1000+ documents containing “citizenship”.
Connected vs. Stand-alone
Communication revolution has moved from a world connected by telephone (a synchronous and asynchronous) including e-mail, bulletin boards, broadcast messages and chat rooms. As a result, new learning tools have developed to access knowledge.
Active vs. Passive
There is much less tolerance for passive situations such as lectures, and digital natives need and want interactive learning opportunities.
Payoff vs. Patience
The same attributes that keep young people engaged for hours to learn and master a computer game can be tapped to improve the quality of civics education as well; the challenge remains for educators to develop similar interactive rewards dynamics for learning content.
Fantasy vs. Reality
Young learners' lives are pervaded by fantasy elements through television programs and video games; therefore, learning experiences should be structured to include such fantasy elements to be more interesting.
Technology as Friend vs. Tech. As Foe
Digital immigrants" perceive technology as something to be feared and merely tolerated; by contrast,….
Beckerman, Marvin, Simon Kim and B. Sue Parks. (1996). "Effects of Participatory Learning Programs in Middle And High School Civic Education," Social Studies, 87:171.
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Freeman, L.A. (2003). "Simulation and Role Playing with LEGO Blocks. Journal of Information Systems Education, 14(2):137-144.
Godwin-Jones, Robert. (2005). "Emerging Technologies: Messaging, Gaming, Peer-to-Peer Sharing Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. Language, Learning & Technology, 9(1):17.
Although discriminated, the immigrants have chances of being employed. The gay/lesbian, on the other hand, were totally banned from employment that laws were even passed to legally bar them from having jobs.
Obstacle Facing Immigrants and Gay/Lesbian Groups
The main obstacle facing the immigrants is their citizenship. For the gay/lesbians, the main obstacle against them is the norm that the society follows.
Since the early centuries up to the present, discrimination in the United States had been present in the lives of those who are not purely American citizens - an obstacle that seems to haunt them until the day they die. Louie identifies this in the following.
A janitors in New York City, by way of example, were largely Irish in the early twentieth century; African-American in the middle part of the twentieth century; and mainly Latino as we pass into the twenty-first century
Further, being an immigrant, Jun Chong had seen how….
Still combined with the impediments that every citizen would face, women also have additional challenges to meet as female citizens of a country.
Apart from these, sheer lack of knowledge can also act as a serious impediment. Since citizens are not aware of their responsibilities and rights about active participation, they may accept the passive form of citizenship and never question the system. It is when systems and structures are questioned and their need and validity. This is the only way active citizenship can flourish. For this reason education of citizenship is encouraged and is being actively promoted throughout western democracies. According to Gillgren (2005) the best way to remove barriers is by talking about them and identifying them. He writes:
In building citizenship capacity, citizenship education should practice what it preaches, providing not just information, but experiences of engaging in democracy. Citizenship capacity building is about developing people's capacity to….
QCA (1998) Education for Citizenship and the Teaching of Democracy in Schools, Final Report of the Advisory Group on Citizenship, QCA, London.
Marshall (1950) Citizenship and Social Class and Other Essays, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Robin Bunton. Alan Petersen. The New Genetics and the Public's Health. Routledge. London. 2002.
Longstreet, W. 1985. "Citizenship:"The phantom core of social studies curriculum. Theory and Research in Social Education 13 (2): 21-29.
This results in the creation of a sense of insecurity in people, which drives them to the comfort, and security of their cultural identities. enato osaldo in his introductory essay to Latino Cultural Citizenship (Flores and Benmayor, 1997: 37) warns that "too often social thought anchors its research in the vantage point of the dominant social group and thus reproduces the dominant ideology by studying subordinated groups as a 'problem' rather than as people with agency -- with goals, perceptions, and purposes of their own."
Cultural citizenship thus allows Latinos to claim their rights as members of one ethnic group while it also lends supports to their beliefs, ideas and traditions. United States may appear to be nationalistic whole to the outside world, but within the country, there are several divisions and multiculturalism is a hot topic. Everyone knows and understands that dominant groups tend to receive nepotistic treatment from….
Flores, William V. And Rina Benmayor, 1997 Latino Cultural Citizenship: Claiming Identity, Space, and Rights. Boston: Beacon Press.
Inter-University Program for Latino Research, Culture Studies Working Group 1988 "Cultural Capital: Allusions, Gaps, and Glissandos in Recent Theoretical Developments." Sociological Theory 6: 153-168.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Counterproductive orkplace Behaviors
Employee performance can be highly variable, even those with the same set skills may provide employers with different levels of contribution/productivity based on personal characteristics and attitude. The sunny side of employee behavior, which relates to organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), can be very beneficial for employers (Landy & Conte, 2013). However, while there are employees with positive behavioral traits, there may also be employees that have negative behavioral traits, which are referred to by Landy and Conte (2013), as the "dark side" of the performance continuing, undertaking counter-productive workplace behaviors (CB). The aim of this paper is to explain both of these types of behavior patterns, and give some examples that have been observed in the real world.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior
OCB is a general term which refers to the way in which employees may behave in a positive manner at their workplace, encompassing almost all….
Where OCB takes place the benefits may not only for the employer, directly and indirectly through the culture supported provide, but also for the employee. Anecdotal evidence has found a correlation relationship with OCB and employee satisfaction, there is also evidence to indicate that those employees who display positive OCB are likely to gain favor performance reviews, and gain a good reputation for themselves, for a phenomenon known as the "halo effect," which may help with their own success (Podsakoff et al., 2009).
Over the years the number of examples of OCB has been seen in college. In one workplace, where there was a project that was required in order to tender for a contract, the deadline was less than 24 hours away and the documents required for the tendering process were nowhere near being finished. Two employees stay behind to help finish the document, although they were not being paid for overtime. They did this in order to help the employer, knowing they were not going to be paid, not expecting to be paid. Another example of OCB was seen when a new employee started in the office, and despite their initial training from the owner of the business, they were struggling. One employee stepped in to act as a mentor, a role they continue to fulfill for almost 2 weeks as the new employee found their feet. Training support was not part of their job description; they did not have to undertake this task. Interestingly, after the one employee started to help the new worker, other people in the office also followed the example. This demonstrates OCB, with both examples fulfilling Organ's (1988) three requirements.
Hall also admits that changes do not come easily, but that in a society that is based on respect for the individual and the will of the majority, there is only one way that deep change will occur -- through "education in the broadest sense: education in the schools at all levels, education in nonformal setting..., education in adult settings..., education through the news media, education through popular literature, films, theatre, art, even dance and music." (Hall 365)
She goes on to state that the goals, the teachers and their curriculum must be carefully chosen to develop "ecological literacy," to gain an overall appreciation of life in all its manifestations, to counteract an advertising industry by providing a "sober view of the world, but without inducing despair," and to learn how to live as caring stewards of our world, rather than consumers of it. (Hall 366)
In contrast, "Green" believes that a….
Managing Corporate Citizenship / ExxonMobil: Corporate Citizenship
How does ExxonMobil manage its reputation and corporate citizenship?
What is the company doing right? Where can it improve?
Positive Points of ExxonMobil
What has your experience been? What do other stakeholders report about the company's citizenship and reputation?
What makes you remain a stakeholder (customer)?
ExxonMobil is the biggest public Oil and Gas Corporation in the world, providing fundamental energy for bettering the life of several billion individuals across the globe. Energy access supports human mobility, comfort, social growth, and economic prosperity. It affects almost all facets of modern living (ExxonMobil, 2015).
How does ExxonMobil manage its reputation and corporate citizenship?
ExxonMobil's eport on Corporate Citizenship states that the company adopts a methodical strategy in the management of its worldwide operations, and employs measures for successful operations in multiple settings. The company's superior business ethics and conduct standards are the basis for its current as well as future success.….
ExxonMobil. (2015). Corporate governance -- a CCR overview. Retrieved from http://corporate.ExxonMobil.com/en/community/corporate-citizenship-report/corporate-governance/overview on 4th November, 2015.
ExxonMobil. (2015b). Corporate Social Responsibility Framework. Retrieved from https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://cdn.ExxonMobil.com/~/media/global/files/other/2014/emcipl-community-investment-framework.pdf&ved=0CBkQFjAAahUKEwjP8fe8zffIAhUJJZQKHUPLBWQ&usg=AFQjCNGHZjxS0jTZcnrysv0SAyfiWQLHOw on 4th November, 2015.
ExxonMobil. (2015c). Engaging with our Stakeholders. Retrieved from http://corporate.ExxonMobil.com/en/community/corporate-citizenship-report/stakeholders/overview?parentId=899e10b1-f995-42f6-b88a-cbe22cf98353 on 4th November, 2015.
Akan, O., Allen, R. & White, C. (2009). "Equity sensitivity and organizational citizenship behavior in a team environment." Small group research, 40 (1), pp. 94-112.
The factor measured before the study was conducted was the degree of the participating subjects' equity sensitivity orientation. People on the benevolent end of the equity sensitivity scale tend to be happy in positions where they give more than they receive, while those on the entitled end of the spectrum are happier in situations where they receive more than they give. The purpose of the study was to determine what relationship, if any, exists between equity sensitivity and organizational citizenship behavior. Though no data variables were manipulated, the set-up of this study made equity sensitivity the independent variable, and citizenship behavior was the dependent variable (though this dependence was, in fact, what the study tested for).
The study found that there was indeed a positive correlation….
The social definitions of citizenship here, Park argues, play the major role since legally children of immigrants are not required to overcome the barriers imposed by the existing social hierarchy. The idea of social citizenship helps us to understand the unequal power structure that relegates immigrants -- and other representatives of the lower class, for that matter -- "to particular spaces within this hierarchy based upon their race, class, and gender" (p. 5).
Asian immigrants in America, Park argues, have to choose between being a "dependent" immigrant and a "deserving" one. Most Asian-Americans strive for the latter, fulfilling the expectations of the dominant culture as a "model minority." This decision, according to Park, is based on a "false" idea, as this notion, rather than granting Asian-Americans full citizenship, reinforces their designated social space where Asian-Americans know how to "behave" in a certain way. The "model minority" notion presumes that Asian-Americans….
In fact, those rights and freedoms are even more broad than those of many other countries simply because the U.. Constitution specifically protects the rights and freedoms of all persons and not just of American citizens.
In many respects, the principal agent of beneficial change as far as the relative rights and freedoms of Americans are concerned is the U.. upreme Court. Over time, the most important issues affecting the rights and freedoms of persons in the U.. are decided in cases that reach the upreme Court either because lower courts cannot agree on the way to resolve important issues or because cases decided in lower courts are appealed all the way to the upreme Court.
In modern times, some of the most important upreme Court decisions affecting the rights and freedoms of citizens were the decisions that were generated during the Civil Rights era of the 1950s and 1960s. Prior….
Edwards, G.C., Wallenberg, M.P., Lineberry, R.B. (2008). Government in America:
People, Politics, and Policy. New York: Longman.
Goldfield, D., Abbot, C., Argersinger, J., and Argersinger, P. (2005). Twentieth-Century
America: A Social and Political History. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-
S. government is not in favor of dual citizenship as a policy matter due to the problems it might bring. But there is a felt need that dual citizenship must be allowed because of considerable rise in global migration from other nations into America. Dual citizenship benefits the American society in more ways than one. Economic advantages are primary, as also social and political benefits. Besides, it also assists in legalizing the exercise over them of governmental power; it minimizes the risk that they will be subject to discriminatory treatment. Granting dual citizenship makes the immigrants to naturalize and develops a strong bond with the labor force. The estimated encouraging influence of dual citizenship rights on the rates of naturalization also suggests that some of the relative advantages in employment might be due to acquisition of American citizenship.
Brummett, Suzanne. Dual Citizenship. 2002.
Hansen, andall; Weil, Patrick. Dual Nationality, social rights and….
Therefore, there is a room for future research (Swaminathan & Jawahar, 2013). The results of this study indicated a possibility of other factors that influence job satisfaction. From this fact, it is important to recommend further research for the purpose of revealing the factors and improving job performance through the use of the results (Mohamed & Anisa, 2012). esearchers should perform the investigation by using many and few participants and compare the results in order to devise the best samples. This is because this research relied on a sample of 65 participants. if, a bigger number than the one stated on this research is used, there is a possibility of a considerable difference being evident (Mohamed & Anisa, 2012).
Swaminathan, S., & Jawahar, P. (2013). job satisfaction as a predictor of organizational citizenship behavior: an empirical study. Global Journal of Business esearch (GJB),
Mohamed, M., & Anisa, H.H. (2012). elationship….
Swaminathan, S., & Jawahar, P. (2013). job satisfaction as a predictor of organizational citizenship behavior: an empirical study. Global Journal of Business Research (GJBR),
Mohamed, M., & Anisa, H.H. (2012). Relationship Between Organizational Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11(3), 7-
Corporate Citizenship 1Corporate CitizenshipPart A: Justification of action takenCorporate citizenship acknowledges that a firm or business has environmental, cultural, and social responsibilities to society whereby it seeks a license to operate. It also shows that it has a financial and economic responsibility to the shareholders and an organization\\\'s immediate stakeholders. In the current global economy, corporate responsibility within a business is crucial. Nonetheless, Birch (2017) argues that the concept of corporate citizenship is vital for any organization. It shows the company its value and makes it easy to optimize its core competencies to address the goals and opportunities. It operates on context issues in its ESG (Environmental, social, and governance) aspects. When a company has a strong corporate environmental and social performance, it ensures its overall strategy is achieved. When a company creates an excellent CS platform that optimizes its core competencies and works to address the operating context issues,….
ReferencesBirch, D. (2017). Corporate citizenship. Perspectives on Corporate Citizenship, 53-65. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351282369-4 Chakraborty, S. (2001). Corporate barbarism to corporate citizenship. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 2001(4), 109-123. https://doi.org/10.9774/gleaf.4700.2001.wi.00010Enderle, G. (2021). Mapping corporate responsibilities. Corporate Responsibility for Wealth Creation and Human Rights, 189-203. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108913966.021 Windsor, D. (2017). Corporate citizenship: Evolution and interpretation. Perspectives on Corporate Citizenship, 39-52. https://doi.org/10.9774/gleaf.978-1-909493-19-3_4
Immigration can be defined as the voluntary movement of non-native persons into a different country with the goal of settling and living there (Boneva & Frieze, 2001). The major reasons that people immigrate from one country to another is that they want to improve the quality of their lives, improve the future prospects for their families, or to be closer to family or close friends (Boneva & Frieze, 2001; Skrbis, 2008). Illegal immigration has been a problem in large countries like the United States that border on other countries where the standard of living is significantly lower (such as the case of the United States and Mexico). People find these relatively unprotected borders easy to transverse and are motivated to do so by the promise of a better life for them and their families. When large numbers of people legally immigrate to another country barriers are created between the immigrants….
Boneva, B.S., & Frieze, I.H. (2001). Toward a concept of a migrant personality. Journal of Social Issues, 57(3), 477-491.
Hoeing, J. (2013). Immigration benefits America. In Capitaistpig. Retrieved on July 1, 2015
from http://capitalistpig.com/news-media/open-immigration-benefits-america/ .
Ngai, M.M. (2014). Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America:
Organizations must tread a careful balance between not demanding that employees perform tasks that go above and beyond their job description yet still encourage employees to take a vital and interested role in giving back to the organization. They must also tread a delicate balance between striving to micro-manage employees to ensure ethical compliance and showing that they trust employees to follow ethical guidelines using their own discretion. As noted by Singh, Pathardikar, and Bandyopadhyay (2012) most organizations trust employees in a manner that is not “readily monitored or enforced” (p.26). The authors call this model that of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) which is an important component of enhancing organizational performance but which is still at the discretion of the individual employee. Employees are encouraged to become good organizational citizens or “good soldiers” that go above and beyond their personal needs and tasks in a manner that adds to organizational….
Connected vs. Stand-alone Communication revolution has moved from a world connected by telephone (a synchronous and asynchronous) including e-mail, bulletin boards, broadcast messages and chat rooms. As a result, new…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
Although discriminated, the immigrants have chances of being employed. The gay/lesbian, on the other hand, were totally banned from employment that laws were even passed to legally bar…Read Full Paper ❯
Still combined with the impediments that every citizen would face, women also have additional challenges to meet as female citizens of a country. Apart from these, sheer lack of…Read Full Paper ❯
This results in the creation of a sense of insecurity in people, which drives them to the comfort, and security of their cultural identities. enato osaldo in his…Read Full Paper ❯
HRM Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Counterproductive orkplace Behaviors Employee performance can be highly variable, even those with the same set skills may provide employers with different levels of contribution/productivity based on…Read Full Paper ❯
Hall also admits that changes do not come easily, but that in a society that is based on respect for the individual and the will of the majority, there…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - College
Managing Corporate Citizenship / ExxonMobil: Corporate Citizenship How does ExxonMobil manage its reputation and corporate citizenship? What is the company doing right? Where can it improve? Positive Points of ExxonMobil Improvement Areas What has…Read Full Paper ❯
Akan, O., Allen, R. & White, C. (2009). "Equity sensitivity and organizational citizenship behavior in a team environment." Small group research, 40 (1), pp. 94-112. The factor measured before…Read Full Paper ❯
The social definitions of citizenship here, Park argues, play the major role since legally children of immigrants are not required to overcome the barriers imposed by the existing…Read Full Paper ❯
In fact, those rights and freedoms are even more broad than those of many other countries simply because the U.. Constitution specifically protects the rights and freedoms of…Read Full Paper ❯
S. government is not in favor of dual citizenship as a policy matter due to the problems it might bring. But there is a felt need that dual citizenship…Read Full Paper ❯
Therefore, there is a room for future research (Swaminathan & Jawahar, 2013). The results of this study indicated a possibility of other factors that influence job satisfaction. From…Read Full Paper ❯
Corporate Citizenship 1Corporate CitizenshipPart A: Justification of action takenCorporate citizenship acknowledges that a firm or business has environmental, cultural, and social responsibilities to society whereby it seeks a license…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Immigration can be defined as the voluntary movement of non-native persons into a different country with the goal of settling and living there (Boneva & Frieze, 2001). The major…Read Full Paper ❯
Management - Motivation
Organizations must tread a careful balance between not demanding that employees perform tasks that go above and beyond their job description yet still encourage employees to take a vital…Read Full Paper ❯