy=cnet&tag=owv
Ferzan, Kimberly Kessler. "Opaque Recklessness." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 91.3 (2001): 597+.
Kanallakan, Jamie. "Cellular Phones: Policymakers Consider the Effects of Highway Usage." Spectrum: the Journal of State Government 74.1 (2001): 17.