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Christianity and Hinduism are among the major religions in the world. Christianity being one of the world tremendous religions has the largest number of followers. This is as a result of forces that accompanied the civilization of the western world, which has contributed a lot in terms of social and material hence, out doing other religions. Many people have attained highest levels of spiritual realization, faith and beatitude through the practice of Christianity. This has lead to self-evident work and teachings contributing to the understanding that God is unquestionable[footnoteRef:1]. Hinduism can also be associated with the Hindus civilization which spread throughout Asia and the rest of the world. It is from Hinduism that emerged the Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism. Many Hindus find themselves in a majority of Christian nations, Due to ever increasing need to migrate and this has lead to isolation of many Hindus from the existing communities, therefore;…… [Read More]
2, 4:16). Flesh and spirit, accordingly, work together to help the man serve God, and are both are good. In this way, it is not just soul that deserves to return at the end of days but body too and this is what Meursault along with many others are unaware of. That Christianity is not just about hankering of immortality of the soul and does not separate itself to solely focus on the soul. On the contrary, Christianity, at least early Christianity, saw the body as equally good, and placing little focus on immortality of the soul, accentuated immortality of both: body as well as soul.
Meursault may have refused to fantasize about the continuation of a soul saying that Christianity was wrong in passing out hope for immortality. Whilst correct in his avowal to base life on a reality, Meursault would have been astounded to discover that it…… [Read More]
Christianity and Buddhism
From the time the man first walked on the globe, they have divided and segregated themselves into different and diverse categories of cultures, religions, race and ethnicity. Therefore, it can be well sated that the humans belong to diverse and different civilizations and cultures that give them a unique social and cultural identification and distinguish them from others in terms of background, ways of thinking, norms, rituals, values and so forth. Viewing this aspect, the thesis statement is "Even though both the religions Christianity and Buddhism are conceived by mankind, yet they are very different and diverse religions from one another due to their origins, belief systems, and even rituals."
Christianity and Buddhism are two of the commonly and widely practiced religions by millions of people that are scattered in many nations of the world. Numerous differences have been found in both the religions that include their…… [Read More]
Subsequently, other Daoist sages who were influential include Yu, Shun, and Yao. The principle early Daoist text was written by unknown individuals in the 3rd century BC and based on the earlier teachings of Lao Zi. Unlike most other religions Daoism does not emphasize any specific doctrines or beliefs, instead focusing mainly on the mechanisms for teaching and sharing communal values. The most popular deity accepted by Daoists is Guan Di, a 3rd century BC military leader who was executed.
Confucius lived in the 5th and 6th centuries BC, exactly at the same time as Buddha. It is believed that Confucius encountered Lao Zi and that Lao Zi tried to convince Confucius that he was excessively concerned with logical ethics instead of appreciating the natural ways of the world. Confucius authored many texts but they were not compiled into sacred works until the 3rd century, when his followers…… [Read More]
The two documents agree with each other in preserving monasteries from episcopal interference, and thus are in sympathy with the Benedictine spirit (Bettenson, 1972). Chapter III of the Council is sweeping in its prohibition: 'That no bishop shall in any way interfere with any monasteries dedicated to God nor take away forcibly any part of their property'. Canons of the penitential grant to the monastic community the right of selecting its own abbot (canons I and III). Moreover, the sins or errors of abbots do not give grounds to a bishop to seize monastic property (canon V). Also consistent with Benedictinism is the disapproval expressed against double monasteries in canon VIII:
All the way through the next two centuries, Britain experienced the reintroduction of Christianity and the political amalgamation of England. Christianity was reintroduced to Britain from two fronts: Ireland and ome. The Irish Celtic church which had been…… [Read More]
They used concepts with which pagans had long been familiar to construct a world in which individuals could no longer roam alone, without the benefit of priests, and be safe. Medieval theologians complicated what had once been simple, if at time frightening. One can infer from this that the medieval mind viewed the world as dangerous; magic had been one way to control it. However, it appeared that magic sometimes failed. It would be tempting, then, to accept a belief system that promised it would never fail, at least not in the long run, in the next life. That there was no way to empirically prove the truth of this would not have bothered the medieval mind very much; after all, they had been long used to accepting the invisible and ineffable in the far less ordered cosmos of the pagan world.
Hillgarth, J.N., ed. 1986. Christianity and…… [Read More]
Christianity vs. Islam: Interpreting the Bible and Koran
Christianity and Islam interpret this event very similarly; both the Koran and the Bible acknowledge that Abraham was willing to make a "tremendous sacrifice" in this particular event (Shamoun, 2003). The difference however, between the Koran and the Bible rests in the name of Abraham's son. For example the bible says as follows:
By faith, Abraham, when he was tested, offered up Isaac, and he who had received the promises was ready to offer up his only son..." (Hebrews, 11:17; Shamoun, 2003).
The bible then, affirms that Isaac was offered up to God. The Koran however claims that Ishmael however, was offered up by Abraham as his only son. Muslims support this claim by affirming the notion that the Bible states that Abraham offered his "only son" who had to be Ishmael (Shamoun, 2003). Christians argue however that Isaac was…… [Read More]
Christianity vs. Islam vs. Hinduism
Comparing and Contrasting Christianity with Islam and Hinduism
Christianity, Hinduism and Islam are among the five most practiced religions in the world. Christianity, with its top position, shares common grounds with both Hinduism and Islam. However, there are several differences that make Christianity a unique religion in comparison with Hinduism and Islam.
Christianity and Islam
Christianity and Islam are Abrahamic religions and monotheistic in nature. Abrahamic religions are the ones in which Prophet Abraham is regarded as the ancestor and patriarch of the followers. Monotheism means to believe in the Oneness of God or to believe in one god as the Creator, Master and Sustainer of the Universe. The belief that there are multiple gods ruling the universe is strictly disapproved in both the religions. Instead, they firmly believe that there is only one God who has supremacy and authority over the whole creation.…… [Read More]
In this way, I would show that Christianity is the one true faith.
Christianity's Old Testament is founded in the Jewish faith. Yet, the major beliefs of this religion, without the acknowledgment that Jesus is the prophesied Messiah, has made it a religion completely separate. There are critical theological differences in the two faiths, including Judaism's belief that man is inherently good. The conversion processes to Judaism, no matter what the sect, is a lengthy process of study as well as physical rites. In addition, Judaism has significant objections to Christianity, as well as the Islamic faiths. For this reason, if I were to share Christianity with a Jewish individual, I would start with the similarities between the two faiths and then show how Christianity is based on the word of God, not the word of man.
Epstein, L. (2009). The conversion process. etrieved July 22, 2009, from…… [Read More]
The way they are different, is Christianity is not as strict in areas such as: the consumption of alcohol and sex. While Islam, forbids the use of alcohol and will allow men to have more than one wife. The combination of these factors is showing how the two religions are similar and different. (Malloy, 1942) (Shipp, 2002) (Shenk, 1980) (Kidd, 2009)
Please read the chapter on Jehovah's witnesses in the Cults, World eligion and you text. How would you evaluate the New World Translation as a sacred text?
The New World Translation and sacred text are where Jehovah's Witnesses are rejecting many of the ideas of traditional Christianity. Instead, they are focusing on a several different principles to include: to deny that God is a spirit vs. An active force, the lack of faith in the belief of Christ as the savior, the view that only 144 thousand will be…… [Read More]
Christianity and Islam
Both Christianity and Islam are so much a part of human civilization that it is hard to imagine a world without them. However, both these major world religions began as humble sects with a small group of followers. That small group grew and grew, until it became large enough to amass significant political, financial, and cultural capital. Via a series of religious crusades, both Christianity and Islam used violence, force, and multiple types of warfare to impose their dogmatic belief systems on the indigenous peoples in conquered regions. Therefore, these two religions highlight the role of religion as a means of social control. The religions continue to serve as means of social control, but currently conversions are more common than crusades.
Moreover, the history and evolution of Christianity and Islam show how religion can become a unifying force. Christianity and Islam both united disparate people and diverse…… [Read More]
Papal authority is challenged by Protestants, who generally support a more personal relationship between the individual and the divine.
However, all Christians share several fundamental philosophical beliefs in common, including monotheism; dualism; sin and salvation. These beliefs are expressed through the Christian worldview, concepts of afterlife, and commentary on the major metaphysical problem of human existence: sin.
First, monotheism precludes anyone sympathetic to polytheistic worship from completely embracing Christianity, although Catholic veneration of saints can approximate such an approach to the divine. Second, dualism pervades Christianity and has powerfully influenced the worldview of most persons in Western society. The notions of absolute good and absolute evil are central concepts in Christianity, influencing moral philosophy as well as concepts of afterlife. For instance, the Christian afterlife is divided into Heaven and Hell, both of which are considered to be eternal states of being. Dualism provides a simple means of dividing human…… [Read More]
It should be clear that the basic underlying concepts of both Christianity and Islam are remarkably similar. Yet despite these similarities, different interpretations of the two religions' theologies concerning the ethos and telos have created many conflicts over the centuries. Oddly, it is similar interpretations of these theological imperatives that has led to the misunderstandings between the people of these religions. Both religions have an underlying purpose, or telos, of reuniting its adherents with God/Allah after death through service and devotion in life (Smith 1991; Ibrahim et al. 1997). This has played out in different ways throughout history in the two religions; different sects in both religions have at certain times interpreted this telos in a way that demands the unification of this world under the theology of only one belief system. Certain branches of Islamic mysticism or Sufism promote the idea that this world is a fragmentation of…… [Read More]
The way in which Dr. George and the film's makers are able to step back from the epic conflict currently waging in some parts of the world and many people's minds and present an accurate and fair picture of these two world religions in union with each other is truly remarkable, and evidence of how much he cares not just about the people of his own religion -- who believe exactly the things he believes -- but for all of humanity.
In a world full of the news of the horrors of religion, from Muslim suicide bombers to bigotry and hatred being spouted from Christian fundamentalists, this film points out the good that religion is capable of and ultimately consists of. That is the greatest similarity between Christianity and Islam, and in almost any religion or spiritual belief system: love for other humans is paramount, and that love comes from…… [Read More]
Called "outward signs of inward grace" by the Catholic Encyclopedia online, the sacraments form an integral part of Christian ritual worship (Kennedy). However, the ways the sacraments are interpreted and valued by various Christian sects differs greatly. Seven sacraments were outlined in the 12th century by the Roman Catholic Church: Baptism, Communion (Holy Eucharist), Confirmation, Penance, Anointing of the Sick (or Extreme Unction), Holy Orders, and Marriage. After the schism within Catholicism that split the Church into Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic, both factions still recognized the seven sacraments. However, they interpreted the philosophical meanings of the sacraments differently and in many cases administer the sacraments differently. On the other hand, Protestant churches hold only two of the seven sacraments as being essential: Baptism and Communion. Some Protestant denominations also recognize Penance as an essential sacrament. ithin the Protestant Church, baptism and communion are called "ordinances" rather than sacraments.…… [Read More]
Decius had come to the throne at a particularly crucial time. Rome had just celebrated its one thousandth year of rule in 247, but the Goths had attacked Rome in 248. Decius had forced the Goths out of the Danube provinces and in return had been hailed emperor by his troops (he would die fighting the Goths in June 251). In the midst of this crisis, Decius appealed to the gods of the empire for help in restoring it. Forces that interfered with a harmonious relationship between the Romans and the gods were to be eliminated. That meant the Christians. Although the persecution did not last long, it was the first general persecution of the Christians by Roman authorities and was to be repeated again under the Emperor Valerian in 257-260 and under Diocletian with the great persecution, which began on February 23, 303.
Doran also point out…… [Read More]
Barron, obert. n.d. The Evangelical Task within the Context of the Contemporary Culture. USCCB. 6 May 2009 .
Bnaiyer Website. n.d. Goals of Christianity. 6 May 2009
Christianity Oasis. 2009. Creation Story. 6 May 2009
El-Hadi, Nehal. 2005. Islam and the Nature of the Universe. Islam Online. 6 May 2009
Fenton, John. n.d. Mark's Gospel. Trinity UC Plymouth. 6 May 2009
Kim, Bockja. n.d. Transcendental Knowledge -- The Goal (Telos) of Human Activities -- East And West. The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. 6 May 6, 2009 .
Knight, Kevin. 2009. Christianity. New Advent. 6 May 2009
Smith, Huston. The World's eligions Our Great Wisdom Traditions. New York: Harper
The Columbia Encyclopedia. 2007. Islam. Bartleby. 6 May 2009
University of Wyoming. n.d.a Christianity's Cosmos. 6 May 2009
University of Wyoming. n.d.b Islam's Notion of the Cosmos. 6 May…… [Read More]
Sixth, Muslim morality is very similar to both Christianity and Judaism, due to marriage and family being of the utmost importance. Lastly, Muslims adhere to the concept of Jihad which basically means "the continual, inner spiritual struggle for submission to Allah in which all Muslims must engage in on a daily basis." This concept is very similar to what Christians practice, being a daily struggle to become closer to God and his Son, Jesus Christ, via prayer, worship and contemplation (Livingston, 2004, 256).
Likewise, there are five core practices called the Five Pillars of Islam which are required of all faithful Muslims. The first pillar is faith as shown in the speaking of the creed known as Shahada -- "There is no God but Allah and Mohammad is the prophet of Allah." Devout Muslims repeat this belief of faith every single day which helps to keep their major principles of…… [Read More]
Christianity was born in the Middle East, the religion has become globalized with a relatively sparse and scattered Christian presence in the region today. Currently, Christians suffer from frequent persecution, especially at the hands of terrorist groups like ISIS/ISIL. As Thomas (2014), points out, "members of the Islamic State have targeted Christian churches, destroyed symbols of Christian faith and killed Christians because of their beliefs." Current events echo the roots of the religion in the Middle East. Just as now, Christianity was a minority religion when it started in the Middle East and as it spread throughout the oman Empire, persecution became commonplace. The history of Christianity in the Middle East has therefore been one of continual struggle and persecution.
Perhaps because of the experience of perpetual persecution, Christianity in the Middle East is as diverse, if not more so, than Christianity in Europe. Fragmentation and the distinction between different…… [Read More]
Like the Pope, such statements are seen by Christianity as a falsehood (Shelly, 1982).
Baptism is another point of contention between Christianity and oman Catholicism. Christianity teaches those who listen to the gospel and believe in the Holy Spirit are a part of God, and that their eventual salvation is due to their joining with God (Ephesians 1:13; John 1:13). Thus, according to Christianity, man is an extension of God, and since God is saved, man in saved. Conversely, oman Catholicism teaches baptism is the reason for salvation (Gendron, 1996). According to their Doctrine, salvation without baptism is not possible, and those individuals who are unbaptized must be cleansed in purgatory prior to salvation.
Salvation based on faith is another difference between the ideologies. Biblical Christianity notes in both Ephesians 2:8 and Psalms 49:7 that no man can save another. It is only though one's faith in God and in…… [Read More]
The breaking or the fraction of 'bread' is one of the rites of Christianity, and it involves the breaking up of the Eucharistic bread, after which the Eucharistic wine will be poured, in order to prepare for Holy Communion. In early times, in fact, all Christians generally referred to their Church going activities as the "Breaking of the Bread," as seen in 'the Acts of the Apostles', wherein Saint Luke describes the life of Christians as being devoted to the 'breaking of bread', and to the prayers in Acts 2:42. Here, the 'breaking' stated by Saint Luke refers to the so-called 'celebration of the Eucharist', or the 'Lord's Supper'. The description in the Acts 2:42 reminds one of the story that Saint Luke retold of the time of the esurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ, when two of Jesus' disciples happened to encounter Him on the road to Emmaus,…… [Read More]
" Later on, after being promised the eternal life, people understood that Baptism means, in fact, rebirth into spirit.
People keep this ritual of Baptism, as they need a confirmation of God promise of eternity. Being weak beings, people have always felt the need for a Deity to trust in and guide their lives. In their ceaseless seeking of an absolute power, God has answered them and let His Unique Son to die for them and teach them the meaning of rebirth, which is Baptism.
Besides the meaning of Rebirth, the Catholic Religion, like any other Christian Religion teaches people the meaning of life in general, its essence. Religion is born out of both the word of God written in the Bible, and the human need for a Deity, which is derived from people's weakness. People's souls are like oceans in movement. It would take a lifetime to enter their…… [Read More]
And it is marvelous in our eyes. Nevertheless, the voice of the Lord commanded us that we should bear record of it; wherefore, to be obedient unto the commandments of God, we bear testimony of these things.
Both the Mormons and the Christian religion supports prayer in school. The Mormons claim that they are Christians because they believe in the Holy Bible. The Mormons are very family oriented, and it has been stated that generally a Mormon will build his home extra large for the taking in of impoverished families. Tithing is very important to the Mormons and their undivided loyalty and devotion is to their family. Both the Mormon religion and the Christian religion stand firm against homosexuality and abortion.
Other than the claim made by Joseph Smith concerning the golden plates that an angel gave to him during his encounter with the angel, there can not…… [Read More]
Tracing the development of Christianity thousands of years ago demonstrates a journey that was as varied and as rife with controversy, confusion and integrity as developing democracy in America. In examining this multi-faceted and a times nebulous process, greater insight into modern-day Christianity can more easily be gained. The seven ecumenical councils of the early Church had clear positions regarding Jesus Christ within the evolving Trinitarian theology of the era. These seven councils occurred between the years of 325 and 787 in Nicaea, Constantinople, Ephesus and Chalcedon (Need, xiii). These councils were made up of leaders and men of influence within the church, such as bishops that were summoned by the emperor of the time in order to help illuminate certain confusions within Christianity and the greater theology that shaped Christianity (Need, xiii). It was through these councils, emperors and other leaders of the time believed, that a greater sense…… [Read More]
American Christianity Far Left or Far Right
The American religious landscape is experiencing broad-based changes at a time when the number of Americans attending religious services on a monthly or bimonthly basis has declined by 7 percentage points (Myers & Whiting par, 8). This decline is evident across various demographic groups including Hispanics, white people, and black people. American Christians face unique challenges as the nation is increasingly polarized and divided over issues of gender, race, and sexuality. Liberal and conservative American Christians are faced with the need to deal with the conflict between the conventional dictates of their faith and the personal political allegiances and views. Additionally, liberal and conservative American Christians differ of various kinds of issues that are central to their faith because of their personal political views and allegiances. This paper explores the future of American Christianity with either the far left or far right and…… [Read More]
By the 16th century, Europe was in the midst of a great upheaval that was as social and political—and even economical—as it was religious. Religion was woven into the fabric of society to such an extent that it informed each of the other sectors; but they in turn also had an impact on the new concepts and strains of religious thought that were being explored. This paper will discuss some of the examples of these thoughts from men of the time: Erasmus, Luther, Las Casas and Foxe, and show how their writings are evidence of the new era of re-examination of self, society and God—a re-examination that had one foot in the rise of humanism, one foot in the traditional teachings of the Church, and another foot in the camp of rebellion against this same religious authority.
Proper Christian belief and the duties that Christians owed to one another was…… [Read More]
This literature review examines several scholarly articles that focus on the role of religion in the formation of student character. Some of the articles study the effect of religion and/or Christian beliefs on academic achievement, while some study the role the Christianity can play in people’s lives as the struggle to overcome obstacles or cope with issues that are adversely affecting them. Since education is an issue that is important to all societies, it stands to reason that if religion and Christianity in particular can have a beneficial impact on a student’s life, some research should be available to support this conclusion. The research that has been done so far does indicate that Christianity can have a positive influence on the lives of people and in particularly on the academic performance of students. However, with Christianity being a religion that has lost ground in the modern era, especially in…… [Read More]
What Happened to Paul (How did He Die)?
Apostle Paul is arguably one of the premier figures at the beginning of Christianity and the early Church. While Apostle Paul was not among the twelve disciples of Jesus, he played a crucial role in the formation of the early Church and the beginning of Christianity. Paul’s influence is visible in the fact that he wrote most of the books in the New Testament. Given his vast influence, Apostle Paul is considered as the true founder of Christianity.[footnoteRef:1] However, the death of Apostle Paul has been one of the relatively controversial issues in Christianity, particularly among Bible scholars and theologians. Even though Bible scholars, theologians and Christians concur that Paul played an influential role in the beginning of Christianity, what happened to him in terms of how he died remains controversial. The controversy is partly fueled by the fact that the Bible…… [Read More]
I. The step I most likely omit: Examination of Historical Treatments
II. The reason: Actually understanding the historical context of a Biblical passage is extremely challenging. Most of us, myself included, are exposed to the Bible as religious literature. Historical readings about ancient Israel and the conditions which produced the Bible are often written in dense, difficult language, much more so than the Bible itself. It is also difficult to know which accounts to believe, because all history can be biased. Finally, while the Bible contains some fascinating stories that teach important truths, theologians such as Aquinas and Augustine are not as interested in being engaging and entertaining as the original Biblical authors.
III. This omission (negatively) impacts the formulation of my theology in the following way: Still, I recognize the importance of incorporating historical treatments of Biblical texts into my own theology. It is important not to simply react…… [Read More]
The Challenges and Opportunities Facing Pentecostal Groups in North-East India
With an enormous population already exceeding 1.28 billion and growing every day, India is the second-most populous country in the world today, and may outpace China’s 1.38 billion people in the foreseeable future. Although nearly 80% of India’s population, or about 1.2 billion people, are practicing Hindus, there are several other major religions with significant representation in the country as well, including Muslims, Christians and Sikhs.[footnoteRef:2] Although India has a long tradition of religious tolerance, longstanding hostilities between Hindus and Muslims continue to create tensions in the hotly contested Kashmir region in north-east India and the potential for war between these two nuclear powers is ever present.[footnoteRef:3] Taken together, it is clear that religion remains a powerful force in India today but many minority religious groups face some profound challenges in this country as well as significant opportunities for the…… [Read More]
Aghamkar, Atul. “Traditional Hindu Views and Attitudes Toward Christianity.” Global
Missiology English, 2, no. 5 (2008). Available at: http://ojs.globalmissiology.org/index.php/english/article/view/244/684
The author describes how the common Hindus of today in India inherited their views from the Hindu Renaissance leaders. Thus, these leaders’ views are helpful in understanding the common approach toward Christianity in India. The article reveals how there remains tension between the Hindus and Christians of the region.
Bauman, Chad. “Pentecostals and Interreligious Conflict in India: Proselytization,
Marginalization, and Anti-Christian Violence.” Pentecostudies: An Interdisciplinary Journal for Research on the Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, 16, no. 1 (2017).
Bauman locates the nexus of anti-Christian violence in India particularly in the Pentecostal religion, which is especially agitating to Hindu nationalists. The study examines how Pentecostalists’ assertiveness and evangelizing activity as well as its ecclesiastical, liturgical, theological and social aspects are offensive both to Hindu nationalists and to upper caste Christians as well.…… [Read More]
Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church
As Urban II made clear in his Speech at the Council of Clermont in 1095, the Church was meant to be a bulwark against the effects of the devil among men—and when men tried to force their way into and to the head of the Church, by machinations, political intrigue, and corruption, that bulwark was split apart and the faithful Christians of Europe were turned against one another. Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church played a significant role in shaping political relationships, overseeing warfare, and supporting notions of political authority in the High Middle Ages. Indeed, the Church had done so from the time Europe began to climb its way out of the Dark Ages, with the crowning of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas Day in 800 AD.
In Urbran’s Council address, he stated of the Church that it is “our mother,…… [Read More]
The purpose of this essay is to describe the conclusion of an expository sermon. After the message has been delivered and has been received and understood by the congregation, there should be a manifestation of the subject by the Holy Spirit. In other words, there must be a way of escape and an opportunity for change. This is the moment where the Word of God literally comes alive. This is the place where the message requires a faith response from the hearer and God manifests his Word. This is also the place where sinners get saved, the bounds are delivered, the sick get healed, or whatever the case may be. Wayne McDill presents his case in his book within “Skill 11: Aiming for a Faith Response.” Michael Fabarez gives a splendid rendition of the subject in his book Preaching that Changes Lives. In order to gain some fresh insights into…… [Read More]
Response Paper: Luther (2006)
The 2003 film Luther depicts the founder of Lutheranism, Martin Luther, as one of the first individuals to radically and successfully offer a competing doctrine to that of Roman Catholicism. Luther is seen as a sincere man who becomes a monk out of faith and for no other reason, in contrast to many other religious men of the period. Luther breaks with the Catholic Church because of his horror at the selling of indulgences. As the text makes clear, Luther was not necessarily opposed to the selling of indulgences per se; what he was vehemently against was the manner in which they were being sold. At the time, the Pope was desperate to raise money and had signed an order effectively pardoning the buyer from all sin, as well as all of the buyer’s friends or relatives, living or dead. The purchase was supposed to be…… [Read More]
THE ROMAN WAY
Rome exerted tremendous pressure on its colonies to conform, and do things in the Roman Way. When in Rome, one does as the Romans do. The Via Romana is a road referring to the Roman way. Rome conquered Alexander's vast empire and then imposed the Imperium (the imperial right to rule) upon the world. Religio-Romana refers to the Roman religion of paganism and polytheism. Roman religion. Romans are to practice Rome's religion without changing it. The Roman practices will be executed as they have always been since the beginning of Roman civilizations. This includes worshipping the Roman emperor as god. The political connection between Rome's religion and the people impose the belief and practice: Roman religion is the truth. Mos Maiorum refers to the living traditions. People are to live their lives according to Roman traditions. This is the daily life of Romans extant in the…… [Read More]
Christianity vs. Sikhism
Christianity is one of the most popular religions in the world with more than 2.2 billion people identifying with the religion. This diverse religion has several different divisions of Christianity with the most common ones being Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant. Sikhism is a religion which is unfamiliar. Sikh religion is the fusing of Hinduism and Islam practice and belief. A comparative analysis of these two different faiths, their philosophies towards health care, and their worldviews will be discussed. (Johnson, 2015) (Funk & Wagnalls, 2014) Comment by S. Kessler: What does this mean? Unfamiliar to you? Comment by S. Kessler: These references are floating; what do they refer to?
"Christianity is based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth" (Johnson, 2015). Based on these teachings, Christians have always been known to help those in need. "Nursing grew out of a Christian worldview, in response…… [Read More]
Why should Christian theology be contextual? Explore this by referring to four important issues such as culture, liberation theology, feminist theology, and queer theology.
Christian theology should be contextual because religious expression is dependent on culture. Historical and cultural context have continually impacted the development of Christian theology. Biblical allegories and the gospels are contextual in that they refer to the life and times of Christ, with additional references to Hebraic culture and values. Paul's subsequent neoplatonic stamp on Christianity likewise must be appreciated within its cultural and historical context. The artifice of papal doctrine is in the preposterous assumption that Christian theology is somehow absolute. In fact, theology shifts according to the semiotics of culture and the language used to cloak the Christian vision in terms understandable to the audience.
Christian theology has essential, core elements, which do not lend themselves to contextualization. For example, fundamental issues like…… [Read More]
Persecution has been a component of the Christian experience since the time of Christ. The oman government periodically led formal persecution campaigns that were significant for the development of Christian identity and consciousness. Ten of these oman persecution campaigns were historically significant, beginning with one led by Nero and causing the martyrdoms of Peter and Paul ("Persecutions in the Early Church," 2013). Martyrdom thus became a core motif for Christians, leading to the tradition of Christian sainthood: "The high regard for the martyrs as the heroes of the church and the privileges assigned to them led to the cult of the saints," ("Persecution in Early Church: Did You Know?" 1990). Although they could be severe, early persecutions of Christians were sporadic and localized, rather than being "a constant experience," ("Persecution in Early Church: Did You Know?" 1990). Once Constantine the Great adopted Christianity as the official religion of ome,…… [Read More]
She answered that no one had condemned her. Jesus then said to her, "Then neither do I condemn you," Jesus declared. "Go now and leave your life of sin" (John 8:11).
Because the woman was not stoned in the end, many interpret it to mean that Jesus changed Mosaic law and then this argument is extended to capital punishment in general. However, Jesus still left the opportunity for her to be stoned. If one of the people in the crowd had been without sin, then the woman would have still been stoned. He did not tell them not to stone her, he only set a condition on who should cast the first stone. He said nothing about the second or third stone, only the first. Luckily, for the woman, there were no qualified takers who could cast the first stone. Therefore, Jesus did not abolish capital punishment in this passage.…… [Read More]
Confucius, likewise, although scholars say that Confucianism is not a theistic religion, stresses the will or mandate of heaven having an influence upon the lives of all, but focuses on the obligations of individuals in a society, not upon isolated religious acts of goodness. Buddhism, another cross-national religion also focuses on acts, such as the importance of meditation, rather than individual spiritual perfection, but focuses on such acts in a trans-national focus and stresses 'right understanding' as opposed to social relationships as in Confucianism. Confucianism does not stress the distinction between earth and the dead. It creates a network of continuity between ancestors of the past and one's present shows of respect, through good conduct, towards ones ancestors. Unlike Christianity, which stresses the better place of the Father in heaven, Buddhists do not believe in any type of God, the need for a savior, prayer, or eternal life after death.…… [Read More]
Paul, which were written by a converted Sadducee who preached that gentiles did not need to follow Mosaic Law and convert to Judaism to follow Jesus. Although all of these gospels, epistles, and works such as the Book of Revelation were canonized because of their perceived accuracy and continuity, their different authors, historical contexts, and influences also have conspired to create a Christian Bible that is open to many alternative interpretations, and has spawned many different sects that define Christianity differently.
Defining Christianity remains difficult -- does it mean following Jesus, following the teachings of a particular book, or a particular church? Is following Jesus enough, or must a Christian believe Jesus died for the sins of all of humanity? Must a Christian believe that Jesus is the Son of God the Father, and is the holy, anointed one, the Messiah prophesized about in the Old Testament, or can a…… [Read More]
Salvation will come based on one's deeds rather than on his capacity to achieve a high spiritual level, as in the Hindu faith and others.
Christianity does not necessarily provide all the answers. Christian believers will still have doubts about their existence, about their role on Earth and about their lives, as well as about their capacity of attaining salvation. However, Christianity provides the means by which one can integrate successfully into his or her life, enjoy the life here, while committing to a life within the Church and doing the good deeds that can help an individual attain eternal salvation. The idea of salvation puts things into perspective, but with a direct impact on the present, because it is the acts of the individual here that will get the salvation or not.
Christianity can be considered, from all these perspectives, the most complete religion in existence and a way…… [Read More]
Christianity and Judaism
The diversity between the modern strains of Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform Judaism, as outlined in Michael Molloy's text Experiencing orld Religions, may seem so diverse in and of themselves, that a reader may be prompted to exclaim that even Judaism itself is not a perfectly harmonious tradition. How can a scholar begin to compare the two traditions? (Molloy, 2005) But another observer may be apt to protest that because both Judaism and Christianity are monotheistic traditions, and both can lay claim to the same basic Near Eastern scriptures, one can speak of a clear and seamless 'Judeo-Christian' ethical tradition, despite the fact that Judaism spawned Christianity as a sect and a religion -- and Christians were later to persecute Jews. (Got Questions, 2005)
However, although the relationship between the two religions is quite close in geographical, historical, and scriptural origins, today the religious are quite far apart…… [Read More]
Christianity's Dangerous Idea: The Protestant evolution -- a History Sixteenth Century Twenty-First
With Christianity's Dangerous Idea -- The Protestant evolution: A History from the Sixteenth Century to the Twenty-First, author Alister McGrath provides a fairly comprehensive chronicle of Protestantism from its earliest roots to present day conceptions. McGrath is a prominent theologian and priest in the United Kingdom and the author of several books, many of which detail some aspect of Protestantism. In this particular volume, he presents a largely unbiased account of the primary notion that spawned this religion and examines its myriad applications, with varying degrees of success, throughout the ensuing years. This approach is both Christianity's strength and its weakness: with so many different epochs, ideas, and people covered, which McGrath should be rewarded for, he cannot devote any considerable length of time to them.
Although the book is divided into three different sections, they all rotate…… [Read More]
Christianity in portrayed in "The Second Death" by Graham Greene and "The Virgin and the Gipsy" by DH Lawrence. Two sources used.
The Second Death" and "The Virgin and the Gipsy"
D.H. Lawrence and Graham Greene have each written stories concerned with Christian mores and parental approval, or rather disapproval. The parent in each story is clearly convinced that others are influencing their adult child's character and leading them astray. Each has forbidden their child from associating with certain people whom the parent believes are not of good Christian standing. Moreover, each child is clearly filled with passion for life and sexual exploration. Lawrence's story is far more sensual and poetically lustful than Greene's, as his female character's sexuality is awakened. However, Greene's story, sketches a young man's sexual exploits and his last moments before death, his second death. Each author sets his story in a small country village.
Lawrence's…… [Read More]
Generosity is the main characteristic of a Christian society. Along with that, Christians should be obedient to God and respectful toward government. The family would become a matter of great importance. Christians would not live luxurious lives while their brothers suffered. These communities would not support parasites not r would they support extravagant lifestyles. The Christian community is happy, joyful, and worry would not run rampant. Christians are courteous and they enjoy working because they see a greater purpose in life. The also live by the golden rule for the most part. Lewis examines this idea but considering it to its fullest extent. He writes, " may repeat 'Do as you would he done by' till I am black in the face, but I cannot really carry it out till I love my neighbour as myself: and I cannot learn to love my neighbour as myself till I learn to…… [Read More]
The Christianity of the contemporary time is represented by several groups which keep growing and changing each day. This comes with the positives and the negatives attached to this trend. One thing for sure is that the availability of these many groups of Christianity is an expression of the freedom of worshiping that Christianity has cultivated, people are not compelled to stay in some given grouping. It also reduces the possibility of Christian churches, especially those with huge followings to be used to misguide people into being exploited or to committing unethical things like mass suicide at the influence of one influential leader since they know that people will speak up and walk out to other groups or even form their own new group. The many Christian groups also helps in the speedy and diverse spreading of the gospel since different groups will want to send out disciples to…… [Read More]
Humans have a moral drive within them that attests to the existence of right and wrong. This innate standard was not "man-made," but evolved along with human society. It must come from an external superior force, or God. Yet, humans do fail and cannot always live up to such high standards. God therefore sent someone as a savior to make humans right. Christ forgave sins, "This makes sense only if He really was the God whose laws are broken and whose love is wounded in every sin."
Lewis then faces the readers with different moral issues, including sexual morality, forgiveness, and pride. Finally, he presents his case for Christ and the need everyone has of deciding whether or not to put one's faith in Him. In some respects Lewis' approach is like a modern-day Socrates dilemmas, where common sense and logic can only make one decision best. How can there…… [Read More]
The Conversion of Constantine: 'Emperor Constantine the Great' by T. Hardenbrook
Constantine's victory over the then governor of Italy, Maxentius, at Milvian marked the end of an era of fighting and in-fighting among Caesars and Augustuses; and the beginning of a reunified, more religious Roman Empire. Following the victory, an arch with the encryption 'Prompting of the Deity' was erected at the Milvian ridge. To the Christian community, the 'Deity' meant Christ the Son of God; and to the Pagans, it represented the Unconquered Sun. It is widely believed that Constantine converted to Christianity after his victory at Milvian; but then one could ask, 'what then was he before the battle with Maxentius?'
The postponement of his own baptism and the fact that he did not make Christianity the imperial religion immediately after assuming power are not sufficient proof that he was Pagan. The former can be well…… [Read More]
Once his word is accepted as truth, he promises eternal salvation, "I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in me will live, even though he dies; and whoever lives and believes in me will never die," (John 11:25-26). Despite believing in the Lord and observing his rules by his rules, the Jewish people are still in danger for they do not accept Jesus to truly be God's messenger. If God's word is truth and is honestly recorded in the Bible, how can one ignore Jesus Christ as the Messiah? For he is "the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father, but through Me," (John 14:6).
Accepting Jesus' message as truth is "being justified before God," (Halverson 2). Christianity, through Jesus is a fulfillment of the old prophecies and brings God to mankind in a personal way where each individual can accept…… [Read More]
Christianity and the views of Sigmund Freud and William James
This paper discusses the concept of a Creator in Christianity and also focuses on the views held by Sigmund Freud and William James on this subject. While Christianity believes firmly in the existence of Creator, Freud maintains that this concept has originated from man's deep-rooted neurosis. James on the other hand felt that religious beliefs had some biological and psychological connections and therefore it is important for man to devise his own concept of a Creator rather than believing on the one that he has inherited from his ancestors.
CONCEPT OF A CEATO
Most religions in the world support the concept of a Universal Creator, the one being who has single-handedly created the entire Universe and is considered to be a benevolent merciful soul. While in some polytheist religions, the concept of Creator may differ slightly, but in all three…… [Read More]
Personal Theory Paper
Since mid-1970s, a serious matter for integration between Christianity and psychology developed among Christian counsellors. The integration movement developed as a result of reaction to psychology being accepted in the sector dealing with pastoral counseling where it did not face any criticism from the Christians’ point of view. The efforts for integrating psychology with Christianity developed more energy in the last twenty years since the time when Jay Adams refused to have psychology included in the pastoral care sector (Kim, 2004). Attempting to create an integration in psychology with Christian faith is a tedious experience as a result of the different approaches of the two academic disciplines.
According to Alan C. Tjeltveit (2012), the daunting questions that come as a result of taking psychology as well as Christian faith in a serious manner have to be dealt with. The queries that come from the sectors in…… [Read More]
Constantine did not require all Romans to adopt Christianity (given that Christians were still a minority, this would have been too radical a measure for the time) but his sponsorship, in Lactantius' eyes, and his own, personal faith was seen as evidence that God himself had blotted out the bad emperors who had killed Christians and taken their land -- the land subsequently restored by Constantine.
During the 10th century, however, a far less sanguine view of the influence of religion in politics was articulated in Gregory VII's Dictatus Papae (323) and Henry IV's "Letter to Hildebrand" (323-324). In these documents, the two leaders are clearly fighting for political power. The Holy Roman King Henry IV was struggling to retain the ability of secular authorities to have direct influence over church appointments. The Roman Emperor had previously had tremendous power over every facet of medieval life -- powers the Church…… [Read More]
As Colossians 3:11 states, “Here there is no Gentile or Jew, circumcised or uncircumcised, barbarian, Scythian, slave or free, but Christ is all, and is in all.” This helps to explain how the Christian faith and the Bible play into the way that we lead in the area of cultural diversity: instead of seeing everyone as someone who is from this part of the world or who has such and such a socio-economic background, we look instead to the spiritual qualities—the fact that everyone is made new in Christ. Moreover, we should see Christ is in everybody and treat everybody as though we were dealing directly with Christ Himself. This is the truest way to approach others and to be a leader. It is like the prayer of St. Patrick’s Breastplate: “Christ on my right, Christ on my left, Christ where I lie, Christ where I sit,…… [Read More]
Beowulf and the Anglo-Saxons
Part 1: Introduction
Although the epic Old English poem Beowulf has all the characteristics of myth and legend that pertain to fiction, as a historical document it is useful in teaching about the past—the values and culture of the medieval Anglo-Saxon society and how Christian culture intersected with the pagan world at a time when Christian conversion was spreading. Not only does Beowulf refer to real kings of the time, thus grounding the story in a specific historical reality, but it also describes a culture of co-existence—an old world people and place situated neatly between paganism and Christianity. As an epic poem Beowulf describes the heroic journey of the titular character as he accepts the challenge of Hrothgar to defend his Hall against the monster Grendel. Beowulf defeats the monster and then must face the wrath of Grendel’s mother. Many decades after his victory over Grendel’s…… [Read More]
Religion and Violence
Religion is for many a tool to remove negativity from someone's life and then make it possible for the respective individual to start a moral type of living. Even with this, religion has been used as a means to encourage violence in a series of cases throughout time. A great deal of individuals claiming to be religious can actually be considered a paradox, considering that they promote peaceful behaviors while also performing acts of violence. Religion can thus be exploited depending on what a person wants, with numerous people throughout history using it with the purpose to achieve their goals rather than for actually wanting to be religious. Christianity in particular is intriguing when discussing it in the context of violence.
From the beginning of time people have been predisposed to engaging in violent acts for a series of reasons. The simple idea of difference encouraged individuals…… [Read More]
Narrative of an Episode From My Travels With Paul
As a traveling companion of Paul, I have seen a number of marvels and the way in which the Christian faith of the Apostle challenges the boundaries between cultures and societies. For example, in Greece, I have seen Paul mix and mingle with Jews, with those baptized by John (and then baptized in the spirit of Christ by Paul),[footnoteRef:1] with Romans, and with every other possible number and variety of inhabitant in the islands. Paul could relate to many because his mission and view were such that he saw himself connected to everyone, even the living and the dead. I mention these latter because even a tombstone of a young girl, depicting her innocence as she holds a dove, could elicit from Paul such reverence and appreciation and praise that you would think he had personally known that girl.[footnoteRef:2] In such…… [Read More]
Also, men oppose her for reasons of jealousy, he stresses, not because they really think that she is acting in an anti-Christian manner. Thus while Socrates Scholasticus himself never even entertained any point-of-view remotely considered heretic, including Gnosticism and Manichaeism as well as Arianism, he never condoned violence and was able to see how personal and political biases could fuel hateful actions masking as 'anti-heretical' actions like the murder of a woman preacher. Although he on a few occasions used the term "evil" is in regards to the Arians, and he gave ample attention to the benefits of the creation of the creed of Nicene, praising its ideals, more often than not Socrates Scholasticus used cool and factual language to describe controversies. Sometimes even the Arians who denied the consubstantiality of the Son with the Father and Trinitarian notions of God are given a chance, through excerpts, to 'speak' their…… [Read More]
Toulmin Model argument in response to one of the following prompts:
• What specific action(s) should Christians take regarding the environment and its preservation or restoration?
Active in 15 countries, "Target Earth" is a group of individuals, churches, college fellowship and various ministries that are Christian protectors for everything that God created. The group feeds the hungry, saves endangered animals, rebuilds forests, and serves as active voice for environmental concerns. The groups mission is "erving the Earth, erving the Poor," which defines their connection of Christianity to environmentalism as they see it (Target Earth.com).
The news media is full of warnings that deal with environmental issues of one kind or the other be it global warming, endangered species, extinction of the rain forest, pollution, nuclear accidents, and so forth. The Christian community seems to apply less attention to these issues than they do to others. It may be because we…… [Read More]
Christian Worldview of Law Enforcement
Forgiveness is a critical component of Christianity: humans are all imperfect and living in an imperfect, yet God-created world. Because of that, it is essential to view others with compassion and tolerance. Increasingly, the perspective of restorative rather than retributive justice has been infused into the philosophy of law enforcement today. "estorative justice is an idea that says, at its core, justice has to be about repairing or addressing the harm caused to social relationships when wrongdoing happens," ("Defining restorative justice," 2015). It often involves community service by the offender to mitigate the harm done to the wider environment or members of the law enforcement community facilitating dialogue between the aggrieved party and the offender in a constructive manner ("Defining restorative justice," 2015). The idea is to heal both perpetrator and victim through forgiveness and humanization.
Law officers themselves often find solace through scripture. According…… [Read More]