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The Christian Doctrine of Eternal Security
Christian faith is driven by the underlying notion that doctrinal adherence will lead to salvation. However, just exactly how one effectively adheres and achieves that salvation is a matter very much up for dispute. In fact, this is the dispute at the center of this discussion, which considers what some consider to be among the most divisive matters in the Christian faith. The question of eternal security drives not only this discussion but also a great many scholarly debates among clergy and theologians in the Church. Specifically, a long-standing disagreement divides paths of adherence between those who believe in either conditional security or eternal (or, by counterpoint, unconditional) security. The account hereafter will offer some explanations for the distinctions is these two orientations of faith as well as a final position on the subject as drawn from relevant scripture and commentary.
Freedom Quest Ministries (FQM). (2010). Is 'Unconditional Eternal Security' Taught in the Bible. Eternal-security.org.
Brandenberg, K. (2013). The Bible Teaches Permanent Justification, Eternal Security, Unconditional Security and Once Saved, Always Saved. What is Truth.
Oodort, B. (2012). Does Paul Teach Unconditional Eternal Security in Romans 8:35-39.
Kowalski, D. (2013). Is Eternal Security Conditional or Unconditional. Apologetics Index.
Christians and the Legal System
Christian Relationship to the Legal System
As many individuals understand, despite any religious affiliation, the legal system is set in place in order to foster the creation and continuation of a good society. This good society can then be achieved by promoting the good and eliminating the bad. It is in this elimination of the bad, that societies and their legal systems begin to differ. hile certain legal systems enforce the law through right and just ways, other legal systems are deemed cruel and unnecessary. In viewing the American legal system and its relationship to Christianity, one can better understand which portions of the legal system are represented within Christianity within the Bible and its religious teachings. Further, one can understand the beliefs of the Christian legal system, which exists to focus on human equality before God along with a Christian duty to serve God…
Got Questions? 2012. What does the Bible say about the death penalty and capital punishment? Web. Retrieved from: http://www.gotquestions.org/death-penalty.html [Accessed on 6 April 2012].
Samuelian, Thomas. 2008. Christianity and the Legal System. Web. Retrieved from:
http://www.ev.am/media/documents/Brainwork/Values/Christianity_and_the_Legal_System.pdf [Accessed on 6 April 2012].
Worldview. 2012. Christianity and Law, and Introduction. Web. Retrieved from:
The Politics of Christian Environmentalism
ithout a doubt, one of the greatest challenges before us as a civilization in the 21st century is the protection and repair of our environment. This is an ambition that cuts across ideologies, scriptures and traditions of faith, dictating a collective responsibility to an admittedly enormous task. For Christians in particular, the onus of responsibility to protect God's Earth should be seen as second to nothing in terms of its importance and its consistency with the Christian value system. Ironically, in the United States, sharp political lines of allegiance undermine what should be an inextricable link between the Christian faith and the environmental movement.
Indeed, Christian values have long instructed us to reach out to the hungry, poor and oppressed and to bring them ease, to improve their conditions and to help them feel the love of God. But the connection between the…
BBC News. (2003). What is the Kyoto Treaty. BBC.co.uk. Online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2233897.stm
Beisner, E.C. (2012). Gospel Confusion in Christian Environmentalism. World Magazine.
Booth, K. (2005). Environmentalism causes Third World Deaths. The Yale Herald, 39(4).
Peritore, N.P. (1999). Third World Environmentalism. University Press of Florida.
Christian iotechnology: Not a Contradiction in Terms
Presented with the idea of "ioethics" most people in the scientific community today immediately get the impression of repressive, Luddite forces wishing to stifle research and advancement in the name of morality and God. Unfortunately, this stereotype too often holds true. If one looks over the many independent sites on the Internet regarding bioethics, reads popular magazines and publications, or browses library shelves for books on bioethics, the message seems quite frequently negative. Many Christians --and particularly those in conservative camps-- seem to have a deep seated fear of many elements of biotechnology. While this is slightly less problematic with such advances as genetically modified plants and animals (which are targeted more by liberal neo-pagans and primitivists), it is certainly very true in the field of medical experimentation and especially stem cell and embryonic research. In many ways, this dedication to an anti-technology…
Abram, David. The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human World. New York: Vintage, 1997.
Aldridge, Susan. "Ethical Dilemmas" Inside Science, 17 Oct 98.
Bailey, Ronald. "Intimations of Immortality" Reason Online, 6 March 1999. Internet Online. http://reason.com/opeds/rb030600.shtml [29 March 2004]
Bedford-Strohm, Heinrich. "Sacred body? Stem cell research and human cloning." The Ecumenical Review, July, 2002. Internet Online. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2065/3_54/92136470/print.jhtml [29 March 2004]
" So there is common ground for starters. Now, to avoid more generations and centuries of killing and hatred, Christians and Muslims must indeed find common ground. And for the Christian hoping to convert the Muslim, common ground is just the launching pad.
Another way of bringing the discussion down to familiar territory for the Muslim is to point out that both Christians and Muslims worship the same God. Muslims may believe that Christians worship "three Gods, and are therefore polytheists," Pratt explains, and Christians may think that "Allah" is different than "God." Getting past this point and explaining that the prophet Jesus Christ was the Son of God (and that it has been made clear in the prophecies through the Holy Bible) and that the "Holy Ghost" or "Holy Spirit" is not a God but rather a divine spirit that is ever-present and never-ending will likely bring about good…
International Students, Inc. "Secularism / Is Jesus the Only Way to God? / How Can We Know
The Bible is the World of God? / World Religions Overview."
Pratt, Douglas. "Islam: A Challenge to Christianity." The New Zealand Journal of Christian
Thought & Practice 15.2 (2007), 2-9.
Thus, the ecological teaching of the Bible is of stewardship, so that rather than being "spiritual at the earth's expense [….] it means exactly the opposite: do not desecrate or depreciate these gifts […] by turning them into worldly 'treasure'; do not reduce life to money or to any other mere quantity" (Berry 526). This biblical ecology would seem in direct opposition to the engagement with capitalism Benne and illiams support, as capitalism by definition reduces everything to money or mere quantity, but a more nuanced reflection of the theological implications of either essay actually reveals both to be in harmony with each other.
In order to understand how one might embody a biblical ecological stewardship while simultaneously engaging in capitalist discourse, the concepts under discussion must be clarified, in order to distinguish between the ends of capitalism and the ends of Christian ethics and theology. One must necessarily begin…
Benne, Robert & Preston Williams. "Responses to 'A Postcommunist Manifesto': Ethics,
Economics, and the Corporate Life." ed. Boulton, Wayne, Thomas Kennedy, and Alan
Verchey. From Christ to the world: introductory readings in Christian ethics . Grand
Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1994. Print. 489-492
This report is an attempt to explain the concept of the Christian Ethic. As the world becomes a smaller place through new technologies such as computerization and the internet, a daunting question of present-day life lingers -- can the Christian philosophies and teachings of Jesus survive globalization? Affecting a common good is difficult for a single national or ethnic community so the idea of a global Christian Ethic seems almost impossible to secure. Christianity is a philosophy that was supposed to represent the common good by all of mankind should be touched. Christians throughout history have tried to understand what God was requiring his people to be and maybe more importantly what those people need to do. The answer to these two questions seems as though they would be easy to answer, but the bible and other documented scriptures do not provide a single answer that applies to…
Christian View of Ethics. Ed. CIM. CIM Technical Papers. 20 Apr. 2004 http://www.fni.com/cim/technicals/ethics_t.html .
Macbeath, A. Experiments in Living: A Study of the Nature and Foundation of Ethics or Morals in the Light of Recent Work in Social Anthropology. London: Macmillan, 1952.
Pellegrino, Edmund D. "Managed Care: An Ethical Reflection." The Christian Century, Vol. 115 August 12, 1998.
Unknown. "We Hold These Truths: A Statement of Christian Conscience and Citizenship." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life No. 76, October (1997).
Christian Beliefs and Abortion
Abortion is a highly controversial issue with the pro-life and pro-choice supporters professing diametrically opposite view-points on the ethical, legal and medical aspects of the issue. The Christian beliefs regarding abortion have generally been against abortion, although in the middle period (5th to 17th century AD), the Christian church had softened its stance on abortion. Presently, most Christian organizations and churches are against abortion but the intensity of opposition varies among different Christian religious groups. In this paper I shall outline the Christian beliefs on abortion from the biblical times to the present, focusing on the anti-abortion arguments.
The Basis of the Christian Belief about Abortion: Biblical Foundation
Christians believe that life starts from the moment of conception, i.e., as soon as the sperm cell fertilizes an egg; the bible prescribes in the Fifth Commandment "thou shalt not kill"; abortion constitutes taking of an innocent life;…
Jelen, Ted G. "The Clergy and Abortion." Review of Religious Research. 34.2 (1992): 132-151
"Presbyterians and Abortion: Historical Christian Perspectives." Presbyterians Pro-Life. N.d. January 4, 2005. http://www.ppl.org/hist_xn.html
Robinson, B.A. "Abortion: Ancient Christian Beliefs." Religious Tolerence.org. March 07, 2004. January 4, 2005. http://www.religioustolerance.org/abo_hist.htm
Terwilliger, M. "Sex, Abortion, Birth Control, and Christianity." June 12, 2003. January 4, 2005. http://www.epigee.org/guide/foreword.html
Christian Counseling According to McMinn
Counseling others through difficult time, challenging personal crises or the simple complexities of everyday life requires patience, compassion and selflessness. These are also all features of a good Christian life devoted to fellowship and the scriptures. These are the ideas at the crux of Mark McMinn's 1996 text Psychology, Theology and Spirituality in Christian Counseling. At its most basic, the text is an outline of the roles, responsibilities and pitfalls that come with Christian counseling. But taken with greater scrutiny, the text can be seen as a blueprint for counseling through a Christian perspective in a modern world with this perspective is often overshadowed. The text is organized according to eight primary sections, each of which details an aspect of Christian life as filtered through a counselor's perspective. Each section of the McMinn text is designed to address an issue area such as Prayer, Sin…
McMinn, M.R. (1996). Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian Counseling. Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.
From a practical standpoint, one must also realize that being overly vociferous in either arena will alienate the very people who are the intended targets of the message. Hence, the best approach to engaging Christian ethics in politics is to engage in worthy issues, remember the reason for involvement is to promote the good of the community and not the goals of an individual and to modulate one's delivery of ideas so as to not chase of the audience.
Dayton, Donald. Discovering an Evangelical History. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson
Publishers, 1988. Print.
Hays, Richard. The Moral Vision of the New Testament: Community, Cross, New
Creation; A contemporary introduction to New Testament Ethics. San Francisco:
Collins Publishing, 1996.
Lovin, Robin, . Becoming Responsible in Christian Ethics. Studies in Christian Ethics, Vol. 22, 4 (2009) pp. 389-398.
Miles, Rebekah L. The Pastor as a Moral Guide. Minneapolis: Augsberg Fortress,
Dayton, Donald. Discovering an Evangelical History. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson
Publishers, 1988. Print.
Meeks, M. Douglas (Ed.) The Portion of the Poor: Good news to the poor in the Weslyan
Tradition. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1995. Print
Christian Resistance to the Third Reich
In March 1933, less than two months after being sworn in as Chancellor of Germany, Adolf Hitler made his private opinion of Christianity and its place in his Germany very clear. Nothing would stop him, he declared, 'eradicating Christianity from Germany root and branch. You are either a Christian or a German. You can't be both.'
This was in accord with Hitler's determination to incorporate all elements of the nation into a single body under Nazi leadership. Hitler was concerned with the churches as political agents and organized bodies; he had no interest in questions of religion or faith. Nazism, with its vision of the thousand-year German Reich, was a substitute church that demanded unquestioning adherence to its own dogmas, and would tolerate no rival. Hitler's aim 'was to capture the souls and minds of the German people. Hitler demanded not only obedience but…
Barnett, Victoria. For the Soul of the People: Protestant Protest against Hitler. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Bergen, Doris L. Twisted Cross: The German Christian Movement in the Third Reich. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
Chandler, Andrew, ed. The Moral Imperative: New Essays on the Ethics of Resistance in National Socialist Germany, 1933-1945. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998.
Cornwell, John. Hitler's Pope: The Secret History of Pius XII. New York: Viking, 1999.
Individual Christians must accept the teachings of others or make up their own minds.
For Christians, God is the judge of right and wrong and scripture represents the accepted body of legal precedent (Cosgrove, pp. 38-40). The Golden ule, the ultimate statement of Christian ethics, is grounded on "the law of Moses" (Luke 10:25) and "taught in the law and the prophets" (Matthew 7:12), and its universal applicability likewise hinges on accepting the word of Jesus that the "neighborhood" of love theoretically extends to all humanity (Luke 10:36-37).
In fact, given the absence of compelling evidence, even the historical existence of Jesus or any of the other foundational Christian figures must be taken "by faith" or interpreted in metaphorical terms (Strobel, 2002, pp. 96-97). However individual Christians struggle with (or resolve) this dilemma in their own lives, the very fact that the dilemma is meaningful to them at all reveals…
Cosgrove, M. (2006). Foundations of Christian thought: Faith, learning, and the Christian worldview. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel.
Strobel, L. (2002). The case for faith: A journalist investigates the toughest objections to Christianity. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
The most significant issue that could pose a problem for individuals that choose to attend a Christian college is the concern that, while all of the students are Christian, there are many different 'branches' of Christianity, and they do not all agree. For example, Catholics and Protestants often disagree about some minor matters and a few more significant matters, and even within the Protestant area of Christianity there are many different 'sub-sets' that often view things very differently. Because of this, Christianity is a very multi-faceted religion and there can be differences and disagreements among many of its followers.
Going to a Christian college will eliminate being 'required' (at least by the student's perception) to hide his or her religion, but does not guarantee that the student will not be persecuted in some way for the beliefs that he or she has. In other words, a Protestant student may still…
The Christian Socialist movement traces its origins in the middle of the nineteenth century when a large movement of the middle class population appeared against the huge social problems that the industrial revolution provoked. Modern industrial life of the nineteenth century, as well as modern financial life of today, require the social principles of Christianity as to decrease inequality and increase mass productivity.
Anglican theologian Frederick Denison Maurice is believed to be the main promoter of these principles when in 1838 put forward the main principles of the Kingdom of Christ where competition which is the essence of capitalism is evil and lies at the basis of all wrongs that were to be found in society. Cooperation is therefore the key and socialism should promote that more and more.
The main economic ideas that Christian Socialism argues for are cooperative societies which can be traced back to the original Christian…
Martin Luther King, Jr., likened himself to the “prophets of the eighth century” in his letter from a Birmingham Jail (King, 1963). Since Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), which institutionalized the separate but equal clause, the South had been plagued by Jim Crow, and blacks were being treated unfairly. King had arrived in Birmingham to protest the injustices there. Some of his fellow clergymen objected to his protests, arguing that he was disrupting the peace and that it was un-Christian of him to insert himself into matters that did not pertain to him. However, he argued that not only had he been invited by that he was like the prophets of old who left their home towns to call other people to repent lest God punish them for their wickedness. He argued that “We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be…
Case Study: Starting and Naming a Business
Starting, naming and managing a business can be difficult. One has to decide how to organize the business, what to name, and who to bring in to help maintain it. Addressing these challenges can be confusing if one is unsure of the different possibilities, such as sole proprietorship vs. joint venture. However, with a little understanding in this department and a little guidance from Scripture, which provides the right perspective on how manage a business, one can approach the process with confidence. This paper will discuss the case of Shania and her plan for a Christian coffeehouse that she wants to name The Gathering Place.
Setting up the Business
If Shania’s husband Marvin is interested in being an investor in the business, the best entity to organize under would be a limited partnership. A limited partnership allows there to be a general partner,…
Christian Counseling Theories
Christian authors present the very unique set of principles and strategies aiming at helping empower individuals going through counseling. Examining Christian literature and theory illustrates clear assumptions that different authors share, yet also pulled out some clear differences as well. For example, Backus and Chapain (2000) present fluidity, while Adams (1986) suggests Scripture. Still, these authors do all show that the word of God is a crucial element to the spiritual healing needed in modern counseling.
Backus and Chapain (2000) present a very simple, that individuals are plagued with discomfort and unhappiness because they think incorrectly. Essentially, when one does not think the proper manner, negative results come from it. Thus, ill-natured thoughts lead to anxiety, unhappiness, and depression, all of which are the main causes for people seeking counseling in a modern context. In order to combat these ill thoughts, Backus and Chapain present when is…
Backus, W.D., & Chapian, M. (2000). Telling Yourself the Truth (20th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers.
Adams, J.E. (1986). How to Help People Change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House.
Many of the most famous scientists in world history also happened to believe in God: including Copernicus, Bacon, Kepler, Gallileo, and Newton ("Famous Scientists Who Believed in God," n.d.). These great scientists had no trouble reconciling their faith with their practice; their Christian beliefs with their research and investigations into the known universe. Yet science has morphed from an integrated realm of study to one that excludes religion from its ranks. It has become anathema to be a practicing Christian and a practicing scientist. It does not have to be; in fact, science and religion comfortably coexist and each can benefit the other.
One of the arguments against Christians being able to be good scientists is that they are too prone to personal bias. Sure, some Christians are prone to bias, but so is any scientist. Scientists are biased by their personal beliefs no matter where those beliefs…
Boyce, K.A. (2001). Do science and Christianity coexist? Bede's Library. Retrieved online: http://bede.org.uk/boyce.htm
"Famous Scientists Who Believed in God," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/sciencefaith.html
Lloyd, R. (2008). God and evolution can co-exist, scientist says. Live Science. Retrieved online: http://www.livescience.com/5195-god-evolution-exist-scientist.html
Samuel, S. (2011). Can science, creationism coexist? Christian Post. June 19, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.christianpost.com/news/can-science-and-creationism-coexist-one-christian-author-says-yes-51315/
Christian Worldview Nursing
Health care in the West and worldwide has undergone very extreme changes over the past decades. However, the basic principles of nursing like caring for the sick and elderly have remained consistent. While technology has changed radically since the days of Florence Nightingale, Christian caring in the nursing profession is still a foundational principle. It is this foundational principle that I seek to express in my ministering to my patients.
Christian Worldview and the Integration of Beliefs, Values, Ethics and Service
The definition of nursing for me symbolizes a set of beliefs, values, ethics and service. Nursing is after all a calling and a vocation, not just a job. In Judith Anne Shelly's book Called to Care, she defines nursing as distinct from medicine, even though the two occupy domains that are close together.
She defines it in a way that I find very familiar and similar…
Salt and light. (2012). Journal of Christian Nursing, 29(2), 74.
Shelly, J.A., & Miller, A.B. (2006). Called to care: A christian worldview for nursing. (2nd ed.).
Downer's Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press.
Beowulf experiences tough circumstances and because he does the right things, he emerges a hero and can live knowing he did the best he could. Here, responsibility leads to good works and, subsequently, a good life.
In "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight," we see Christian values displayed when Gawain accepts his responsibility in much the same way that Grendel does. hen examining the story of Sir Gawain, we cannot overlook the importance of chivalry, which is strongly associated with Christian ideals. Gawain maintain the knight's high ideals even when he under pressure. hen Gawain is traveling to the Green Chapel, he speaks with God, working out his own fear and uneasiness. The result of this conversation is a renewed sense of honor and a urgency to continue. Another example of how the poet intended Gawain to carry these ideals with him is in the pentangle, in which he describes…
Beowulf." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol I.M.H. Abrams, ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986. pp. 31-78.
Everyman." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol I.M.H. Abrams, ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986. pp. 347-67.
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986. pp. 233-87.
Christian Beginnings by M.S. Enslin
Morton Scott Enslin's book "Christian Beginnings" is about exactly what the title says. It deals with how Christianity came about, but it goes back much farther than Jesus Christ. Most information that deals with the beginning of Christianity starts out with Jesus and his followers, but Enslin does not get to that until Chapter 10, which is in part II of the book. The first part looks at the rule of Herod and an understanding of Judaism. While these are not specifically Christian in nature, they had to do with the beginnings of Christianity and they must be understood before the rise of Christianity is understood. The first part of the book talks about this understanding of what happened before Christianity came about, and the second part of the book is more familiar to Christians and those that have heard various teachings of the Christian…
Christian-Based Ethics in Business
Having strong ethics is vital to the success of an organization but often that component is bypassed in the name of profit. With a strong ethical foundation, an organization will perhaps face more obstacles but will also have a better opportunity for success and longevity. Society, particularly American society, has changed greatly within the past 50 years, and continues to evolve. And with those changes, value systems and the emphasis placed on them changes as well. At the same time, society has dealt with large technological advances. And of course, as knowledge and technology increase, new questions and situations arise to challenge society's morals and ethics. Inadvertent disclosure of information becomes more prevalent as more people become involved in document handling. And the more documents that are handled by more people, conflict of interest may arise, with the potential to threaten the organization.
Bagley, C.E., & Savage, D.W. (2010). Managers and the Legal Environment. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Harmeling, S., Sarasvathy, S., & Freeman, R. (2009). Related debates in ethics and entrepreneurship: Values, opportunities, and contingency. Journal of Business Ethics, 84(3), 341-365. doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9713-4.
Lee, S. (2009). Guiding your small-business clients through the downturn maze. Journal of Financial Planning, 22(5), 24-29. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.
Madsen, A. (2009). Navigating tough conflict of interest situations. Nonprofit World, 27(1), 18-19. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.
The moment when the line first cut into his hands in similar to the one when Christ's hands were nailed to the cross. Most readers are likely to make a connection between the two images at this point as the stigmata is an element which is present in both Santiago and in Christ.
Hemingway himself wants readers to be certain that the injured hand is an essential factor working as support to the comparison made between Christ and Santiago. The "Ay" exclamation also reinforces this belief. "There is no translation for this word and perhaps it is just a noise such a man might make, involuntarily, feeling the nail go through his hands and into the wood" (Hemingway, 1984, p. 82). Both the sufferings experienced by Christ and by Santiago have been made so that life will go on in peace.
Santiago stands as a living martyr (if such a…
1. Clark Pratt, John "My Pilgrimage: Fishing for Religion with Hemingway," The Hemingway Review 21.1 (2001).
2. Hemingway, Ernest. (1984). The old man and the sea. Barron's Educational Series.
3. Dunlavy Valenti, Patricia ed., Understanding the Old Man and the Sea: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002).
John Clark Pratt, "My Pilgrimage: Fishing for Religion with Hemingway," The Hemingway Review 21.1 (2001).
Diane seems to be undergoing many different problems that are present today because of her past. The way she was treated by her family and her husband now has gone to affect her psychologically and emotionally. The combination of post traumatic stress disorder, schizoaffective symptoms and previous satanic ritual abuse is very severe and psychological intervention is greatly required.
One of her presenting complaints is post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) PTSD is a form of anxiety disorder that occurs as an emotional reaction to something that occurred in the patient's life. This trauma could be pain, injury, threat, or death of a loved one. (Valente, 2010) Some common examples of traumatic disorders are natural disasters, military combat or terrorist incidents. It is normal to have an adverse or a stressed response to a traumatic event. Normally, people come to back to their usual state of mind…
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Brewin, C. And Holmes, E. (2003). Psychological theories of posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical psychology review, 23 (3), pp. 339 -- 376.
Clark, D. And Ehlers, A. (2004). Posstraumatic stress disorders from cognitive theory to therapy. In: Leahy, R. eds. (2004). Contemporary cognitive therapy: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Guilford, pp. 141-160.
Clohessy, S. And Ehlers, A. (1999). PTSD symptoms, response to intrusive memories and coping in ambulance service workers. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38 (3), pp. 251 -- 265.
Christian Spiritual Revival
From the time of creation rivals have been the greatest force in history. hrough revival human beings are brought out of darkness to live in the light. Revival in the Christian life is essentially a renewal of heart; a time of turning away from sin, which brings death, and a turning toward Jesus, who brings life. he word revival means to "live again," derived from two Latin roots re- (again), and vivere (to live). Just as an EM zaps the heart of his patient back to life with a surge of electricity, so to the Holy Spirit works in the life of individuals, and, at times, in whole Christian Communities to bring the back lost vitality; reawakening faith in God, and restores one's commitment to being His disciple. his paper will briefly explore four condition of an authentic spiritual revival found in II Chronicles 7:14, and comment…
The first two conditions for revival are humility and prayer. The word "humility" is derived from the Latin word humus, which means earth or ground. To be humble, then, suggest lowering oneself, toward the ground. It is necessary for revival because in making oneself, and one's opinions, lower or less important, one recognizes the One who is higher -- namely, Almighty God. After humility, prayer naturally follows. A great example of humility and prayer today comes from John Hamilton, a Texas Ranger outfielder, who recently admitted that his addiction to drugs and alcohol came about because he "took God out of first place."[footnoteRef:2] Now in recovery, Mr. Hamilton shares his story and tells people, "when you fail, God wants you to respond to it by coming to Him and asking for help."[footnoteRef:3] [2: Audrey Barrick, "Josh Hamilton Tells Megachurch 'God First,'" The Christian Post (November 8, 2008), http://www.christianpost.com/article/20101108/josh-hamilton-tells-megachurch-god-first (accessed November 2010).] [3: Ibid.]
The next two conditions for revival are seeking God and repentance. In order to live again, God says that one must seek his face and turn from their wicked ways. These two conditions show one motion, a turn, which has two effects. It calls the soul to turn away from evil and toward good. The revival of career criminal, Mark Rowan, sheds light on the awesome power of such a turn. According to his autobiography,[footnoteRef:4] Rowan led a dark life of crime and lawlessness until one day he came to Christ. He now leads hundreds of people to Christ through his dynamic testimony of faith. [4: Mark Rowan, Condemned: The Transformation of a Violent Gang Leader, (Monarch Books, 2008)]
As long as there is human frailty and weakness, there will be a need to heal, to be restored, and to live again. I experience this need for revival in my own life. I find myself being prideful, when I should be humble. At times, I pray only when I need things instead of out of love for the One who made me. I seek my own will instead of searching for God's face. And I do not always turn away from my wickedness. However, there are moments when the Holy Spirit's voice in my heart is discernable and I am able to be humble, prayerful, and close to God. I pray that these moments increase so that I can live again and again in the light of God's grace.
Greek bishops could also marry, although such alliances prevent them from rising in position in the church, where Roman priests took celibacy vows. Regarding doctrine, some could Latin approach as more practical and judicial, while the Greek was more speculative about the nature of the Godhead.
Martin Luther founded the Lutheran branch of Protestant Christianity. Luther rejected the authority of the Catholic Pope. The Bible alone was the ultimate authority for Luther. Salvation was by grace and by faith alone in Jesus Christ. Luther retained the sacraments of baptism, penance and Holy Communion and he held that in the Holy Communion the consecrated bread and wine are the Body and Blood of Christ
However, he rejected the ideas of purgatory, indulgences, invocation of the Saints, and prayers for the dead.
In contrast, while John Calvin also rejected the Pope, he believed that God alone could dispense salvation, holding to…
' At that moment, I came to realize that I have to set a good example for him by being strong and facing up to my circumstances. Remembering the special times that my mother and I shared as a little girl in our worship, I started going to church again and prayed to Him for help and guidance. Even today, I remember very clearly how I cried out to Him for help and asked Him what I should do in order to be saved. This was a turning point in my life because I felt so empty and lost but I knew in my heart that things were going to be okay.
One day not too long after this turning point in my life, I met a man who completely blew me away. At the time, I was with my friends visiting Las Vegas (I was not drinking anymore). We…
Paul notes that "For baptized persons, moreover, marriage invests the dignity of a sacramental sign of grace," (Ch. 8). Fourth, marriage mirrors the union of Christ and the Church. The union of marriage should be viewed as a sign and as proof of Christ's love.
The characteristics of marriage according to Paul include the following. First, marriage assumes "full human" characteristics by being of "the senses and of the spirit at the same time," (Ch. 9). Marriage and conjugal love permits people to contemplate their role as human beings, and the meaning of being human. The purely physical and mundane features of marriage are thereby elevated to become teaching tools for the soul. Marriage is, in this sense, a uniquely human duty. Conjugal love should be appreciated as a special feature of human life, as a means by which men and women can cultivate a relationship with God and the…
As to whether it makes a substantive difference whether a Christian enters into a partnership or a corporation with a non-Christian, Scripture does not offer a clear-cut answer to this. Paul advises in 2 Corinthians 6:14 "Be ye not equally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? And what communion hath light with darkness?" This might legitimately be construed to mean that one should not enter into a business partnership because this implies a relationship of equality. However, it is equally valid to come to the conclusion that the equality that Paul is referring to here is a spiritual one. So long as a Christian does not try to engage on an equal level in spiritual matters with a non-Christian, then she or he can engage in matters of the world.
James 4:4-5 offers some important insight into these questions. The key questions that the Christian…
Storms, S. (2008). The Life of the Church in the World vs. The Life of the World in the Church (2 Cor. 6:14-16a). Retrieved from http://www.enjoyinggodministries.com/article/the-life-of-the-church-in-the-world-vs.-the-life-of-the-world-in-the-church-2-cor-614-16a/
She references Romans 3: 23, 24: "…(23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, (24) and all are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus." (New International Version).
Ultimately, Hendricks informs, the comfort and safety of parents with autistic children must be revealed through "their faith that a sovereign God designed their child and planned all the days of his life before any had yet occurred"; to understand that, she references the words of the Old Testament, Psalm 139: 16: "Your eyes saw my unformed body; all the days ordained for me were written in your book, before one of them came to be…" (New International Version).
In the eb site Finding Noah a Christian mother explains that if you are a Christian and you are told your child has autism, remember what Jesus said (John 16: 33): "In…
Finding Noah. (2007). Autism in the Christian Family. Retrieved Dec. 23, 2010, from http://findingnoah.org /?page_id=20.
Google Health. (2010). Autism. Retrieved Dec. 22, 2010, from https://health.google.com/health/ref/autism .
Hendrickson, Laura. (2004). Autism Spectrum Disorders. Christian Counseling. Retrieved Dec. 23, 2010, from http://www.christiancounseling.com/en/articles/printview.asp?544 .
Hendrickson, Laura. (2009). Finding Your Child's Way on the Autism Spectrum: Discovering
The same goes for Christian literature. Non-secular literature can also benefit society by introducing individuals to faith-based ideas and can help individuals find their own truth within the scope of the world.
It is not impossible to discover different worldviews within a Christian context, but it can be argued that non-secular literature and contexts are inherently more able to do this because there is not an ulterior motive in the literature. That is to say that non-secular literature doesn't have to have the motive of teaching or sending a very specific message. In this way, secular literature can benefit society by encouraging openness to differences between people and cultures. Non-secular literature is also beneficial in that it can challenge individuals in different ways than Christian literature because it doesn't have to adhere to certain spiritual guidelines. Non-secular literature can encourage individuals to find their own beliefs within a certain text.
There is an idea of longstanding that humor has power as a curative. The Reader's Digest has long had a section entitled "Laughter: The Best Medicine," reflecting an old saying about this issue. In his book Laugh Again, Charles R. Swindoll approaches this idea from a Christian perspective, recognizing the many ills and sadnesses to which life is subject and finding in humor and laughter the means to overcome these ills and banish these sadnesses.
The author makes his intention clear in the Introduction when he says, "This book is about joy" (11). He wants people to relax more, release tension, and refuse to let negative circumstances dominate their thinking. Swindoll says we can all remember when life was joyful if we think back to our childhood, as he recalls his: "I neither expected much nor needed much. Life was to be enjoyed, not endured, and therefore every…
Swindoll, Charles R. Laugh Again. Dallas: World Publishing, 1992.
This individual, Mr. White, is going through a severe midlife crisis which is primarily manifested emotionally and economically, and is not uncommon for people in the U.S. after they have reached 40 years of age (Wethington, 2000, p. 85). Mr. White has had immense difficulties with his personal life and professional life. His wife of a few years had divorced him and moved to the other side of the country where she was raising their two daughters with another man. When she incurred legal problems, she required White's presence so the state would not take her daughters away. White currently lives with his ex-wife and their two daughters, who primarily function as his support system. The girls are both within five years old; there is no romance between White and his ex-wife. White's parents are both in their 90's and offer limited support across the country in California,…
Coates, G.W. (1973). Abraham's sacrifice of faith: a from-critical study of Genesis 22. Interpretation. 27( 4), 389-400.
Padley, J. (2011). 'Declare the interpretation': Redacting Daniel in early Bibles for English children. Biblical Interpretation. 19(3), 311-336.
Podmore, S.D. (2011). The sacrifice of silence: Fear and Trembling and the secret of faith. International Journal of Systematic Theology. 14(1), 70-90.
The Bible. New International Version. Retrieved from www.biblegateway.com
Finally, learning how to rely on and depend on others can help people rely on and depend on God. The exercise teaches the value of trust and shows that we can depend on other people as well as God.
7. Body Outline: Drawing an outline of the body is a helpful exercise for people who have eating disorders. It can help people recognize that their body image does not match the reality of their physical form. In some cases, drawing the body can bring up strong emotions. For this exercise, drawing the body outline enables participants to explore self-image: the lies we tell ourselves and the negative self-talk we bombard ourselves with throughout our life. We can see how some of these lies were perpetuated by parents, by peers, by the media, and by society. By exploring these lies, we can hopefully begin to see the truth: to see our…
The plight of Mr. And Mrs. J is troubling as there are many prominent presenting issues at an initial glance at their case. The most striking issue is the lack of affection these two people have for each other. The recent combining of families in this case is also very stark. While the situation is not dire, this relationship appears headed for doom and trouble if certain steps are not taken to remedy the situation.
The most dominant issue in this case appears to be the professional lives of these individuals. The modern family, as represented in this case, places much emphasis on work and career besides family. 60-hour work weeks for Mr. J. doesn't serve his families best emotional interests. The fact that Mrs. J feels she has to work as well also appears to violate God's laws in some antiquated ways. Overall there is a severe…
Brotto, L. (2009). The DSM Diagnostic Criteria for Sexual Aversion Disorder. Archive of Sexual Behavior. APA 2009. Retrieved from http://www.obgyn.ubc.ca/SexualHealth/documents/Brotto_DSM_Review_on_Sexual_Aversion_Disorder.pdf
e. non-conflict) situations. Applying the same techniques of maintaining a loving relationship and still communicating your own issues, while remaining calm and open to hearing the other person's complaints and issues, is a simplified way of viewing the majority of conflict management techniques.
Prioritization during conflicts, even those that ultimately lead to the dissolution of a relationship, is also essential to successfully managing the conflict (Chapman 340). Though conflicts ending in dissolution may make prioritization even more important (especially when there are kids involved), the same basic principles can be applied to any conflict. Instead of getting hung up on minor details or secondary problems, having the bravery, honesty, and insight to tackle the real underlying problems in the relationship is far more likely to lead to a satisfactory and frequently even a relationship-strengthening ending than petty bickering. Though this might seem quite obvious on the printed page, it can…
Chapman, Gary. The World's Easiest Guide to Family Relationships. New York: Northfield, 2001.
Parrott, Leslie & Parrott, Les. Saving Your marriage Before it Starts. New York: Zondervan, 1995.
The book of Joshua opens with an anecdote of a pivotal moment in the evolution of the Jewish people. Moses is now dead, and the people need a new, strong, and holy leader. The son of Moses's aide Nun is chosen. His name is Joshua. God chooses Joshua as Moses's successor for a reason. The Lord recognizes in Joshua the ability to keep the commandments sacred, to keep the covenant with God sacred, and to also manage and lead the Israelites. The Lord tells Joshua, "Be strong and courageous, because you will lead these people to inherit the land I swore to their ancestors to give them," (Joshua 1:6). However, God does not simply appoint Joshua as the new leader of the Jewish people and let him fend for himself. God is with Joshua, and promises to guide him as long as he remains a servant of God.…
Holy Bible. New International Version.
McDonald, M. (2008). Joshua 1:9. Retrieved online: http://peebles.wordpress.com/2008/11/13/joshua-19-niv-have-i-not-commanded-you-be-strong-and-courageous-do-not-be-terrified-do-not-be-discouraged-for-the-lord-your-god-will-be-with-you-wherever-you-go/
Christian Counseling Scenario
What are the client's most prominent presenting issues (that is, what seems to take priority as being wrong)?
In the case of Leon, a 52-year-old man with a dysfunctional childhood who has been unable to experience life in typical fashion, the most prominent presenting issue is definitely the individual's lack of emotional capacity and general apathy, both of which are obviously symptoms of a deeply repressed psychological trauma. The circumstances described in the introduction to Leon's case, wherein his eventually divorced parents both suffered from chemical dependency and addiction, while the father inflicted sever emotional and physical abuse, is extremely typical in terms of being connected to later symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV Text evision (DSM-IV T), "diagnostic criteria for PTSD include a history of exposure to a traumatic event that meets specific stipulations and…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
(4th ed., text rev.). Washington, D.C.
This is why seeking out the advice and counseling of a sex therapist is not only tolerable according to Christian dogma, but could even be seen as essential in many instances. God does not create problems simply so that human beings can sit back and pray that God fixes them -- there are always things that humans can do to improve their situation. We our responsible for feeding ourselves; if we accept that responsibility, God will make sure we do not starve. The same is true of sexual health -- taking an active step to correct or address any sexual problems that might arise invites God's assistance into the problem as well, and can be an opportunity to strengthen faith in God and religion even more.
This does not even touch upon the procreative aspect of sex, and although sexuality and sex itself is important for more than simple procreative…
Cahill, L. (1996). Sex, gender, and Christian ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
De La Torre, M. (2007). A Lily Among the Thorns: Imagining a New Christian Sexuality. San Francisco: Wiley.
Foster, L. (1984). Religion and sexuality: the Shakers, the Mormons, and the Oneida Community. New York: Oxford University Press.
Grenz, S. (1997). Sexual ethics: An Evangelical perspective. Louisville, KY: Knox.
Luther feels that it is through Christ that man can attain salvation and not through soul or spiritual deeds alone. By Christ, he was probably referring to one's faith in Lord. He writes: He writes:
One thing, and only one thing, is necessary for Christian life, righteousness, and freedom. That one thing is the most holy Word of God, the gospel of Christ, as Christ says, John 11[:25], "I am the resurrection and the life: he who believes in me, though he die yet shall he live"; and John 8[:36], "So if the Son makes you free, you will be free indeed."
Luther maintained that Christian liberty is prescribed in the word of God which is "the gospel of God concerning his Son, who was made flesh, suffered, rose from the dead, and was glorified through the Spirit who sanctifies." Luther felt that one must have immense faith in the…
Lutheran Book of Worship (Minneapolis: Augsburg; Philadelphia: Board of Publication, LCA, 1978)
The Freedom of a Christian (1520), LW 31:344.
Karl Marx, Critique of Hegel's "Philosophy of Right," ed. Joseph O'Malley (Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1970) 138.
The Bondage of the Will (1525), LW 33:67.
S/he must therefore implement correction and rehabilitation measures as the courts of the country see fit for the convicted individual. However, the compromise would be the kind of treatment the convicted individual gets from the Christian practitioner. As a person of faith, s/he must recognize also that the person is an individual who might have shown deviant behavior to society, but s/he is nevertheless a person who must be treated equally despite his/her unfortunate circumstance (i.e., incarceration) (McCrudden, 2008:659).
Preservation of human dignity in the face of legal punishment is the compromise that is developed as the Christian practitioner tries to achieve the balance of maintaining criminal justice as both a profession and a vocation. And what about love and forgiveness, which also comes into play as one tries to understand the unfortunate circumstances of other people who are punished by the legal system? Convicted individuals deserve the love and…
Bottoms, A. And J. Tankebe. (2012). "Beyond procedural justice: a dialogic approach to legitimacy in criminal justice." The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, Vol. 102, No. 1.
McCrudden, C. (2008). "Human dignity and judicial interpretation of human rights." The European Journal of International Law, Vol. 19, No. 4.
"Responsibility, rehabilitation, and restoration: a Catholic perspective on crime and criminal justice." United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Official Website. Accessed on April 19, 2014. Accessed at: http://www.usccb.org/issues-and-action/human-life-and-dignity/criminal-justice-restorative-justice/crime-and-criminal-justice.cfm
Biblical quotes/verses. Open Bible Official Website. Accessed on April 19, 2014. Accessed at: http://www.openbible.info/
ince neither of those explanations is likely (let alone knowable), philosophical naturalists would have to doubt that the universe exists at all; yet, very clearly, it does. The most likely explanation for the existence of the universe is simply that some force or consciousness (i.e. God) caused whatever the so-called "first cause" of existence was.
The second major philosophical assumption of philosophical naturalism presupposes that all philosophical postulates must, necessarily, fit the scientific model. However, that supposition clearly closes off many possible explanations simply because they may lie outside of human understanding. Again, that position is an a priori assumption that also violates the first major philosophical assumption of philosophical naturalism. In essence, it suggests that scientific concepts provide the only possible set of tools for understanding phenomena, including phenomena that obviously defy scientific explanation such as miracles and faith. Most importantly, it automatically (and in a manner that is…
Friedman, M. (1997). "Philosophical Naturalism." Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association. Accessed online, October 15, 2011, from:
Hawking, S. (1990). A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. Bantam Publishing: New York.
At the same time, Jesus offered human beings hope for salvation. It was not just through his miracles and his teachings that Jesus proved he was the true son of God. Through his death and resurrection, Jesus illustrated that mankind is in dire need of divine assistance in overcoming evil. I look to Jesus as both role model and as symbol of hope, especially in times of darkness and despair. Jesus is all that is good in humanity: unconditional love, compassion, and kindness.
I have found that if I look to Jesus and take Him into my heart, I can overcome temptation and ill will and experience a taste of salvation. Salvation involves as much grace as it does hard work. Salvation always entails faith and unwavering belief. I believe that some suffering is essential for all human beings and that if we are willing to endure our suffering and…
Human beings, while being superior, are nonetheless part of the physical world and subject to its laws.
Mankind is made in His image and is therefore distinct from the rest of creation
This belief is central to the dichotomy outlined above: human beings are part of the physical world, but also part of God. On the basis of this inner divinity, humankind is given the right to claim superiority to their nonhuman surroundings.
Mankind is to rule over God's earthly creation
This belief is central to the concept of humankind's separation from and superiority to nature. Nature is to be manipulated according to the needs and requirements of humanity. Technology instead of agriculture plays a large role in this manipulation. In terms of early Christianity, the use of technological tools to manipulate nature is seen as part of the divine directive to rule over creation.
Time is diachronic and headed…
All of these steps are easy to take and can help protect the Earth. Developing renewable energy sources is also an important step Christians should take regarding preserving the environment.
The commercial energy consumption, in the United States alone, in 2006, was 1,994,876 kilotons of oil equivalent. The most disturbing part of that figure is that only 8.41% of that energy came from renewable electricity production ("Energy"). Investment in research and development for technology to efficiently harness renewable energy sources is critical. In addition to investment in new technology, large energy consuming countries, such as the United States, need to take advantage of current technology to utilize renewable energy sources -- like wind.
In 2004, the United States generated 6,740 M of power with wind turbines. However, other, smaller countries have taken greater advantage of this inexpensive, clean, renewable source of power. Germany produced 16,629 M of power with wind…
Air Pollution. United Nations, Oct. 2009. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/environment/ODS_Consumption.htm .
Climatological Disasters. United Nations, Oct. 2009. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/environment/Climatological_disasters.htm .
Energy. United Nations. Sept. 2009. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/environment/Energy.htm .
Greenhouse Gas Emissions. United Nations, Aug. 2009. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/environment/air_co2_emissions.htm .
At its core, McGrath's work is an attempt to take a logical structure to the deeply rooted mysteries of the bible. His purpose is to draw conclusions regarding the nature of Christian Theology through the application of scientifically derived, systematic logical constructs. Does he succeed? In some ways yes, he does expose the complexities-or contradictory-ideals that have persisted since the dawn of the philosophy. McGrath is very adept at drawing parallels that can cause an individual to question the very nature of Christian Theology. Ultimately, however, in my opinion, McGrath takes full advantage of his analysis to not simply lay open the main theories of Christianity to be picked at and over analyzed but rather, through analogy makes the supposition and the case-quite persuasively-that Christians think the way they do because of an unrelenting, unwavering trust or "faith" in a divine presence they cannot…
This course changed my concept of what it meant to be a Christian in three fundamental ways, all focused on what it means to me to be a Christian in modern society, rather than on the theological underpinnings of Christianity. This course helped me realize that Christianity is not merely a system of belief, which is how many people conceive of religion. Instead, Christianity must be a combination of action and belief. However, it also made me more committed to some of the fundamental underpinnings of Christian theology, which I had admittedly abandoned in my own desire to equate being a Christian with being a good person and trying to do the right thing. However, reading this book, I came to the realization that I was failing to embrace all of Christianity. Just as it is necessary, but not sufficient, to be a good person in order to honestly…
Towns, Elmer. (2007). Core Christianity. Chattanooga: AMG Publishers.
After taking the course and learning a lot of different concepts, I have asked myself at least a 100 times, what does it mean to be a Christian? Does being a Christian mean just going to church on Sunday mornings? Or bible study on Wednesday nights, and then after that you take a break from being a Christian and go on a week vacation? I bring this up because I have seen this behavior more and more, particularly in close friends. Many people are going around wearing the "What Would Jesus Do?" bracelet on their wrists and wearing the Jesus shirts, nevertheless in my opinion where is the change process? Are these people living their lives like a Christian? Is there an obvious alteration in them after they have acknowledged Christ? With that said, I will address the following principles that I have learned throughout this course that have…
Anderson (2000) converses spiritual oppression and how Satan and his fallen angels are in the process of trying to overpower the believers will. He also provides the phases to independence, for example: fake vs. factual, dishonesty vs. truth, resentment vs. tolerance, revolt vs. obedience, arrogance vs. self-effacement, and oppression vs. lack of restrictions. Fake vs. real step show how we need to absorb to recognize God's certainty so we do not fall into Satan's trap. If fall for these tricks of deception then we automatically give up God's truth for what is considered a lie. Dishonesty vs. truth shows that we should battle Satan's trickery with God's reality. If we become deceived then we must do away with any misleading views for the truth that will bring us our liberation.
Bitterness vs. forgiveness is showing us that we do not need to harbor that illness in our hearts because Satan…
A., H.D. (1999). The Anxiety Cure: You Can Find Emotional Tranquility and Wholeness. Thomas Nelson, Inc. .
Adams, E.J. (1986). How to Help People Change: The Four- Step Biblical Process. Grand Rapids: Zondervan .
Anderson, T.N. (1990). The Bondage Breaker: Overcoming Negative Thoughts, Irrational Feelings and Habitual Sins. . Boston: House Publishers, Inc.
Backus, W.C. (1980). Telling Yourself the Truth: Find Your Way Out of Depression, Anxiety, Fear, Anger and Other Common Problems by Applying the Priciples of Misbelief Therapy . Grand Rapids: Bethany Publishing Group.
A worldview essentially denotes the framework of beliefs, ideas, philosophies, or ideologies that shapes how an individual or a group of individuals make sense of the world (Cosgrove, 2006). For instance, a three-year-old child believes that the world revolves around them. Equally, a secular humanist’s life is driven by the belief that only the material world exists. In essence, everyone has a worldview – whether conscious or unconscious. For Christians, the Bible is the ultimate influencer of their worldview. Christians believe that the sole reason for human existence is to serve God. This means that every action, decision, and emotion is driven by the desire to serve God. That is the fundamental attribute of a worldview – it influences every aspect of an individual’s life. It affects how an individual interprets the character of the world, human nature, and the purpose of life (Hiles & Smith, n.d.). Christians have their…
In contrast, the exterior was almost undecorated" (25). Another significant church that was built contemporaneously with the Hagia Sophia was the cruciform Church of the Holy Apostles (536-546), which featured five domes (Nickel).
Figure 3. Cross-domed church. Most important type of ground-plan of the Middle Byzantine period. In addition to the central dome, more elaborate examples have domes over the corner chapels -- quincunx. From the tenth century onwards, the cross-domed church becomes widespread throughout Bulgaria. In Russia it develops into the dominant church type of the Middle Ages, the cruciform domed church. (Church of Theofokos, Monastery of Hosios Lukas, Greece, tenth century)
Source: Nickel 25
Constantine clearly set the architectural bar very high, and Christian architects would be hard pressed to match the Hagia Sophia in terms of size, organization and decorations, but the structure was clearly a model for future efforts. In this regard, Nickel reports that, "Compared…
Curran, John R. Pagan City and Christian Capital: Rome in the Fourth Century. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2000.
Giliberto, Tracy. (2010). Fish Eaters. [Online]. Available: http://www.fisheaters.com/church building.html.
Hodges, Richard. (1996, May). "Aphrodite's Temple at Knidos." History Today 46(5): 61-63.
He says, "The South was right, my friends, there is no doubt about it" (Taft and Holleman). Thus, the Christian Identity movement is strongly connected with one's personal feelings towards Jews and those of non-Anglo-Saxon origin, seeing them as obstacles. Robin succinctly defines these problems when he lists the basic beliefs of the Christian Identity movement. Robin states that the Christian Identity members believe in a "very conservative interpretation of the Christian Bible" in addition to their beliefs about race and descendants" (Fairley para. 21).
Although their beliefs are certainly rooted in ancient history, the Christian Identity movement does not act in a way that truly supports Christian beliefs for two reasons. First, they both ignore the doctrine that Christianity is for everyone and use violence. The fact that Christianity is for everyone is seen not only through the way that many mainstream churches act today, but also through Biblical…
Fairley, Allison. "Christian Identity Movement." The University of Virginia. 1998. The
Religious Movement's Homepage. 5 June 2009.
Ruthven, Malise. Fundamentalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Tuft, Carolyn & Joe Holleman. "Inside the Christian Identity Movement." The Ross
St. Justin was one of the earliest Christian apologists, and his Apology of the second century helps trace the laying of the Christian dogmatic foundation. The faith, as expressed by Justin, contains several of the elements that established the Christian religion as a religion founded by God Himself -- and as Justin composed his Apology as a defense of Christianity against paganism, it takes pains to explain exactly what Christians were expected to believe. Justin is mentioned by Tertullian as being both a philosopher and a Church martyr who, along with a handful of other early Christian martyrs, was slain in ome for defending the Faith. That Faith was largely recorded in Justin's First Apology, one of the earliest records of Church teaching on the subject of the Eucharist. Justin's writings survive today because they like so many others were preserved and collected along by the early faithful and the…
Barnett, P. (2003). Is the New Testament Reliable? IL: InterVarsity Press.
Lindberg, C. (2006). A Brief History of Christianity. UK: Blackwell Publishing.
Robinson, J.A.T. (2000). Redating the New Testament. Eugene, or: Wipf & Stock
Ethical Dilemmas: Pornography
Biblically, God requires Christians to please Him in everything they do. Whether it is in secret or overtly, in thoughts or behaviour, Christians have a duty to portray Christ-like behaviour every moment of their life (Hiles & Smith, n.d.). Nonetheless, compliance with biblical teachings is not always as easy as portrayed by the Bible. In the course of their Christian walk, Christians often encounter situations of dilemma. These are basically situations in which it is not exactly clear whether doing something is right or wrong. Such situations especially arise when the Bible does not offer a straightforward solution or when the act in question appears to harm no one. Pornography is one of the issues that may present a dilemma for a Christian. Does the Bible allow pornography? Is engaging in pornography morally right given that it does not harm others? This essay discusses the ethical dilemmas…
This is not necessarily a bad thing, as this might mean that these individuals acknowledge the fact that Christian messages are powerful and refrain from falling victim to prejudice when it comes to being a believer. Acting without considering matters at first can have a damaging effect on individuals because they might fall victim to producing incorrect interpretations of the gospel.
4. People who use intellectual principles in rejecting Christianity are motivated by ration and by their unwillingness to accept unfounded matters. It seems irrational for an intellectual individual to accept the concept of a person dying and coming back to life. Non-religious people who are guided by intellectual principles support science and feel that it directly contradicts religion. They tend to interpret the gospel literally and thus feel that it is similar to a work of fiction. Seeing the overall history of Christianity and the way that many individuals…
Christian Coalition in the eligious ight
Explaining the ole of the Christian Coalition
The role of the Christian Coalition (CC) during the latter half of the 20th century was to rebuild the eligious ight () movement into a permanent grass roots political organization that would support policies and candidates favored by the eligious ight at all levels, especially at the local level. Under the leadership of alph eed, the CC adopted political pragmatism and professionalism giving the more political influence than it had in the past.
At the time the Christian Coalition was created, the Moral Majority (which played an important role in the election of onald eagan in1980) was closing, and the Americans for obertson (the successor of the Freedom Council created for Pat obertson's campaign for the epublican nomination for president in 1988) was drifting (Martin 1996, 300-301, 304, 308). The was without an effective and enduring political…
Martin, W. 1996. With God on Our Side. The Rise of the Religious Right in America. New York,
NY: Broadway Books.
Christianity and the Environment
Despite the popular view that many Christians believe environmental issues to be unimportant and indeed incompatible with their core beliefs, there are many more who believe quite the opposite. Many Christians today take environmental issues to heart (McDermott 2011), believing that it is not only the right of the faithful to inhabit and "rule over" the earth, but also their duty to protect this environment. In fact, the majority of Christians have embraced the idea of environmental protection and action to curb climate change without feeling that such action is incompatible with their basic faith. Hence, despite the historic tendency to exploit the earth and its resources under license of their "special" place in creation, Christians today believe that the biblical idea of "mastery" also means protection. Even prominent institutions such as the Vatican believe in the importance of protecting the earth, while the faithful on…
Deem, R. 2009. Is Christianity Anti-Environmental? Evidence for God, Jul. 7. Web. http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/environment.html
DeWitt, Calvin B. And Nash, Robert. 2009. Christains and the Environment: How Should Christians Think About the Environment? Christian Research Institute, Feb 28. Web. http://www.equip.org/articles/christians-and-the-environment-how-should-christians-think-about-the-environment/
DeYoung, Donald. 2012. Should Christians be Concerned About the Environment? Web. https://christiananswers.net/q-eden/edn-c021.html
McDermott, Mat. 2011. Stewardship Over Creation: Christianity & The Environment. TreeHugger. Web. http://www.treehugger.com/culture/stewardship-over-creation-christianity-the-environment.html
Concise Summary of Theory
Christian counseling is usually rooted in both Biblical truths and in psychological research. In Telling Yourself the Truth and How to Help People Change, the authors discuss how to counsel from within a Christian theoretical perspective. Although these two books have different areas of focus, their core messages are the same: change is to be instigated by God and sustained in the light of Christ.
The authors view traditional psychological theories such as psychoanalysis as being helpful as starting points, but no longer relevant from either a scientific or a spiritual perspective. Therefore, Backus & Chapain (2000) and Adams (1986) infuse psychology with Christian concepts. Christian concepts, drawn directly from the Bible and its parables, can help the individual see his or her life in a new and more accurate light.
Specifically, How to Help People Change defines change within a Christian context, whereas Telling…
Adams, J.E. (1986). How to Help People Change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
Backus, W. & Chapain, M. (2000). Telling Yourself the Truth. Minneapolis: Bethany House.
Prayer and the Death of Christ
Christian living today entails a number of important doctrines and actions, all aimed towards uplifting the individual's soul to a better relationship with God. As such, the Bible acts as a guide towards better Christian living and having a close and fulfilling relationship with the divine. Particularly, two doctrines that are central to Christian living include prayer and the death of Christ. Particularly, prayer helps the Christian individual to communicate with God on various levels, while Christ's death has profound meaning as the central premise of Christianity.
The Bible Encyclopedia (n.d.) defines prayer as a "conversation with God," in which the individual addresses God directly. Prayer can be offered either orally or mentally. A person can be in constant or occasional prayer, and it can be either spontaneous or formal. In the Bible, several phrases have been used to describe prayer, including…
Bible Encyclopedia (n.d.) Prayer. Retrieved from: http://christiananswers.net/dictionary/prayer.html
Bredenhof, W. (2012). The meaning of Christ's Death. Retrieved from: http://www.theseed.info/sermon.php?id=855
Elwell, W.A. (2014). Death of Christ. Bible Study Tools. Retrieved from: http://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionaries/bakers-evangelical-dictionary/death-of-christ.html
Von Buseck, C. (2014). Three Keys To Answered Prayer. Christian Broadcasting Network. Retrieved from: http://www.cbn.com /spirituallife/biblestudyandtheology/discipleship/vonbuseck_threekeysprayer.aspx
Christian knows the earliest verses in the ible. The ook of Genesis proclaims powerfully, that man was created in the image of God. We are also told that Man was created so that he could hold "dominion" over all of other God's creation. Yet, soon after, there was the Fall. And God cast Man out of the Garden of Eden to suffer on earth burdened by the pains of the Original Sin. Through Christ's advent and resurrection, we are informed that Christ was also the image of God and also in the image of Man; and, that we have a way out from our sinful ways. The doctrine of the Image of God emerges as a powerful mandate for good Christian Living. The rewards are eternal salvation and the restoration to how we were originally created. As the book of Revelations relates, the consequences of not doing so would consign…
Baker, W.H. (1991). In the image of God: a biblical view of humanity. Chicago: Moody Press.
Edwards, R.B. (1972). Reason and religion; an introduction to the philosophy of religion. New York,: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Kazantzakis, N. (1960). The last temptation of Christ. New York,: Simon and Schuster.
Masson, R. (1982). The Pedagogy of God's image: essays on symbol and the religious imagination. Chico, CA: Scholars Press.